|1941||The Belgian Communist Party, Socialist Party, Liberal Party and Catholic Party formed the Independent Brigades and began the resistance movement.|
|1941.1.15||The British armies in East Africa launched a counter-offensive against Italy and occupied Italian East Africa.|
|1941.3.1||Bulgaria joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.|
|1941.3.11||The Land-Lease Act of USA took effect. Thereafter USA abandoned the isolationist policy and supported the Allies' struggle against the Axis Powers.|
|1941.3.25||Yugoslavia joined the Axis Powers. On ..26 of the same month Simovich of Yugoslavia staged a coup. On ..27 the Pro-German Provisional Regency was overthrown and King Petar II was put to power. An anti-German policy was then adopted.|
|1941.4||The Iraqi army installed al-Kaylani as the Prime Minister, who adopted an anti-British policy. The British army attacked the Iraqi army (Thirteen Days' War). In May of the same year al-Kaylani was overthrown by Britain.|
|1941.4.6||The Axis Powers invaded Yugoslavia.
The Axis Powers invaded Greece, which was then partitioned by Germany and Italy. On ..19 of the same month Bulgaria obtained part of Greece.
|1941.4.8||Germany, Italy and Hungary began to partition the region of Slovenia under Yugoslavia.|
|1941.4.10||Germany induced Croatia to secede from Yugoslavia and established the Independent State of Croatia, which was a German vassal state ruling present-day Croatia and Bosnia under the one-party dictatorship of the Ustasha.|
|1941.4.17||King Petar II of Yugoslavia fled overseas and the Yugoslav Kingdom collapsed. Germany occupied Serbia. On ..30 of the same month a Serbian Regime was established as a German vassal state.
Italy occupied Montenegro. On .7.12 of the same year Italy established the Montenegrin Regime.
|1941.4.18||Bulgaria occupied Vardar Macedonia.|
|1941.5.5||Former Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia restored the Solomonic Dynasty. On ..16 of the same month, the Italian rule in Ethiopia came to an end.|
|1941.5.7||Germany installed a Puppet Government in Greece. On .6.2 of the same year King Georgios II of Greece fled overseas. Greece (Danish Dynasty) collapsed.|
|1941.6.22||The Axis Powers invaded USSR, which marked the beginning of the German-Soviet War (also called the Soviet Patriotic War). USSR joined the Allied Powers.
Finland attacked USSR, which marked the beginning of the Continuation War. On ..26 of the same month Finland joined the Axis Powers. From then on the Continuation War became a part of the Second World War. On .12.4 of the same year Finland recaptured Hanko Peninsula from USSR.
|1941.6.29||Italy incorporated Kosovo into Albania. Italy incorporated part of Vardar Macedonia into Albania.|
|1941.8.9||USA and Britain held the Atlantic Conference in Newfoundland. On ..14 of the same month the two countries issued the Atlantic Charter and set out a series of international principles which became the basis of the aims of the future United Nations.|
|1941.8.25||Britain and USSR dispatched armied to occupy the southern and northern parts of Iran, respectively. On .9.16 of the same year, King Reza Khan of Iran abdicated and was succeeded by Mohammad Reza.|
|1941.11.26||Lebanon declared independence from France but France continued to control Lebanon, whose independence was not recognized by France until 1943.11.22.|
|1941.12.7||Japan launched a surprise attack against the Pearl Harbour in Hawaii, thus starting the Pacific War, which was a part of the Second World War.|
|1941.12.8||Japan invaded Thailand, which then became a vassal state of Japan.
USA joined the Allied Powers in the Second World War.
|1941.12.22||Japan occupied Brunei.|
|1941.12.25||Japan occupied Hong Kong.
Japan annihilated Sarawak.
|1942.1.1||26 countries signed the Declaration by United Nations in Washington and formed the Anti-Fascist League (a colloquial term for the Allied Powers) in opposition to the Axis Powers.|
|1942.1.3||Japan overthrew the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and occupied the Philippines.|
|1942.1.18||Japan occupied North Borneo.|
|1942.1.21||Japan occupied New Guinea.|
|1942.1.25||Japan forced Thailand to join the Axis Powers in the Second World War.|
|1942.1.31||Japan occupied Malaya.|
|1942.2.15||Japan occupied the Straits Settlements.|
|1942.3.8||Japan occupied Dutch East Indies.|
|1942.3.23||Japan occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands.|
|1942.4.11||Gandhi requested Britain to grant independence to India and launched the Quit India Movement, i.e. the Third Non-Cooperation Movement, which was soon suppressed by the Indian Government.|
|1942.5||The Polish Workers' Party and the Government-in-Exile started a guerilla warfare against the German invaders.|
|1942.5.3||Japan occupied British Solomon Islands.|
|1942.6.4||Japan and USA commenced the Battle of Midway Island. On ..7 of the same month the Japanese navy inflicted heavy losses. Since then USA gained an upper hand in the Pacific War.|
|1942.7.17||The German army started an offensive against Stalingrad of USSR, which marked the beginning of the Stalingrad Campaign.|
|1942.8.1||Japan occupied Burma.|
|1942.8.26||Japan occupied Nauru.|
|1942.10.5||Sheng Shicai, warlord of Xinjiang, declared submission to the authority of the Nationalist Government and broke off relation with USSR by requesting the Soviet army to withdraw from Xinjiang.|
|1942.10.23||The Allies launched a counter offensive against the Axis Powers in North Africa. On .11.12 of the same year the Axis Powers were expelled from Egypt.|
|1942.11.6||Italy occupied Monaco.|
|1942.12.1||Darlan, an official of France (Vichy Government), revolted and set up France (Resistance Government) in Algeria. On .6.3 of the next year, the Resistance Government cooperated with the Fighting French Forces and was reorganised as the Committee of National Liberation.|
|1943.2.2||The Soviet Army destroyed the German army. Thereafter the Axis Powers were at a disadvantage in the war.|
|1943.3||The various religious sects of Lebanon concluded the National Pact and established a political system that balanced the power of various Christian and Islamic sects.|
|1943.5.13||The armies of the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies, which marked the end of the North African Campaign.|
|1943.6.4||The Argentine United Officers' Group launched the "June 4th Movement" and overthrew the Government of the Radical Civic Union. Thereafter Argentina was under military and civilian rules alternately.|
|1943.6.15||The Communist International was dissolved.|
|1943.7.10||The Allies launched the Sicilian Campaign and landed on Sicily. In the same month, the Anti-Fascist United Freedom Front of Italy started an uprising. On ..25 the top leaders of the National Fascist Party staged the "July 25th Coup" to overthrow Mussolini. Italy surrendered on .9.8.|
|1943.7.27||End of the one-party rule of the Sanmarinese Fascist Party.|
|1943.8||Japan ceded parts of Malaya and Burma to Thailand.|
|1943.8.1||Japan declared the independence of Burma and established the Republic of Burma, which was a Japanese puppet state.|
|1943.8.29||Germany dissolved the Danish Government and took over direct administration of Denmark. On .9.16 of the same year, the resistance groups of Denmark formed the Freedom Council and started the resistance movement.|
|1943.9.8||Germany occupied Albania. On ..9 of the same month Germany overthrew the Italian rule in Albania. On ..14 a Puppet Government was set up.
Germany took over the Italian occupation zone in Greece.
|1943.9.9||Germany occupied the northern and central parts of Italy. The Anti-Fascist United Freedom Front was thus reorganised as the Committee of National Liberation and started the resistance movement. On ..15 Germany directed Mussolini to establish the Republican Fascist Party and Italy (Salo Government) in Salo, which was a German puppet government.
Germany seized Monaco from Italy.
|1943.9.10||Germany occupied Montenegro.|
|1943.10.13||The Central Government of Italy joined the Allied Powers and declared war on Germany.|
|1943.10.14||Japan established the Second Republic of the Philippines as its puppet regime.|
|1943.10.21||Japan induced Bose, head of the Indian National Army, to establish the Free India Government-in-Exile in Singapore and launched an attack against India.|
|1943.11.5||Japan convened the Greater East Asia Conference with the heads of the client states and puppet governments and declared the formation of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included Japan and the occupied territories.|
|1943.11.22||USA, Britain and China held the Cairo Conference. On ..26 of the same month they issued the Cairo Declaration, which declared that Japan shall return all the Chinese territories it occupied to China and grant independence to Korea. The three powers also requested for the unconditional surrender of Japan.|
|1943.12||Japan nominally handed the administration of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Free India.
Establishment of the Slovak National Council, which started the resistance movement in Slovakia.
Britain reoccupied British Solomon Islands.
|1943.12.4||The Yugoslav Communist Party reestablished the Yugoslav Regime.|
|1944||The Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Government jointly launched the Cooperative Wheat Research and Production Program, which greatly increased the wheat yield in Mexico. Later the Programme was extended to other countries to help solve the food problem. The development was called the Green Revolution by historians.|
|1944.1.1||Syria declared independence from France, but remained under French control. It was not until 1946.4.17 when France recognized the independence of Syria.|
|1944.1.4||A splinter group of the Sanmarinese Fascist Party formed the Republican Fascist Party. On .4.4 of the same year they re-established one-party rule.|
|1944.3||Outbreak of the Second National Uprising of el Salvador against President Martinez. On .5.9 of the same year Martinez was forced to resign.|
|1944.3.10||The Greek Communist Party established the Political Committee of National Liberation as a governing agency. On .9.2 of the same year the Greek Communists submitted to the authority of the Government-in-Exile.|
|1944.3.22||Germany occupied Hungary. In May of the same year, the anti-Fascist groups in Hungary formed the Hungarian Front and started the resistance movement.|
|1944.3.26||The USSR armies entered Romania. On .8.23 of the same year, the Romanian army staged the "August 23rd Coup" and overthrew the Prime Minister Antonescu.|
|1944.5||The USSR armies entered Finland. On .9.19 of the same year Finland signed an armistice with USSR and withdrew from the Axis Powers.|
|1944.5.26||The Albanian Communist Party established the Anti-fascist Council of National Liberation as a government agency. On .11.29 of the same year the Communist Party expelled the German armies.|
|1944.6||Widespread anti-governmental campaigns broke out in Guatemala against President Ubico. On .7.4 of the same year, Ubico was forced to step down and was replaced by a Military Government which continued the dictatorial rule. In October the Guatemalan populace revolted and overthrew the Military Government (October Revolution of Guatemala) On .3.15 of the next year, the Revolutionary Action Party came to power and carried out democratic reforms.|
|1944.6.3||The French Committee of National Liberation was reorganised as the Provisional Government. On ..6 of the same month, the Allies launched the Normandy Campaign and landed on Normandy successfully. On .8.19 the Communist Party launched the Anti-Fascist Uprising in Paris. On ..25 the Allies captured Paris. On .9.7 the Vichy Government collapsed.|
|1944.7.1||The Allies held the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (commonly called the Bretton Woods Conference), which resolved to establish a global monetary system based on US dollars (commonly called the Bretton Woods System). On .12.27 of the next year, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD; commonly called the World Bank) were created.|
|1944.7.20||Stauffenberg, a German military officer, staged a coup in an attempt to overthrow Hitler, but failed ("July 20th Incident").|
|1944.7.22||USSR induced the Polish Workers' Party to establish the Second Polish Republic.|
|1944.8||Australia reoccupied New Guinea.|
|1944.8.1||Free Thai came to power in Thailand.
Bor, a Polish military officer, launched the Anti-Fascist Uprising in Warsaw, which was crushed by Germany on .10.2.
|1944.8.10||Germany occupied San Marino, but was expelled by the Allies on .9.21 in the same year.|
|1944.8.21||USA, Britain and USSR held the Dumbarton Oaks Conference to discuss the issue of the post-war new global organisation. On .10.9 of the same year, it was decided that a United Nations shall be established after the war. The Conference laid down a number of principles concerning the organisation of the United Nations.|
|1944.8.29||The Slovak National Council launched the Slovak National Uprising against German rule. In October ofthe same year Germany crushed the uprising.|
|1944.9.3||Monaco regined independence.|
|1944.9.5||USSR declared war on Bulgaria. On ..9 of the same month the Bulgarian leftists launched the "September 9th Uprising" and established a Government of the Fatherland Front.|
|1944.9.8||The Kingdom of Belgium was restored.|
|1944.9.9||Germany occupied Vardar Macedonia.|
|1944.9.23||The Grand Duchy Luxembourg was restored.|
|1944.10||The Chinese Nationalist Government displaced Sheng Shicai, warlord of Xinjiang, and took over control of Xinjiang.|
|1944.10.6||The USSR armies entered Czechoslovakia.|
|1944.10.13||The Allies captured Athens and toppled the Greek Puppet Government. On the same day the Greek Government-in-Exile returned to the country and established a Regency.|
|1944.10.20||The USA armies entered the Philippines. The Filipino Government-in-Exile returned to the country and reestablished the Government of the Commonwealth.
The coalition army of USSR and Yugoslavia captured Belgrade and overthrew the Serbian Regime.
|1944.11||Alikhan Tore, leader of the Uygurs in Xinjiang, China, started a revolt, which spread to the three regions of Ili, Tarbagtai and Altai Mountain (the Revolution of the Three Regions). On ..12 of the same month, he established the East Turkestan Republic.|
|1944.11.3||Germany induced the Hungarian Arrow Cross Party to overthrew Hungary (Regency). On ..4 of the same month Germany installed Szalasi, Prime Minister of Hungary and head of the Arrow Cross Party as National Leader and established Hungary (Puppet Government).|
|1944.11.16||The Republican Fascist Party of San Marino was outlawed and San Marino reverted to the multi-party system.|
|1944.11.19||Kosovo was re-incorporated into Yugoslavia. Vardar Macedonia was re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.|
|1944.12.2||The Hungarian Front was expanded as the National Liberation Front. On ..21 of the same month they formed Hungary (Resistance Government).|
|1944.12.7||Nations in the world signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which included provisions pertaining to issues such as airspace, civil aviation, etc. When the Convention took effect on 1947.4.4, the International Civil Aviation Organization was established.|
|1944.12.18||Montenegro was re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.|
|1945.1.17||The coalition armies of USSR and Poland captured Warsaw. On .6.28 of the same year the Workers' Party formed a coalition government with the Government-in-Exile.|
|1945.2.4||USA, Britain and USSR held the Yalta Conference in the Crimean Peninsula to discuss the post-war territorial arrangements and the organisational principles of the United Nations. The Yalta System thus emerged. On ..11 of the same month, the three powers secretly signed the Yalta Agreement, which confirmed the Soviet interests in Mongolia and northeastern China.|
|1945.2.13||The USSR armies entered Hungary. On .3.28 the USSR armies and Hungary (Resistance Government) jointly overthrew the Puppet Government. On .4.3 the German armies were expelled.|
|1945.3.9||Japan staged the "March 9th Coup" and seized the French Indochina.|
|1945.3.11||Japan directed Dai Nam to declare independence from France. But Dai Nam in fact came under Japanese control. On .6.12 of the same year Dai Nam was renamed the Viet Nam Empire.
Romania recovered northern Transylvania from Hungary.
|1945.3.13||The Kingdom of the Netherlands was restored.|
|1945.3.18||Japan directed Cambodia to declare independence from France and controlled Cambodia.|
|1945.3.22||Seven Arab states signed the Pact of the League of Arab States and formed the League of Arab States (LAS).|
|1945.4||USA, Britain, France and USSR occupied Austria in different zones. On ..27 of the same month the Republic of Austria was reestablished.|
|1945.4.3||The Czechoslovak Communist Party formed a coalition government with the Government-in-Exile and established the Second Czechoslovak Republic.|
|1945.4.4||The coalition armies of USSR and Czechoslovakia annihilated Slovakia. Slovakia was re-incorporated into Czechoslovakia.|
|1945.4.8||Japan directed Luang Prabang Lanchang to declared independence from France and controlled Luang Prabang Lanchang.|
|1945.4.25||50 countries held the San Francisco Conference to discuss the organisation of the United Nations. On .6.26 of the same year the Charter of the United Nations was signed.|
|1945.4.28||The Italian Committee of National Liberation overthrew the Salo Government and executed Mussolini.|
|1945.4.30||The USSR armies captured Berlin. Hitler committed suicide. On .5.1 of the same year, Donitz succeeded as the German Fuhrer. On ..8 Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. On ..23 the Allies arrested Donitz, which marked the end of the Third Reich of Germany. On .6.5 Britain, France, USA and USSR set up the Allied Control Commission and occupied Germany and Berlin in different zones.|
|1945.5.3||The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League of Burma united with the British army and overthrew the Puppet Government. Britain regained control of Burma.|
|1945.5.5||The Anti-Fascist Uprising in Prague broke out in Czech. On ..9 of the same month the coalition armies captured of USSR and Czechoslovakia Prague. The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia collapsed.
The German armies in Denmark surrendered to the Allies. Denmark regained independence.
|1945.5.6||Yugoslavia annihilated Croatia. The present-day Croatia and Bosnia were re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.|
|1945.5.9||Yugoslavia reoccupied Slovenia.
The German armies in Norway surrendered. Norway (Puppet Government) collapsed and Norway (Oldenburg Dynasty) was restored.
|1945.6.7||USSR requested Turkey to amend the Montreux Convention and laid claims to parts of the territories of Turkey, which led to the Turkish Crisis.|
|1945.7||Brunei reverted to the status of a British protectorate.|
|1945.6.29||Carpathian-Ukraine was ceded to USSR rule and was later put under adminsitration by Ukraine.|
|1945.7.17||USA, Britain and USSR held the Potsdam Conference to discuss the post-war arrangements in Europe.|
|1945.8.2||USA, Britain and USSR concluded the Potsdam Agreement, which finalized the post-war political arrangements in Europe. Western Ukraine and Western Belarus were confirmed to be under USSR rule. Poland was given some parts of eastern Germany.|
|1945.8.6||The USA air forces dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima of Japan. On ..9 of the same month another atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The atomic bombs caused great casualties in Japan.|
|1945.8.8||USSR declared war on Japan. Subsequently USSR dispatched troops to occupy southern Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, northeastern China and north Korea.|
|1945.8.14||China and USSR signed the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, by which China recognized the independence of Mongolia and granted certain concessions in northeastern China to USSR.|
|1945.8.15||Japan declared unconditional surrender to the Allies.
Britain reoccupied Hong Kong.
Thailand regained independence from Japanese control. On ..16 of the same year Thailand declared withdrawal from the Axis Powers. Subsequently Thailand returned the Malayan and Burmese territories obtained during the War to Britain.
|1945.8.16||China (Puppet Government) collapsed. On ..18 of the same month the Manchurian Empire collapsed and Manchuria was reincorporated into China.|
|1945.8.17||With the collapse of the Second Republic of the Philippines, USA reoccupied the Philippines.
|1945.8.18||Free India collapsed. On .10.6 of the same year Britain reoccupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.|
|1945.8.23||The Issara National Independence Movement launched the August Revolution of Laos in Luang Prabang Lanchang. On .9.15 of the same year, the Issara National Independence Movement caused King Sisavang Vong to declare the unification of Laos and united Luang Prabang and Champassak as the Kingdom of Laos (Independent Provisional Government). On .10.12 the Issara National Independence Movement launched the "October 12th Uprising" and declared independence of Laos from France. On ..20 they deposed Sisavang Vong.|
|1945.8.26||USSR occupied North Korea.|
|1945.9.2||Japan signed the Terms for Surrender, which marked the formal end of the Second World War. Beginning of military control of USA in Japan.|
|1945.9.6||A Korean nationalist group established the Korean People's Republic in south Korea. On ..9 of the same month the USA troops occupied south Korea and carried out military rule. On .12.15 the Korean People's Republic was dissolved.|
|1945.9.8||Thailand was renamed the Kingdom of Siam.|
|1945.9.9||The Chinese armies entered the northern part of Vietnam. On ..12 of the same month the British armies entered the southern part of Vietnam. On ..21 Britain helped the French armies enter the southern part. Subsequently France reoccupied the southern part of Vietnam and the rest of Indochina.|
|1945.9.10||The Allies occupied North Borneo. On .11 of the same month the Allies occupied Sarawak.|
|1945.9.12||Britain reoccupied Malaya.
Britain reoccupied the Straits Settlements.
|1945.9.13||Australia reoccupied Nauru.|
|1945.9.16||Faroe Islands reverted to Danish rule.|
|1945.9.29||The Allies occupied certain regions of Dutch East Indies.|
|1945.10.16||Cambodia reverted to the status of a French protectorate.|
|1945.10.19||The Venezuelan Democratic Action launched the October Revolution of Venezuela and seized power. During their rule they carried out nationalist policies.|
|1945.10.24||The United Nations (UN) came into existence. A Security Council was established under the United Nations, with China, USSR, France, Britain and USA being the permanent members. The United Nations established the Trusteeship System to replace the Mandate System of the League of Nations. Thereafter a number of mandates became trusted territories.|
|1945.10.25||China resumed sovereignty of Taiwan from Japan.|
|1945.10.29||The First Anti-Vargas Coup broke out in Brazil. President Vargas was overthrown. On .1.31 of the next year, Dutra succeeded as President and established the Second Republic of Brazil.|
|1945.11.20||The Nurnberg International Military Tribunal began the trial of the German war criminals. On .5.3 of the next year, the Fast East International Military Tribunal also began the trial of the Japanese war criminals.|
|1945.12||The Allies resolved to set up the Far Eastern Commission as a decision-making body for the Allied control of Japan. The Allied Control Commission for Japan was set up as an advisory and supervisory body.|
|1945.11.29||A federation composed of six constituent republics, namely Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, (i.e. Vardar Macedonia) and Bosnia, was established in Yugoslavia. But real power was held by the Federal Government controlled by the Communist Party. One-party rule was established in the whole country. Tito started his prolonged rule in Yugoslavia.|
|1945.12.10||USSR induced the Azerbaijani Democratic Party to establish the Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan in southern Azerbaijan under Iranian rule. On .1.22 of the next year, USSR induced the Kurdistan Democratic Party to establish the Republic of Kurdistan in Mahabad of eastern Kurdistan, thus leading to the Iranian Crisis. On .12.11 Iran resumed control of southern Azerbaijan. On ..15 Iran resumed control of eastern Kurdistan.|
|1946.1.7||France signed an agreement with Cambodia and granted internal autonomy to Cambodia.|
|1946.1.11||The monarchical system of Albania was formally abrogated and replaced by the one-party rule of the Communist Party. Hoxha started his prolonged rule in Albania. During his rule he adopted an isolationist policy.|
|1946.2.1||Establishment of the Second Hungarian Republic.|
|1946.2.8||The Communist Party of North Korea led by Kim Il Song established the North Korean Regime in the northern part of Korea.|
|1946.2.18||Opposing the racial discrimination of the British military officers, the navy in Bombay of India launched the Bombay Navy Uprising, which was crushed by the Government on ..23 of the same month.|
|1946.3||The Chinese armies retreated from the northern part and France occupied parts of the territories. On .6.1 of the same year France established the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina in the southern part in opposition to [North] Viet Nam.|
|1946.3.2||Britain and USSR withdrew their armies from Iran.|
|1946.3.5||In a speech presented in USA, former British Prime Minister Churchill pointed out that the Communist countries were under an "Iron Curtain" and called on the Western countries to prepare for war. This marked the beginning of the Cold War between the Western Bloc and the Communist Bloc.|
|1946.4.1||Britain united Federated Malay States, Unfederated Malay States, Malacca and Penang as the Malay Union, while Singapore became a separate crown colony. On 1948.2.1 the Union was reorganised as the Federation of Malaya.|
|1946.4.14||Sarawak was restored. On .7.1 of the same year Britain abrogated the Sarawak Kingdom and made it a crown colony.|
|1946.4.18||The International Court of Justice was set up in Hague. The League of Nations formally ceased to exist. Its assets, properties and responsibilities were transferred to the United Nations.|
|1946.4.23||Laos reverted to the status of a French protectorate.|
|1946.6||Outbreak of the Second Nationalist-Communist Civil War between China (Nationalist Government) and the Communists.|
|1946.6.16||East Turkestan was reincorporated into China. Representatives of East Turkestan and the Chinese Central Government formed a Coalition Government of Xinjiang.|
|1946.6.17||Transjordan gained independence from Britain, but remained under British control.|
|1946.6.18||The monarchical system of Italy was abrogated and the Italian Republic was established. Thereafter the Christian Democratic Party dominated the political scene by forming coalition governments with other political parties.|
|1946.7.1||The Netherlands regained control of certain regions of Dutch East Indies.|
|1946.7.4||The Philippines gained independence from USA and established the Third Republic of the Philippines.|
|1946.7.11||North Borneo became a British crown colony.|
|1946.7.20||Spain united Ifni (belonging to present-day Morocco), Rio de Oro and Seguia el-Hamra (both belonging to present-day Sahara) as Spanish West Africa.|
|1946.7.29||28 countries held the Paris Peace Conference to discuss the peace treaties with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Finland and Bulgaria.|
|1946.8||USA and Britain declared support of Turkey in resistance to USSR. On ..22 Turkey rejected the territorial claims of USSR. Since then Turkey adopted a pro-Western policy.|
|1946.8.7||Ospina, leader of the Colombian Conservative Party, succeeded as President and carried out oppressive rule (la Violencia). Later the Liberal Party and the Communist Party revolted successively in opposition to the Government of the Conservative Party.|
|1946.8.27||France signed an agreement with Laos and granted internal autonomy to Laos.|
|1946.9.15||The monarchical system of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Empire was abrogated and replaced by the one-party rule of the Workers' Party.|
|1946.9.28||Georgios II, former King of Greece, returned to his country and restored Greece (Danish Dynasty). On .10.26 of the same year the Communist Party launched an uprising in the northern mountainous areas, which marked the beginning of the Greek Civil War.|
|1946.10.13||A plebiscite held in France ratified the new Constitution, which established the Fourth French Republic. The French Union was also established to replace the French Colonial Empire.|
|1946.11||Siam and France signed an agreement by which Siam returned the Laotian and Cambodian territories obtained during the War to France.|
|1946.12.8||New Guinea became an Australian trust territory.|
|1946.12.11||Tanganyika became a British trust territory.
South Africa rejected a change of Southwest Africa's status to trust territory and announced that Southwest Africa continued to be its mandate.
|1946.12.13||French Cameroons and British Cameroons became French and British trust territories, respectively.
French Togo and British Togoland became French and British trust territories, respectively.
Ruanda-Urundi became a Belgian trust territory.
|1946.12.19||France launched an offensive against [North] Viet Nam. The First Indochina War (also called the First Vietnam War) broke out.|
|1946.12.24||The Netherlands installed a number of puppet native states in East Indies (including: State of Great East, East Indonesia, Pasundan, East Sumatra, Madura, South Sumatra, East Java, etc.) in opposition to the Republic of Indonesia.|
|1947||China eventually abolished all privileges enjoyed by the Western powers in China and freed itself from the status of semi-colony.
Britain established the Kingdom of Tiv in eastern Nigeria as a princely state under Nigeria. Later ethnic conflicts arose between the Tiv People and the neighbouring Jukun People.
|1947.1.1||USA and Britain united their administrative zones in West Germany as the Bizone. In March next year the Bizone was further united with the French Zone as the Trizone.|
|1947.1.25||Western Samoa became a New Zealand trust territory.|
|1947.2.5||Bierut, leader of the Polish Workers' Party, became the President. On ..7 of the same month, Cyrankiewicz, leader of the Socialist Party, became the Premier. The leftists thus controlled the Polish Government.|
|1947.2.6||Australia, New Zealand and a number of Western states possessing colonies or trust territories in south Pacific signed the Canberra Agreement and established the South Pacific Commission (SPC).|
|1947.2.10||The Allies signed the Peace of Paris with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland and Italy. The current borderlines of Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria were confirmed. Finland leased Porkkala to USSR. Italy ceded parts of its territories to France, Yugoslavia and Greece and was deprived of its colonies.|
|1947.2.15||Italy ceded Libya to the Allies (Libya came under United Nations administration on 1949.12.10). In practice Libya Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were administered by Britain while Fezzan was administered by France.|
|1947.3.25||The Netherlands and Indonesia concluded the Linggadjati Agreement (also called the Cirebon Agreement), by which the Netherlands recognized that Java, Sumatra and Madura shall be governed by the Republic of Indonesia, which shall form a federation with the native states created by the Netherlands. On .7.20 of the same year, the Netherlands violated the Agreement by launching the First Police Action against the Republic of Indonesia. On .8.4 the two parties ceased fire.|
|1947.5||A constitution was granted in Cambodia, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.|
|1947.5.3||The new Japanese Constitution took effect. Under the new Constitution, Japan adopted a parliamentary cabinet system and abandoned the right of possessing armed forces and participating in military actions overseas.|
|1947.5.11||A constitution was promulgated in Laos, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.|
|1947.6||Britain proposed the Mountbatten's Plan, which partitioned India into the two dominions of India and Pakistan based on religions.|
|1947.6.5||Marshall, Secretary of State of USA, proposed the European Recovery Programme (commonly called the Marshall Plan). The Programme was implemented on .4.3 of the next year.|
|1947.7.18||Northern Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands and Marshall Islands became a USA trust territory called the American Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.|
|1947.7.19||Aung San, leader of the Burmese independence movement, was assassinated. The incident was called the 1947 Assassination by historians.|
|1947.7.28||A plebiscite held in Spain ratified the Bill of Succession, which restored the monarchy. The throne was temporarily held vacant and Franco continued to be the Head of State.|
|1947.8.14||The western part of India (called Western Pakistan) and eastern Bengal (called Eastern Pakistan) gained independence from Britain and became the Dominion of Pakistan.|
|1947.8.15||India gained independence and became the Dominion of India.|
|1947.9.15||A Free Territory of Triest located at the border between Italy and present-day Slovenia was set up. The territory was composed of Zones A and B, with Zone A administered by Britain and USA and Zone B administered by Yugoslavia.|
|1947.10.5||Nine Communist and Workers' Parties united to form the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM).|
|1947.10.20||23 countries signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), by which they undertook to mutually reduce the tariffs and promote free trade. When the Agreement came into effect on .1.1 of the next year, a mechanism for international trade negotiation was formally inaugurated.|
|1947.10.27||King Hari Singh of Jammu proclaimed the incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir into India, which aroused discontent among the Muslims in the country. India and Pakistan dispatched troops to support the King and the Muslims, respectively. The First Indo-Pakistani War (also called the Kashmir War) broke out. On 1949.1.1 both parties ceased fire. Thereafter India and Pakistan occupied Jammu and Kashmir in different zones.|
|1947.11.1||Nauru became a trust territory of Britain, Australia and New Zealand, but in fact continued to be administered by Australia on behalf of the other two countries.|
|1947.11.8||Luang Pibul, a Siamese military officer, overthrew the Free Thai Government and established a military dictatorship.|
|1947.11.29||The United Nations passed the Partition Plan for Palestine, which provided for the establishment of a Jewish state and a Palestinian state in Palestine.|
|1947.12.17||Saarland of Germany became an autonomous region, with its security and foreign affairs being taken up by France. Saarland thus became a de facto sphere of interest of France.|
|1947.12.24||The Greek Communists established Greece (Provisional Democratic Government).|
|1947.12.30||The monarchical system was abrogated in Romania. In February next year, the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party were amalgamated into the Workers' Party and carried out one-party rule.|
|1948.1.4||Burma gained independence from Britain and established the Burmese Regime.|
|1948.2.4||Ceylon gained independence from Britain and became the Dominion of Ceylon, which adopted the parliamentary cabinet system.|
|1948.2.20||When the rightist cabinet members of Czechoslovakia tried to cause a cabinet crisis, their attempt was defeated by the Communist Party. On ..25 of the same month the Communist Party purged the rightist members inside the cabinet (February Incident). On .6.14 President Benes was forced to resign and the Communist party seized control of the whole government and started its one-party rule. This marked the end of the Second Czechoslovak Republic.|
|1948.3.12||Figueres, leader of a Costa Rican militia, rose against the Government of the National Republican Party (the Costa Rican Civil War). On .4.24 the militia captured San Jose, the capital of Costa Rica. On .5.8 the Government of the National Republican Party stepped down and Figueres became the junta president.|
|1948.3.17||Five West European countries signed the Brussels Treaty. On .8.25 of the same year, the Brussels Treaty Organisation was formally established.|
|1948.3.30||Faroe Islands became a self-governing country of Denmark.|
|1948.4.6||Finland and USSR signed the Finno-Soviet Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance by which Finland was obliged not to join any anti-Soviet alliance. Thereafter Finland adopted a neutral diplomatic policy that avoided antagonizing USSR.|
|1948.4.16||A number of European countries formed the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).|
|1948.4.28||By an amendment to the constiution, Luxembourg gave up the status of a perpetual neutral state.|
|1948.4.30||The American countries held the Ninth Pan-American Conference and resolved that the Union of American Republics be reorganised as the Organisation of American States (OAS).|
|1948.5.14||Britain ended its mandate for Palestine. The Jews in Palestine established the State of Israel.|
|1948.5.15||The Arab states dispatched troops to Palestine and entered into the First Arab-Israeli War (also called the First Middle East War or the Palestinian War). During the war Transjordan acquired the West Bank of River Jordan. The war ended in 1949.7.|
|1948.6||The United Nations despatched military observers to monitor the execution of the armistice in Middle East. This marked the beginning of the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions.|
|1948.6.24||The first World Health Assembly was convened in Geneva. The World Health Organisation was established to improve the hygienic and health conditions of the world.
USSR imposed a blockade of all traffice between West Germany and West Berlin (the First Berlin Crisis). Thereafter USA and Britain organised a large-scale air lift to West Berlin to circumvent the blockade, which was not lifted by USSR until .5.12 of the next year.
|1948.6.28||The Communist Information Bureau expelled Yugoslavia from membership (the Soviet-Yugoslav Conflict). Yugoslavia broke off relation with USSR and withdrew from the Communist Bloc thereafter.|
|1948.8.15||USA ended the military rule of the southern part of Korea and established the Republic of Korea ([South] Korea), which was under the dictatorial rule of Syngman Rhee.|
|1948.9.9||The Democratic People's Republic of Korea ([North] Korea) was established in the northern part of Korea, which was under the one-party rule of the Workers Party and the prolonged rule of Kim Il Song.|
|1948.9.18||Muso, leader of the Indonesian Communist Party, staged a coup in Madioen on Java and seized power of the municipal government (Madioen Incident). On ..30 of the same month the Communists were suppressed by the Indonesian Government.|
|1948.9.20||The Netherlands renamed Dutch East Indies as Indonesia.
The Netherlands renamed Curacao and Dependencies as Netherlands Antilles.
The Netherlands renamed Dutch Guiana as Suriname.
|1948.10.29||Odria, a Peruvian military officer, seized power in a coup.|
|1948.11.24||Jimenez, a Venezuelan military officer, staged a coup and toppled the Democratic Action Government. He seized power and carried out dictatorial rule.|
|1948.12.9||The Party of the Hungarian Workers began to gain ground in the political struggle and compelled the Independent Party of Smallholders, the ruling party, to purge the rightists within the party. A coalition government composed of the Independent Party of Smallholders and the Party of the Hungarian Workers was formed, with the latter holding real power.|
|1948.12.14||Osorio, a Salvadorian military officer, seized power in a coup. In 1950 Osorio created the Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification and carried out "Military Reformist" policies.|
|1948.12.18||The Netherlands launched the Second Police Action and attacked the Republic of Indonesia again. On .5.7 of the next year, both parties ceased fire.|
|1948.12.20||The Workers' Party and the Socialist Party of Poland were amalgamated into the United Workers' Party, which carried out one-party rule. This marked the end of the Second Polish Republic.|
|1949||The Karen National Union mobilized the Karen People in Burma to revolt against the Burmese Government, which marked the beginning of the Burmese Civil War. Later other ethnic minorities in Burma (such as the Kachin People, Shan People, etc.) also joined the revolt.|
|1949.1.25||USSR and the East European countries formally established the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) in Moscow.|
|1949.2.1||The Malayan Communist Party organised the Malayan National Liberation Army and rose against the British colonial rule. The warfare was not ended until 1960.|
|1949.3.30||A series of military coups occurred in Syria since this day. On .12.19 of the same year, military officer ash-Shishakli eventually came to power.|
|1949.3.31||Newfoundland ended its colonial status and was incorporated into Canada.|
|1949.4||South Africa unilaterally declared annexation of South West Africa.|
|1949.4.3||Transjordan declared annexation of the East Bank and West Bank of River Jordan and was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.|
|1949.4.4||The Western allies signed the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington and formed a military alliance. On .8.24 of the same year the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO; commonly called the Atlantic Alliance) was formally established.|
|1949.4.18||Ireland officially ceased to be a British dominion. The Republic of Ireland was established.|
|1949.4.23||The Chinese Communists captured Nanjing and overthrew the Nationalist Government. On .10.1 of the same year, the Communists established the People's Republic of China, which was under the one-party rule of the Communist Party and the prolonged rule of Mao Zedong.|
|1949.5.5||The European countries established the Council of Europe.|
|1949.5.23||The Federal Republic of Germany ([West] Germany) was established in the Trizone of Germany. On .10.7 of the same yaer, USSR established the German Democratic Republic ([East] Germany) in the Soviet Zone, which was under the one-party rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Germany thus split into two separate regimes.|
|1949.6.1||The Sanusi Order established the Emirate of Cyrenaica in Cyrenaica of Libya.|
|1949.6.14||France reorganised Cochichina as an associated state of France - the Vietnamese Regime ([South] Viet Nam), which was nominally independent but in fact remained under French control. France installed the former Emperor Nguyen Vinh Thuy as the Chief of State.|
|1949.7.1||Australia united Papua and Guniea as one unit called Papua and New Guinea, which was renamed Papua New Guinea on 1971.7.1.|
|1949.7.19||France and Laos signed a treaty by which Laos nominally gained independence an associated state of France.|
|1949.7.20||Siam was once again renamed Thailand.|
|1949.8.8||India and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Friendship, by which Bhutan became an Indian client state whose foreign affairs were to be guided by India.|
|1949.8.20||Rakosi, General Secretary of the Party of the Hungarian Workers, succeeded as Premier and established one-party rule in the country. The Second Hungarian Republic came to an end.|
|1949.8.23||The Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia held the Hague Round Table Conference. On .11.2 of the same year the two countries signed the Hague Round Table Conference Agreement, which reiterated the terms of the Linggadjati Agreement.|
|1949.8.28||The Greek Royal Government army expelled the Communist Party from the country. The Provisional Democratic Government collapsed. On .10.16 of the same year, the Communists ceased their struggle and the Greek Civil War came to an end.|
|1949.11.8||France signed a treaty with Cambodia by which Cambodia became an associated state of France.
Ulate succeeded as President of Costa Rica. Thereafter the political situation of Costa Rica was stabilized.
|1949.12.8||The Chinese Nationalist Party retreated to Taiwan, where they established China (Taiwan Government) and carried out one-party rule as well as a prolonged martial rule.|
|1949.12.10||The United Nations passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.|
|1949.12.27||The Republic of Indonesia and the native states united to form the Republic of the United States of Indonesia, which adopted a federal system. The Republic of the United States of Indonesia and the Netherlands formed the Netherlands-Indonesian Union.|
|Mid-20th Century||Beginning of the Third Industrial Revolution. This period saw the rapid development of the nuclear technology, information technology, aeronautical technology and biological technology.
Drastic growth of world population began. This phenomenon of population explosion led to the problem of global shortage of resources and energy sources.
|1950||The Indonesian Unification Movement emerged in Indonesia. The various native states were annexed into the Republic of Indonesia. On .8.17 of the same year the Unification Movement was completed and Indonesia abrogated the federal system and the Republic of the United States of Indonesia.|
|1950.1.26||India ended its dominion status and established the Republic of India.|
|1950.3.18||The Chinese Communist Party started to carry out radical reforms in the country and launched a series of political campaigns.|
|1950.4||The Khmer Issarak launched an anti-French rebellion in Cambodia and established the Khmer Regime (commonly called the Resistance Provisional Government of Khmer).|
|1950.4.1||Italian Somalia became an Italian trust territory.|
|1950.4.27||South Africa announced the Group Areas Bill, which assigned separate residential areas for different races and started the implementation of the Apartheid Policy.|
|1950.5||Schuman, Foreign Minister of France, proposed the establishement of an international organisation to integrate the coal and steel production of France and [West] Germany. His proposal came to be known as the "Schuman Plan" and was the prototype of the post-war European organisations for economic co-operation. On .4.18 of the next year, the European Coal and Steel Community was formally founded.|
|1950.6.25||[North] Korea invaded [South] Korea. The Korean War broke out. On .7.3 of the same year, the UN armies commanded by USA entered the Korean Peninsula in support of [South] Korea. On .10.25 China dispatched troops to support [North] Korea.|
|1950.6.26||Yugoslavia carried out economic reforms and established a system of workers' self-management.|
|1950.8.13||The Laotian leftist groups formed the Issara Front (commonly known as Pathet Lao) in Xam Nua in opposition to France and the Royal Government. On ..15 they established Laos (Resistance Government) and the First Laotian Civil War broke out.|
|1950.11.7||King Tribhuvana of Nepal united with the Napalese Congress Party in an attempt to overthrow the Rana Family in power, but failed. The Napalese Congress Party revolted against the Rana Family. On .2.18 of the next year, Tribhuvana promulgated the Provisional Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government, which marked the end of the rule of the Rana Family and the restoration to power of the King.|
|1950.12.5||India and Sikkim signed a peace treaty whereby Sikkim became an Indian client state.|
|1951.1.31||Vargas, former Brazilian President, became President again. During his presidency, he carried out the policy of industrialization.|
|1951.2.19||Eritrea was put under the supervision of the United Nations and was administered by Britain.|
|1951.4.30||Mosaddeq became the Prime Minister of Iran. During his tenure he carried out nationalist policies. On .5.2 of the same year, he proclaimed nationalization of the petroleum resources.|
|1951.5.23||Tibet submitted to the authority of the Chinese Government.|
|1951.6.11||Portuguese West Africa was renamed Angola.|
|1951.6.30||The socialist parties, social democratic parties and the labour parties of various countries founded the Socialist International in Frankfurt am Main of [West] Germany.|
|1951.8.30||USA and the Philippines signed the Mutual Defence Pact and formed a military alliance.|
|1951.9.1||USA, Australia and New Zealand signed the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty. When the Treaty took effect on 1952.4.29, the ANZUS Council and a military alliance between the three countries were formally established.|
|1951.9.8||The belligerents of the Pacific War concluded the San Francisco Peace Treaty, which formally deprived Japan of all its overseas dependencies. On the same day Japan and USA signed the USA-Japanese Mutual Security Pact and formed a military alliance.|
|1951.10.27||Egypt unilaterally declared abolition of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty and ceased to be one of the suzerains of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Britain denied recognition of the Egyptian actions.|
|1951.12.24||With the end of the trusteeship of the three regions in Libya (Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan), the three regions were united as the Libyan Regime, which adopted a constitutional form of government. Emir Idris of Cyrenaica became King of Libya.|
|1952||The Kenyan tribes started an anti-British uprising ("Mau Mau Uprising"), which was crushed by Britain on 1956.10.21.|
|1952.1.9||The five Central American countries formally established the Organisation of Central American States (ODECA).|
|1952.3.10||Batista, former Cuban President, seized power in a coup and reestablished dictatorial rule.|
|1952.3.16||Four Scandinavian countries established the Nordic Council.|
|1952.4.9||The Bolivarian Nationalist Revolutionary Movement launched the Nationalist Revolution. On ..11 of the same month, they overthrew the military government and seized power. On ..12 Estenssoro succeeded as President. During his presidency he carried out nationalist policies.|
|1952.4.28||USA ended the military control of Japan, but continued to occupy the Ryukyu Islands.|
|1952.5.11||Italy regained administrative rights of Zone A of Trieste from Britain and USA. On 1954.10.26 Italy and Yugoslavia divided Trieste with Zone A under Italian rule and Zone B under Yugoslav rule.|
|1952.5.26||USA, Britain, France and [West] Germany concluded the Bonn Conventions, by which the three occupying powers abolished the legislation of occupation, but continued to station troops in [West] Germany.|
|1952.5.27||Six Western European countries held a conference in Paris and signed a treaty by which a European Defence Community (EDC) was to be established to build up a unified European army. When the French National Assembly rejected the treaty on 1954.8.30, the EDC plan failed.|
|1952.7.25||Puerto Rico became a USA commonwealth and exercised self-rule.|
|1952.8||Chile, Peru and Ecuador signed the Santiago Declaration and declared the extension of their maritime jurisdiction up to 200 nautical miles. Since then many developing countries declared their own territorial seas and exclusive economic zones.|
|1952.9.15||Britain ceded Eritrea to Ethiopia. Eritrea then formed a federation with Ethiopia and was granted autonomy.|
|1953||A National Assembly was set up in Bhutan.|
|1953.3.5||Stalin died. On ..14 of the same month, Khrushchov came to power. On .6.28 Khrushchov started to purge Stalin's favourites and arrested Beria, head of the USSR Ministry of Internal Security (Beria Incident). On .9.7 Khrushchov succeeded as the First Secretary of the Communist Party.|
|1953.6.13||Rojas Pinilla, a Colombian military officer, seized power in a coup and carried out dictatorial rule.|
|1953.6.17||Large scale anti-governmental mass movements broke out in East Berlin, capital of [East] Germany. The Soviet troops suppressed the movements ("June 17th East Berlin Incident").|
|1953.7.26||Fidel Castro Ruz launched the "July 26th Movement" in Santiago of Cuba in opposition to the dictatorship of Batista. He was arrested after the movement failed.|
|1953.7.27||The belligerents of the Korean War signed the Panmunjom Armistice, which recognized the partition of the Korean Peninsula, thus ending the War. China rose as a major power in East Asia.|
|1953.8.1||Britain united Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also called the Central African Federation).|
|1953.8.16||King Mohammad Reza of Iran attempted to sack the Prime Minister Mosaddeq. After his attempt failed, he fled to Iraq. On ..19 of the same month, military officer Zahedi staged a coup to overthrow Mosaddeq. On ..22 Mohammad Reza returned to Iran and resumed power. During his rule Mohammad Reza carried out modernization reforms, which were called the "White Revolution" by historians.|
|1953.10.22||Laos formally gained independence from France.|
|1953.11.9||Cambodia formally gained independence from France.|
|1954||USSR began to install nuclear weapons. Since then USA and USSR started an intense nuclear arms race, thus resulting in a situation of Balance of Terror.|
|1954.2.19||USSR transferred the administration of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine.|
|1954.3||Zhivkov succeeded as General Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party and started his prolonged rule.|
|1954.3.13||The [North] Viet Nam armies started the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and attacked the French troops in Dien Bien Phu. On .5.7 of the same year, they captured Dien Bien Phu and expelled the French colonists from northwestern Vietnam.|
|1954.4.26||The Geneva Conference was convened to discuss the Korean and the Indochinese issues.|
|1954.5.8||Stroessner, a Paraguayan military officer, seized power in a coup and carried out dictatorial rule.|
|1954.6.18||Armas, a Guatemalan military officer, staged the "June 18th Coup" against the Government of the Revolutionary Action Party, which was overthrown on ..27 of the same month.|
|1954.7.20||The participating countries of the Geneva Conference concluded the Geneva Agreements, which provided for ceasefire in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, withdrawal of the French troops from Indochina, thus ending the First Indochina War. The status quo of a split Vietnam was recognized. [South] Viet Nam formally gained independence from France.|
|1954.7.21||Khmer Regime (Resistance Provisional Government) was dissolved.|
|1954.8.9||Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey signed the Treaty of Alliance, Political Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance and formed the Balkan Alliance. The Alliance was dissolved on 1960.6.24 by the three signatories.|
|1954.8.24||When the Second Anti-Vargas Coup took place in Brazil, President Vargas committed suicide.|
|1954.9.3||To oppose USA's protection of Taiwan, China started bombarding Quemoy, an outlying island off the Fujian coast under the control of the Taiwan Government (First Taiwan Strait Crisis). On .8.1 of the next year, China and USA started negotiation and ended the crisis.|
|1954.9.8||USA caused eight countries to sign the Southeast Asia Collective Defence Treaty in Manila, capital of the Philippines and formed the Southeast Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) on .2.19 of the next year.|
|1954.10.1||Britain reorganised the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria as the Federation of Nigeria, which was granted self-rule.|
|1954.10.21||The NATO member states concluded the Paris Accords, which terminated the Allied occupation of [West] Germany.|
|1954.10.23||The Brussels Treaty Organisation was transformed into the Western European Union (WEU).|
|1954.11.1||India resumed sovereignty over French India from France.
The Algerian Front for National Liberation rose aganist French colonial rule. The Algerian War of National Liberation broke out.
|1954.12.2||USA and China (Taiwan Government) signed the Sino-American Mutual Defence Pact. USA successfully established a military alliance system to contain the Communist Bloc in East Asia and Western Pacific.|
|1954.12.15||Suriname became a Dutch self-governing country and joined the Netherlands-Indonesian Union.|
|1954.12.29||Netherlands Antilles became a Dutch self-governing country and joined the Netherlands-Indonesian Union.|
|1955.2.4||Iraq and Turkey signed the Baghdad Pact, which provided for the cooperation in mutual defence between the two countries. Later Britain, Pakistan and Iran joined as signatories. On .4.15 of the same year the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO) was formed.|
|1955.3.22||The Laotian leftists founded the People's Party, which was the core organisation of the Issara Front. On 1956.1.6 the Issara Front was reorganised as the Patriotic Front. On .4.10 the People's Party dissolved Laos (Resistance Government) and thus ended the First Laotian Civil War.|
|1955.4.1||The National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (commonly called EOKA) started an anti-British rebellion.|
|1955.4.18||29 Asian and African countries held the Asian-African Conference (also called the Bandung Conference) in Bandung of Indonesia. The Conference endorsed the Final Communique of the Asian-African Conference, which spelled out the participants' standpoint of struggling for national independence and opposing imperialism.|
|1955.5.14||USSR and the East European Communist countries signed the Warsaw Treaty, by which they formed a military alliance. The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) was formed.|
|1955.7.27||The Allies ended the military control of Austria. On .10.26 of the same year the Austrian Parliament enacted the Declaration of Neutrality, which declared Austria to be a perpetual neutral state.|
|1955.8||A mutiny broke out in the Equator Province in the southern part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The mutineers requested for self-rule in the southern part. The First Sudanese Civil War broke out.|
|1955.9.21||The Argentine military officers staged the Revolution of Liberation to overthrow President Juan Peron.|
|1955.10.26||Ngo Dinh Diem, Prime Minister of [South] Viet Nam, deposed Emperor Nguyen Vinh Thuy and established a Republican Government. He made himself President and carried out dictatorial rule.|
|1955.11.15||The Japanese Democratic Party and the Liberal Party were merged to form the Liberal Democratic Party. Thereafter the Liberal Democratic Party was in power for a long period. The political situation was called the "1955 System".|
|1955.11.23||Cocos Islands became an Australian dependency. On 1978.9.1 Australia purchased the authority of administering all islands from Clunies-Ross Family.|
|1955.12||Britain induced Muscat to launch the Omani Unification War and attacked the Islamic Imamate of Oman.
|1956.1.1||Anglo-Egyptian Sudan gained independence from Britain and established the Sudanese Regime ([Eastern] Sudan).|
|1956.1.26||USSR returned Porkkala to Finland.|
|1956.2.24||Khrushchov, First Secretary of the USSR Communist Party, presented a report titled On the Personality Cult and its Consequences (commonly called the "Secret Report") on which he severely criticized Stalin's dictatorial rule. A De-Stalinization Movement arose in many East European countries, which led to the split of the Communist Bloc.|
|1956.3.2||France recognized the independence of the Alawi Regime. On .4.7 of the same year, Spain also recognized the independence of the Alawi Regime and returned Tetuan to the Alawi Regime.|
|1956.3.5||Egypt, Syria and Saudi Arabia agreed not to join the Middle East Treaty Organisation and formed another bloc in Middle and Near East. On .4.21 of the same year, [Northern] Yemen also joined the bloc.|
|1956.3.20||Tunisia gained independence from France.|
|1956.3.23||Pakistan ended its dominion status and established the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.|
|1956.4||The COMINFORM was dissolved.|
|1956.4.21||Indonesia declared abrogation of the Hague Round Table Conference Agreement. The Netherlands-Indonesian Union was dissolved.|
|1956.5.2||Mao Zedong proposed the "Hundred Flowers Policy" and launched the Hundred Flowers Campaign throughout China to encourage differing views outside the Communist Party. Criticisms against the Communist Party sprang up.|
|1956.6.13||Britain returned Suez Canal Zone to Egypt. On .7.26 of the same year Egypt unilaterally declared nationalization of the Suez Canal Company and led to the Suez Canal Crisis.|
|1956.6.28||Workers in Poznan of Poland went on strike which led to riots, and was suppressed by the Government (Poznan Incident). On .10.20 of the same year, Gomulka, former leader of the Workers' Party, entered the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party again. In an attempt to interfere with the situation, Rokossovsky, the Minister of Defence of Soviet nationality, deployed troops to besiege Warsaw (October Incident of Poland). On ..21 the Polish populace staged a demonstration in support of Gomulka against USSR. Gomulka succeeded as General Secretary of the United Workers' Party while Rokossovsky was expelled from the Politburo of the United Workers' Party.|
|1956.7.21||With the formal dissolution of the Union of Indochina, the French influence withdrew from Indochina.|
|1956.8.30||French Togo became a French autonomous republic and established the Togolese Republic, with the French President being its chief of state. Thereafter a number of French colonies became autonomous republics successively.|
|1956.10||The leftists of Jordan won the elections. On ..29 of the same month Sulayman became the Prime Minister and carried out nationalist policies.|
|1956.10.22||A pro-democracy movement arose in Hungary. On ..23 of the same month, anti-governmental uprisings broke out (October Incident of Hungary). On ..24 former Premier Nagy Imre resumed his position and carried out democratic reforms. USSR dispatched troops to Hungary to suppress the uprisings. On .11.1 the Party of the Hungarian Workers was dissolved and reorganised as the Socialist Workers' Party. On ..4 the Soviet troops overthrew Nagy Imre and crushed the uprisings. Thereafter Hungary was under the prolonged rule of Kadar.|
|1956.10.29||Israel launched a surprise attack against Egypt with the support of Britain and France. The Second Arab-Israeli War (also called the Second Middle East War or the Suez Canal War) broke out. On 1957.3.8 the Israeli troops were expelled from Egypt and the War came to an end.
The Alawi Regime regained Tangier.
|1956.11||The leaders of the Cuban "Revolutionary Movement of July 26th" returned to Cuba and launched the guerilla warfare (Cuban Revolution).|
|1957.1.1||France returned Saarland to [West] Germany.|
|1957.3.25||Six West European countries signed the Rome Treaty and formed the Common Market and the Atomic Community. On .1.1 of the next year, the European Economic Community (EEC; commonly called the European Common Market) and the European Atomic Community (EURATOM) were formally established.|
|1957.4.13||The rightists of Jordan staged a coup to overthrow Prime Minister Sulayman. In July of the same year the British armies completely withdrew from Jordan and Jordan gained complete independence.|
|1957.5.10||The Colombian Conservative Party and Liberal Party jointly overthrew President Rojas Pinilla. On .7.20 the two parties formed the National Front, by which they agree to form a coalition government and share powers.|
|1957.6.8||Mao Zedong launched the Anti-Rightist Campaign in China to suppress the opposite views.|
|1957.7.25||The monarchical system of Tunisia was abrogated and replaced by a Republican Government. Bourguiba, leader of the Neo-Destour Party, started his prolonged rule and established one-party rule in Tunisia.|
|1957.8.11||Muscat annihilated the Imamate and reunified Oman.|
|1957.8.14||The Alawi Regime was renamed the Kingdom of Morocco.|
|1957.8.31||Malaya gained independence from Britain. Thereafter Malaya was under the prolonged rule of the United Malays National Organisation.|
|1957.9.3||Faubus, Governor of Arkansas of USA, neglected a Court injunction by deploying National Guards to Little Rock, capital of Arkansas, to forcefully implement the racial segregation in the public schools. His action aroused widespread criticisms (Little Rock Incident). On ..24 of the same month, the Federal Government deployed federal troops to Little Rock to prohibit racial segregation.|
|1957.9.17||Sarit, a Thai military officer, staged a coup and overthrew Prime Minister Luang Pibul. On .10.20 of the next year, Sarit staged another coup and seized the supreme power.|
|1957.10.4||USSR launched the first artificial earth satellite. Since then USA and USSR were engaged in keen competition in the aeronautical technology, which came to be known as the Space Race. Later some European and Asian countries also joined the Space Race.|
|1957.10.22||The Duvalier Family established a dictatorship in Haiti.|
|1957.11||The leftists, centrists and rightists of Laos formed the First Coalition Government, with Phouma being the Prime Minister. On 1958.8.18 the Coalition Government collapsed and the rightists came to power.|
|1958.1.3||Britain united its dependencies on Carribean Sea (including the states of the British Leeward Islands, British Windward Islands, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago) as the Federation of the British West Indies.|
|1958.1.12||Spanish West Africa was disintegrated. Ifni became a separate Spanish colony, while Rio de Oro and Seguia el-Hamra were united as another Spanish colony named Spanish Sahara.|
|1958.1.23||The "1958 Revolution" broke out in Venezuela and President Jimenez was overthrown.|
|1958.2.1||Egypt and Syria united to form the United Arab Republic (UAR).|
|1958.2.14||Iraq and Jordan formed the Arab Union, a confederation in which the two member states retained their independent status.|
|1958.3.8||UAR and Yemen formed the United Arab States, a confederation in which the two member states retained their independent status.|
|1958.4.1||Morocco regained Tarfaya from Spain.|
|1958.4.15||Eight African countries held the First Conference of Independent African States in Accra, capital of Ghana to promote the independence of the African colonies and the post-independence international cooperation.|
|1958.5.5||Mao Zedong implemented the "Three Red Flags" policies (General Line, Great Leap Forward and People's Commune), which led to economic turmoil.|
|1958.5.9||A mass campaign against President Chamoun broke out in Lebanon, which stirred up political unrest in Middle East.|
|1958.5.13||Massu, a military officer of the French troops in Algeria, launched a mutiny and seized the power of the Algerian Colonial Government by making himself President of the Committee of Public Safety. The mutiny led to political chaos in France.|
|1958.6.1||de Gaulle, former Premier of France, resumed his position.|
|1958.7.14||Qasim, leader of the Iraqi Free Officers, staged the "July 14th Coup". By overthrowing the Faisal Dynasty and establishing a Republican Government, Iraq gained full independence.|
|1958.7.26||Romania urged USSR to withdraw its troops from Romania. Since then Romania was freed of the Soviet control.|
|1958.8.2||Jordan proclaimed dissolution of the Arab Union.|
|1958.8.7||The Colombian National Front started to rule. Thereafter the political situation of Colombia was stabilized. This marked the end of the Period of la Violencia.|
|1958.8.23||The Chinese armies resumed bombardment against the islands of Quemoy and Matsu, which led to the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. On .10.25 of the same year, the Chinese Government and the Taiwan Government reached a tacit understanding and ended the crisis.|
|1958.9.19||The Algerian Front for National Liberation established the Government-in-Exile of the Algerian Republic in Egypt.|
|1958.9.23||Chehab succeeded as President of Lebanon. Thereafter the political situation was stabilized.|
|1958.9.28||A plebiscite held in France ratified the new constitution which strengthened the President's authority and changed the parliamental cabinet system to the "semi-presidential system". On .10.5 of the same year, the Fourth French Republic was supplanted by the Fifth French Republic. At the same time, the French Community was set up to replace the French Union.|
|1958.10.2||French Guinea gained independence from France and established the Republic of Guinea. Ahmed Sekou Toure, leader of the Democratic Party, started his prolonged rule and established one-party rule in his country.|
|1958.10.7||President Mirza of Pakistan annulled the constitution and declared a martial law. He appointed military officer Ayub Khan as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. On ..28 of the same month Ayub Khan launched the October Revolution of Pakistan in which he overthrew Mirza and made himself President. Thereafter Pakistan was under military rule.|
|1958.10.14||Madagascar became a French autonomous republic and established the Malagasy Republic, which was under the prolonged rule of the Social Democratic Party.|
|1958.10.28||Ne Win, a Burmese military officer, seized power in a coup. On 1960.4.4 he returned power to a civilian government. On 1962.3.2 Ne Win seized power in another coup. On .7.4 he formed the Party of the Socialist Program and established one-party rule.|
|1958.11.22||Tsedenbal succeeded as the First Secretary of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and started his prolonged rule.|
|1958.11.24||French Sudan became a French autonomous republic and established the Sudanese Republic ([Western] Sudan).|
|1958.11.25||Senegal became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Senegal.|
|1958.11.27||USSR requested that West Berlin should become a free city within 6 months and was rejected by the Western countries. This led to the Second Berlin Criss.|
|1958.11.28||Chad became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Chad.
Mauritania became a French autonomous republic and established the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.
Middle Congo became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Congo ([West] Congo) (commonly called Congo [Brazzaville]).
Gabon became a French autonomous republic and established the Gabonese Republic.
|1958.12.1||Ubanghi-Shari became a French autonomous republic and established the Central African Republic.|
|1958.12.4||Dahomey became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Dahomey.
Ivory Coast became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Ivory Coast.
|1958.12.11||Upper Volta became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Upper Volta.|
|1958.12.19||Niger became a French autonomous republic and established the Republic of Niger. In 1959 the ruling Progressive Party established one-party rule in the country.|
|1958.12.22||French West Africa was dissolved.|
|1959||The Free Democratic Party (later renamed Free Democratic Party.The Liberals), Social Democratic Party, Conservative Christian Social People's Party (later renamed Christian Democratic People's Party) and Peasants', Business, and Citizens' Party (later renamed People's Party or Democratic Union of the Centre) of Switzerland agreed upon a "Magic Formula" for dividing the seats of the Federal Council between them. Switzerland came under a prolonged rule of the coalition government formed by the four parties.|
|1959.1.1||French Cameroons became a French autonomous republic and established the Cameroon Regime.
The leftist revolutionary organisations of Cuba overthrew President Batista. On the next day they formed a new government with F. Castro R. holding real power.
|1959.1.8||de Gaulle succeeded as President of France. During his presidency he revived the power of France.|
|1959.2.11||Britain united parts of the princely states in southern Yemen as the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, which was renamed Federation of South Arabia on 1962.4.4.|
|1959.2.13||The military rule in Venezuela came to an end. A democractic system under which the Democratic Action and the Social Christian Party ruled alternately began to take root.|
|1959.3||Britain induced Abdullaa Afif Didi to rebel against Maldives. He occupied three groups of atolls (including Addu) in the southern part of Maldives and established the United Suvadivan Republic, which was annhilated by Maldives in 1962.|
|1959.3.10||An anit-Chinese uprising broke out in Tibet. On ..22 of the same month, the Chinese Government suppressed the uprising. On ..31, Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama), religious leader of Tibet, fled to India, where he established a government-in-exile.|
|1959.3.28||A mass campaign demanding for the abrogation of the USA-Japanese Mutual Security Pact arose in Japan. On .1.19 of the next year, Japan and USA concluded the USA-Japanese Treaty of Mutual Security and Co-operation to replace the USA-Japanese Mutual Security Pact.|
|1959.4.4||[Western] Sudan and Senegal united to form the Mali Federation, which was a French autonomous republic.|
|1959.4.27||Liu Shaoqi replaced Mao Zedong as the State President of China. On .9.30 of the next year, Liu Shaoqi rectified the malpractice of the "Three Red Flags" policies and started to make adjustments to the national economy.|
|1959.6.3||Singapore exercised internal self-rule and became the Autonomous State of Singapore.|
|1959.8.19||The Middle East Treaty Organisation was renamed the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO).|
|1959.8.31||The Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA for short) was established in the Basque region in northern Spain. By adopting violent means to struggle for independence, ETA later developed into a terrorist organisation.|
|1959.9.25||The leaders of USA and USSR held the Camp David Talk to alleviate the tension arising from the Berlin Crisis.|
|1959.9.29||A constitution was granted in Brunei, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.|
|1959.12.1||12 countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in Washington. The treaty prohibited all measures of a military nature in Antarctica. When the Treaty came into effect on 1961.6.23, the Antarctic Treaty System was formally established.|
|1959.12.31||Phoumi Nosavan, a Laotian rightist prince, seized power in a coup and established a rightist government.|
|1960||Guerillas appeared in Guatemala, which marked the beginning of the Guatemalan Civil War.
|1960.1.1||Cameroon declared independence from France. Since then the various French autonomous republics declared independence successively. This year was thus called the Year of Africa.
Britain dissolved British Leeward Islands. Britain dissolved British Windward Islands.
|1960.4.19||Outbreak of the April Uprising of [South] Korea. On .5.3 of the same year President Syngman Rhee was forced to resign.|
|1960.4.27||Togo declared independence from France. In 1962.1 the ruling Unity Party established one-party rule in the country.|
|1960.5||The Laotian People's Party restarted rebellion in Xam Nua. The Second Laotian Civil War broke out. On .8.9 of the same year, Kong Le, a centrist military officer, staged the "August 9th Coup" and overthrew the rightist government. On ..30 the former Prime Minister Phouma resumed his position and established a centrist government. On .12.15 Phoumi Nosavan and Bounoum, leaders of the rightists, jointly captured Vientiane. They toppled the centrist government and reestablished the rightist government.|
|1960.5.1||A U-2 reconnaissance plane of USA was shot down over USSR and led to acute tension between USA and USSR (the U-2 Plane Incident).|
|1960.5.3||Britain and five countries formed the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in opposition to the EEC.|
|1960.5.27||Gursel, a Turkish military officer, staged the "May 27th Coup" and seized power.|
|1960.6.20||The Mali Federation declared independence from France. On .8.20 of the same year, the Mali Federation was split into the two republics of [Western] Sudan and Senegal.|
|1960.6.26||British Somaliland gained independence from Britain and established the State of Somaliland.
Malagasy declared independence from France.
|1960.6.30||Belgian Congo gained independence from Belgium and established the Republic of Copngo ([East] Congo), with the capital in Leopoldville and was thus commonly called Congo [Leopoldville].|
|1960.7.1||Italian Somalia gained independence from Italy and united with Somaliland to form the Somali Regime.
Ghana ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Ghana.
|1960.7.11||Tshombe, Governor of Katanga Province of [East] Congo, established the Independent State of Katanga. The [East] Congo Civil War broke out. On .8.8 of the same year Kalonji, Governor of Kasai, established the Mineral State of South Kasai. On .8.12 the United Nations deployed troops to [East] Congo to maintain peace. Later the UN troops were also involved in the Civil War.|
|1960.7.16||USSR declared withdrawal of all the experts working in China within one month and severed relation with China.|
|1960.7.25||The Hutus of Ruanda overthrew the Tutsi Dynasty and established a government controlled by the Hutus. On .1.28 of the next year, the monarchy was abolished and replaced by the Republic of Rwanda, an autonomous republic of Belgium.|
|1960.8.1||Dahomey declared independence from France. In April next year the ruling Democratic Union established one-party rule in the country.|
|1960.8.3||Niger declared independence from France.|
|1960.8.5||Upper Volta declared independence from France.|
|1960.8.7||Ivory Coast declared independence from France.|
|1960.8.11||Chad declared independence from France. Tombalbaye became the Head of State and carried out dictatorial rule.|
|1960.8.13||Central Africa declared independence from France.|
|1960.8.15||[West] Congo declared independence from France. Youlou became the President and carried out dictatorial rule.
French Equatorial Africa was dissolved.
|1960.8.16||Cyprus gained independence from Britain and established the Republic of Cyprus.|
|1960.8.17||Gabon declared independence from France.|
|1960.9.5||A power struggle between the leftists (National Movement, headed by Premier Lumumba) and the rightists (Association of the Bakongo People, headed by Kasavubu) broke out in [East] Congo and developed into a civil war later. On .9.14 of the same year military officer Mobutu seized power in a coup. On .12.13 Gizenga, leader of the leftists, set up another government in Stanleyville (the First Stanleyville Government) in opposition to the Central Government.|
|1960.9.14||Five petroleum exporting countries formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Baghdad. Since then there appeared a number of international organisations composed of raw materials production or exporting countries.|
|1960.9.22||[Western] Sudan was renamed the Republic of Mali.|
|1960.10.1||Nigeria gained independence from Britain and became a British dominion.|
|1960.11.28||Mauritania declared independence from France. In December next year the ruling People's Party established one-party rule.|
|1960.12||King Mahendra dissolved the cabinet and parliament and assumed power. In January next year he declared prohibition of all parties and implemented the non-partisan "panchayat" (assembly) system.|
|1960.12.20||[North] Viet Nam induced the leftist groups in [South] Viet Nam to form the Viet Nam South National Liberation Front and launch a rebellion. In the next year USA supported the suppression of the National Liberation Front by the [South] Viet Nam Government (Special Warfare). The Second Indochina War (also called the Second Vietnam War) broke out.|