Romania (1862.1.22- )

In 1831 and 1832, the two principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia situated in the present Romania enacted the Organic Regulations which set up modernised governments. In 1862 Wallachia and Moldavia united to form Romania. Between 1862 and 1918, the Conservatives, Moderates and Liberals took turns to form cabinets. In 1940, Antonescu, in alliance with the Iron Guard, seized power in a coup and Iron Guard became the only legal party, which was replaced by Antonescu's personal dictatorship when he suppressed the Iron Guard in 1941. In 1944 Antonescu was overthrown. In 1945 the leftist parties formed a coalition government and finally abolished the monarchical system in 1947. Romania came under one-party rule when the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party merged to form the Workers' Party in 1948. Between 1965 and 1989 Romanai was under the dictatorial rule of Ceausescu, who was overthrown by popular uprising in 1989. Thereafter a multi-party system was introduced and Romania was ruled by the left wing (National Salvation Front) and the right wing alternately.

*Conservative [Con] 1862.2.15-.6.24
*Moderate [Mod] 1862.6.24-1863.10.24
*Liberal [Lib] 1863.10.24-1865.2.6
*Mod 1865.2.6-1866.5.24
*Con 1866.5.24-.7.15
*Mod 1866.7.16-1867.11.26
*Lib 1867.11.26-1868.11.28
*Mod 1868.11.28-1870.2.14
*Lib 1870.5.1-.12.26
*Mod 1870.12.26-1871.3.24
*Con 1871.3.24-1876.4.17
*Lib 1876.4.17-1888.4.13
*Con 1888.4.13-1895.10.15
*Lib 1895.10.15-1899.4.23
*Con 1899.4.23-1901.2.27
*Lib 1901.2.27-1906.1.4
*Con 1906.1.4-1907.3.24
*Lib 1907.3.24-1911.1.14
*Con 1911.1.14-1914.1.15
*Lib 1914.1.15-1918.2.9
*Conervative Progressive Party [PCP] 1918.3.15-.10.24
*National Liberal Party [PNL] 1918.12.14-1919.10.1
*National Party 1919.12.9-1920.3.19
*People's Party [PP] 1920.3.19-1921.12.18
*Conservative Democratic Party 1921.12.18-1922.1.19
*PNL 1922.1.19-1926.3.30
*PP 1926.3.30-1927.6.4
*PNL 1927.6.21-1928.11.11
*National Peasant's Party [PNT] 1928.11.11-1933.11.14
*PNL 1933.11.14-1937.12.28
*Front of National Renasisance [FRN] 1938.12.15-1940.6.22
*Party of the Nation (previously FRN) 1940.6.22-.9.14
*Iron Guard 1940.9.14-1941.1.23
*PNT 1944.8.23-..27
*National Democratic Front 1945.3.6-1948.2
*Workers' Party 1948.2-1965.7
*Communist Party (previously Workers' Party) 1965.7-1989.12.22
*National Salvation Front [FSN] 1989.12.26-1992.4.7
*Democratic National Salvation Front [FSDN] (split from FSN) 1992.4.7-1993.7.10
*Party of Social Democracy [PDSR] (developed from FDSN) 1993.7.10-1996.11.29
*National Peasant's Party-Christian and Democratic 1996.11.29-2000.12.20
*PDSR 2000.12.20-2001.6.16
*Social Democrat Party (developed from PDSR) 2001.6.16-2004.12.20
*Democratic Party 2004.12.20-2007.4.20; 2007.5.23-2012.7.9; 2012.8.28-2014.12.21

Moldova (1991.8.27- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Moldova declared independence in 1991. In the early post-independence years, Moldova was under strongman rule, which was replaced by a parliamentary cabinet system in 2001.

*Communist Party [PCM] 1991.8.27-1994.4.8
*Party of Communists (previously PCM) 1994.4.8-1995.7.15
*Party of Revivial and Conciliation 1995.7.15-1997.1.15
*Party of Communists 2001.4.19-2009.9.25
*Liberal Democratic Party [PLDM] 2009.9.25-2015.2.18
*PLDM 2015.7.30-.10.30
*Democratic Party 2016.1.20-2019.6.14
*Party of Action and Solidarity 2019.6.8-.11.14


Bulgaria (1879.7.8- )

1. Royal Government (1879.7.8-1946.9.15)

Founded in 1879, Bulgaria initially adopted a constitutional monarchical system. In 1923 A. Tsankov seized power through a coup. Between 1934 and 1935, Bulgaria was under the one-party rule of the People's League. In 1935 Tsar Boris III assumed absolute power. In 1945 the Workers' Party seized power and abolished the monarchical system in 1946.

*Conservative [Con] 1879.7.17-.12.6
*Liberal [Lib] 1880.4.5-1881.5.9
*Lib 1883.9.19-1886.8.21
*Lib 1886.8.24-1887.7.10
*Con 1887.7.10-.9.1
*People's Liberal Party [NLP] 1887.9.1-1894.5.31
*People's Party [NP] 1894.5.31-1899.1.30
*NLP 1899.1.30-.10.13
*Con 1899.10.13-1901.1.25
*Democratic Party [DP] 1901.3.5-1902.1.4
*Progressive Liberal Party [PLP] 1902.1.4 -1903.5.19
*NLP 1906.11.5-1907.3.16
*DP 1908.1.29-1911.3.29
*NP 1911.3.29-1913.6.14
*PLP 1913.6.14-.7.17
*Liberal Party 1913.7.17-1918.6.21
*DP 1918.6.21-.11.28
*Peasant People's League [BZNS] 1919.10.6-1923.6.9
*Constitutional Bloc [KB] 1923.8-.c.11
*Democratic Harmony (previously KB) 1923.8-1931.6.29
*People's Bloc 1931.6.29-1934.5.19
*Link 1934.5.19-1935.1.22
*Militray Union 1935.1.22-.4.21
*Fatherland Front 1944.9.9-1945.11
*Workers' Party (previously Communist Party) 1945.11-1946.9.15

2. Supreme Military Revolution Committee (1923.9.23-..29)

Established by the Communists during the September Uprising in 1923. The uprising was soon suppressed by the Royal Government.

*Communist Party [BKP] 1923.9.23-..29

3. Republican Government (1946.9.15- )

One-party rule was established by the Workers' Party in 1946, with Zhivkov being in power between 1954 and 1989. One-party rule came to an end in 1990, when a multi-party system was introduced. Between 1990 and 2001, Bulgaria was under the alternate rule of the Socialist Party and the Union of Democratic Forces.

*Workers' Party 1946.9.15-1948.12.18
*BKP (previously Workers' Party) 1948.12.18-1990.4.3
*Socialist Party [BSP] (previously BKP) 1990.4.3-.12.7
*Union of Democratic Forces [SDS] 1991.11.8-1992.12.30
*BSP 1995.1.25-1997.2.13
*SDS 1997.5.21-2001.7.24
*National Movement for Stability and Progress [NDSV] 2001.7.24-2005.8.16
*BSP 2005.8.16-2009.7.27
*Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria [GERB] 2009.7.27-2013.3.13
*GERB 2014.11.7-2017.1.27
*NDSV 2017.1.27-.5.4
*GERB 2017.5.4-

Radomir (1918.9.27-..29)

In 1918 the Peasant People's League revolted and established this regime in Radomir. The revolt was soon crushed by Bulgaria and the regime collapsed.

*BZNS 1918.9.27-..29


/Montenegro, Crnagora/ (c.1360-1499; 1515-1918.12.1)

Founded in c.1360. A modernized government was established in 1855 when a general code was enacted. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1905, a constitutional monarchical system was introduced. In 1918 Montenegro was incorporated into Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia.

*True People's Party [PNS] 1905.12.19-1906.11.24
*Radical Party 1906.11.24-1907.2.1
*People's Party [NS] 1907.2.1-.4.17
*PNS 1916.1.2-.5.12
*NS 1916.5.12-1917.1.17

Serbia (1804.2.14-1813.10.3; 1815.11.21-1915.11; 1918.11.1-.12.1)

Founded in 1804. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1835. In 1918 Serbia merged with Slovenia-Croatia-Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia.

*Conservative Party [CP] 1861.10.21-1867.11.15
*Liberal Party [LS] 1867.11.15-.12.3
*CP 1867.12.3-1868.7.3
*LS 1869.8.8-1872.8.22
*LS 1873.4.14-.11.3
*Progressivde party [NP] 1873.11.3-1875.2.3
*CP 1875.2.3-.8.31
*LS 1875.8.31-.10.8
*Serbian Progressive Party [SNS] 1875.10.8-1876.5.6
*LS 1876.5.6-1880.11.2
*SNS 1880.11.2-1883.10.13
*CP 1883.10.13-1884.3.1
*SNS 1884.3.1-1887.6.25
*LS 1887.6.25-1888.1.13
*People's Radical Party [SNRS] 1888.1.13-.5.9
*CP 1888.5.9-1889.1.31
*SNRS 1889.3.7-1892.8.22
*LS 1892.8.22-1893.4.13
*SNRS 1893.4.13-1894.10.27
*CP 1894.10.27-1895.7.7
*SNS 1895.7.7-1896.12.27
*SNRS 1896.12.27-1897.10.19
*NP 1897.10.19-1900.7.25
*SNRS 1901.4.3-1902.11.20
*LS 1903.6.11-.10.4
*SNRS 1903.10.4-1909.2.22
*SNS 1909.2.22-.10.24
*SNRS 1909.10.24-1915.11F1918.11.1-.12.1

Slovenia-Croatia-Serbia (1918.10.29-.12.1)

In 1918 Croatia declared independence from Hungary and established this regime. In the same year the regime merged with Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia.

Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia-Yugoslavia (1918.12.1-1941.4.17)

The Kingdom of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia came into being with the merger of Serbia, Montenegro and Slovenia-Croatia-Serbia in 1918. The regime initially adopted a constitutional monarchical system under which the cabinets were basically formed by Serbian People's Radical Party and the Democratic Party alternately. But in 1929, King Aleksandar suspended the constitution and assumed absolute power. The country's name was also changed to Yugoslavia in the same year. In 1941 Yugoslavia was partitioned by the Axis Powers.

*Serbian People's Radical Party [SNRS] 1918.12.1-1919.8.16
*Democratic Party [DS] 1919.8.16-1920.2.19
*SNRS 1920.2.19-.5.16
*SNRS 1921.1.1-1924.7.28
*DS 1924.7.28-.11.6
*SNRS 1924.11.6-1928.7.28
*Slovenian People's Party 1928.7.28-1929.1.7
*DS 1932.4.4-.7.3
*SNRS 1934.1.27-.12.22
*Radical Union Party 1934.12.22-1939.2.5

Croatia (1941.4.10-1945.5.6)

In 1941 Germany induced Croatia to secede from Yugoslavia and established this regime under the one-party rule of Ustasha. In 1945 the regime was destroyed by Yugoslavia.

*Ustasha 1941.4.10-1945.5.6

Serbia (1941.4.30-1944.10.20)

After the partition of Yugoslavia by the Axis Powers in 1941, a regime was established in the region of Serbia. In 1944 this regime was destroyed by USSR and Yugoslavia.

Montenegro (1941.7.12-1944.12.18)

In 1941 Italy occupied Montenegro and installed this regime. In 1943 Montenegro was occupied by the Germans. In 1944 this regime collapsed when the Germans were expelled.

*Peasant's Federal Movement 1941.7.13-..?
*National Movement 1941-1943.10.19

Yugoslavia-Serbia and Montenegro (1943.12.4-2006.6.5)

Established by the Communist Party in 1943. With the liberation of the whole country in 1945, the Communist Party formally abolished the monarchical system and established one-party rule, with Tito being in power between 1945 an 1980. The federation disintegrated when the constituent republics declared independence in 1991 and 1992. In 1992, the remaining member-states of the former Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, reorganised the country as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, whose powers were shared by the two constituent states. In 2003 Yugoslavia was further reorganised as a confederate state whose name was changed to Serbia and Montenegro. In 2006 the confederation disintegrated.

*Communist Party [KPJ] 1943.12.4-1952.11.7
*League of Yugoslav Communists (previously KPJ) 1952.11.7-1990.5.26
*Period in which the Serbs and Montenegrins shared powers 1992.4.27-
*Socialist Party of Serbia [SPS] 1993.6.25-1997.6.25
*SPS 1997.7.23-2000.10.7
*Democratic Party of Serbia 2000.10.7-2003.3.7
*Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro [DPS] 2003.3.7-

*DPS 1993.2.9-1998.5.19
*Socialist People's Party of Montenegro 1998.5.19-2003.3.17

Serbia (2003.2.4- )

In 2003 Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederate state under which Serbia is one of the constituent states. With the disintegration of the confederation in 2006, Serbia became an independent state.

*Democratic Party [DS] 2003.2.4-.3.12
*DS 2003.3.18-2004.3.3
*Democratic Party of Serbia (split from DS) 2004.3.31-2007.7.7
*DS 2007.7.7-2012.7.27
*Socialist Party 2012.7.27-2014.4.27
*Progressive Party 2014.4.27-2017.5.31

Montenegro (2003.2.4- )

In 2003 Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederate state under which Montenegro is one of the constituent states. In 2006 Montenegro declared independence.

*Democratic Party of Socialists 2003.2.4-

Slovenia (1991.6.25- )

Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia declared independence in 1991.

*Christian Democrats 1991.6.25-1992.5.14
*Liberal Democracy of Slovenia [LDS] 1992.5.14-2000.6.7
*People's Party-Christian Democrats 2000.6.7-.8.4
*New Slovenia-Christian People's Party 2000.8.4-.11.30
*LDS 2000.11.30-2004.12.3
*Social Democratic Party [SDS] 2004.12.3-2008.11.21
*Social Democrats 2008.11.21-2012.2.10
*SDS 2012.2.10-2013.3.20
*Positive Slovenia [PS] 2013.3.20-2014.5.31
*Alliance of Alenka Bratusek (split from PS) 2014.5.31-.9.18
*Party of Miro Cerar 2014.9.18-2018.9.13
*List of Marjan Sarec 2018.9.13-

Croatia (1991.6.25- )

Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Croatia declared independence in 1991. In the early post-independence years, Croatia was under strongman rule, which was replaced by a parliamentary cabinet system in 1999.

*Democratic Union [HDZ] 1991.6.25-2000.1.27
*Social Democratic Party [SDP] 2000.1.27-2003.12.23
*HDZ 2003.12.23-2011.12.23
*SDP 2011.12.23-2016.1.22
*HDZ 2016.10.19-

Kosovo (1991.10.19- )

In 1991 Kosovo seceded from Yugoslavia and established this regime. In 1999 Yugoslav army withdrew from Kosava, which was then put under the administration of the United Nations. In 2000 this regime recognized the administration of the United Nations and became an autonomous region under the protection of the United Nations

*Democratic League [LDK] 1992.5.24-1999.5.5; 1999.6-2000.2.1
*Democratic Party [PDK] 2002.3.4-2004.12.3
*Alliance for the Future of Kosovo [AAK] 2004.12.3-2005.3.8
*AAK 2005.3.23-2006.3.10
*PDK 2008.1.9-2014.12.9
*LDK 2014.12.9-2017.9.9
*AAK 2017.9.9-

Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina (1992.3.3-1994.5.31)

Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia declared independence in 1992. The Bosnian War soon broke out. As the Serbs and Croats in Bosnia established their own independent states, the territory of this regime contracted to the regions controlled by the Bosniacs (also called Muslims). In 1994 this regime merged with Herceg to form the Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina.

*Party of Democratic Action 1992.3.3-1994.5.31

Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina (1994.5.31- )

Commonly called Muslim-Croat Federation, this regime was established with the merger of the Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina and Herceg. As the Bosnian War ended in 1996, this regime formed a confederation with Srpska.

Bosnia and Hercegovina (1996.10.5- )

In 1996 the Muslim-Croat Federation and Srpska formed a confederation and established a political system that balanced the powers of the Serbs, Croats and Bosniacs. The two constituent states retained self-rule.

Albania (1912.11.28-1916.2.24; 1918.12.28- )

In 1912 Albania gained indepedence from the Osmanli Turks. In 1914 a constitutional monarchy was set up. In 1921 Zogu seized power and established dictatorial rule, which was replaced by a democratic government after a revolution in 1924. In the same year, Zogu resumed dictatorial rule which came to an end in 1939, when the Italian invaders established fascist rule in Albania. In 1943 Germany occupied Albania and installed a puppet government. In 1944 the Germans were expelled by the Communists, who then controlled the whole country. In 1946 the monarchy was formally abolished and replaced by the one-party rule of the Communists, with Hoxha being in power between 1946 and 1985. In 1990 a multi-party was introduced. Thereafter, Albanis was ruled by the Workers' Party and the Democratic Party alternately.

*Fascist Party 1939.4.11-1943.9.9
*Communist Party [PCS] 1944.5.26-1948.11
*Workers' Party [PPS] (previously PCS) 1948.11-1991.6
*Socialist Party [PSS] (previously PPS) 1991.6-.12.10
*Democratic Party [PDS] 1992.4.13-1997.3.11
*PSS 1997.3.11-2005.9.11
*PDS 2005.9.11-


Greece (1822.1.24- )

1. First Republic (1822.1.24-1833.2.6)

In 1822 Greece declared independence from the Osmanli Turks and established this regime. In 1833 a monarchical system was established.

2. Royal Government (1833.2.6-1924.3.16)

A constitutional monarchical system was set up with the promulgation of the Basic Law in 1843. Between 1865 and 1909 the cabinets were basically formed by the Nationalist Party and the Liberal Party alternately. With the deposition of the King in 1923, a Regency was set up. In 1924 it was replaced by the Second Republic.

*Nationalist Party [NP] 1865.3.14-.11.1
*NP 1865.11.18-..25
*NP 1866.12.30-1868.1.1
*NP 1870.12.15-1871.11.9
*Liberal Party [KF] 1875.5.8-.10.27
*NP 1877.6.1-..7
*NP 1878.1.24-11.2
*KF 1878.11.2-..7
*KF 1880.3.22-.10.25
*KF 1882.3.15-1885.5.1
*NP 1885.5.1-1886.5.9
*KF 1886.5.21-1890.11.5
*NP 1890.11.5-1892.3.1
*KF 1892.6.22-1893.5.15
*KF 1893.11.11-1895.1.24
*NP 1895.6.11-1897.4.30
*KF 1899.4.14-1901.11.25
*NP 1902.12.6-1903.6.27
*KF 1903.6.27-.7.11
*KF 1903.12.19-1904.12.29
*NP 1904.12.29-1905.6.13
*KF 1905.12.21-1909.7.29
*People's Party [LK] 1921.4.8-1922.9.29
*Progressive Liberal Party 1924.2.19-.3.12
*Republican Union 1924.3.12-..16

3. Second Republic (1924.3.16-1935.10.10)

The Second Republic was overthrown by Kondilis, the former Premier, who staged a coup and restored the Royal Government in 1935.

*Republican Union [RU] 1924.3.16-.7.24
*KF 1924.7.24-.10.7
*Conservative Democratic Party 1924.10.7-1925.6.26
*National Radical Party 1926.8.23-.12.4
*RU 1932.5.26-.6.5
*LK 1932.11.3-1933.1.16
*LK 1933.3.10-1935.10.10

4. Royal Government (1935.10.10-1941.6.2)

In 1936 I. Metaxas, the Prime Minister, seized power and established dictatorial rule. With the invasion of Greece by the Axis Powers, this government exiled to Britain in 1941.

*LK 1935.10.10-.11.30
*KF 1935.11.30-1936.4.12

5. Puppet Government (1941.5.7-1944.10.13)

Installed by Germany in 1941 and destroyed by the Allies in 1944.

6. Political Committee of National Liberation (1944.3.10-.9.2)

In 1944 the Communists set up the Political Committee of National Liberation as a governing body in liberated areas in Greece. The Committee was united with the Government-in-exile in the same year.

*Communist Party [KKE] 1944.3.10-.9.2

7. Royal Government (1944.10.13-1973.6.1)

In 1944 the Government-in-exile returned to Greece. After the coup staged by General Papadopoulos in 1967, Greece came under military rule. The monarchy was finally replaced by the Third Republic in 1973.

*Center Union [EK] 1944.10.18-1945.1.3
*National Unionist Party 1945.11.1-..22
*KF 1945.11.22-1946.4.4
*LK 1946.4.18-1947.1.25
*LK 1947.8.29-.11.7
*KF 1947.11.7-1949.6.24
*LK 1950.1.6-.3.23
*KF 1950.3.23-.4.15
*National Progressive Center Union [EPEK] 1950.4.15-.8.21
*KF 1950.8.21-1951.11.1
*EPEK 1951.11.1-1952.10.11
*Hellenic Union [ES] 1952.11.19-1955.10.4
*ES 1955.10.6-1958.3.5
*National Radical Union [ERE] 1958.5.17-1961.9.20
*ERE 1961.11.4-1963.9.29
*EK 1963.11.8-.12.30
*EK 1964.2.18-1965.8.20
*Liberal Democratic Center 1965.9.17-1966.12.22
*ERE 1967.4.3-..21

8. Provisional Democratic Government (1947.12.24-1949.8.28)

Established by the Communists who revolted in northern Greece in 1947, this government was expelled by the Royal Government in 1949. Later the Communists abandoned armed struggle.

*KKE 1947.12.24-1949.8.28

9. Third Republic (1973.6.1- )

After the collapse of the military government in 1974, a democractic government adopting the parliamentary cabinet system was set up. Between 1974 and 2015, Greece was under the alternate rule of the New Democracy and Pan-Hellenistic Socialist Movement.

*New Democracy [ND] 1974.7.23-1981.10.21
*Pan-Hellenistic Socialist Movement [PASOK] 1981.10.21-1989.7.2
*ND 1989.7.2-.10.11
*ND 1990.4.11-1993.10.13
*PASOK 1993.10.13-2004.3.10
*ND 2004.3.10-2009.10.6
*PASOK 2009.10.6-2011.11.11
*ND 2012.6.20-2015.1.26
*Coalition of the Radical Left [SYRIZA] 2015.1.26-.8.27
*SYRIZA 2015.9.21-2019.7.8
*ND 2019.7.8-

Krushevo (1903.8.3-..13)

In 1903 the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation revolted against Osmanli rule and established this regime. The revolt was suppressed by Osman soon.

*Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation 1903.8.3-..13

Macedonia-North Macedonia (1991.9.18- )

Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Macedonia declared independence in 1991. Since then, Macedonia was under the alternate rule of the League of Communists-Party for Democratic Change and the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation-Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity. It was renamed North Macedonia in 2019.

*League of Communists-Party for Democratic Change [SKM-PDP] 1992.8.17-1995.4
*Social Democratic Party [SDSM] (previously SKM-PDP) 1995.4-1998.11.30
*Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation-Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity [VMRO-DPMNE] 1998.11.30-2002.11.1
*SDSM 2002.11.1-2006.8.27
*VMRO-DPMNE 2006.8.27-2017.5.31
*SDSM 2017.5.31-

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