Viet Nam (1945.6.12- )

1. Old Nguyen Dynasty (1945.6.12-.8.25)

Viet Nam was originally called Dai Nam and was a French Protectorate. In 1945, Japan occupied Indochina and made Dai Nam declare independence and change its name to Viet Nam. In the same year, the Indochinese Communist Party staged a revolution and overthrew this dynasty.

2. [North] Viet Nam (1945.8.25-1976.7.2)

In 1945 the Indochinese Communist Party established this government and exercised one-party rule, with Ho Chi Minh being in power between 1945 and 1969. In 1976 this government merged with Viet Nam South.

*Indochinese Communist Party (1945.8.25-1951.2)
*Workers' Party of Viet Nam [DLDV] (1951.2-1976.7.2)

3. [South] Viet Nam (1949.6.14-1975.4.30)

Established by France in 1949. Between 1955 and 1963 this government was under Ngo Dinh Diem's dictatorship, which was succeeded by military rule. In 1975 it was overthrown by the Viet Nam South Government.

4. Viet Nam South (1969.6.8-1976.7.2)

Established by the National Liberation Front in the southern portion of Viet Nam in 1969. In 1975 it overthrew the [South] Viet Nam Government and seized power in that part of the country. In 1976 it merged with [North] Viet Nam.

*National Liberation Front 1969.6.8-1976.7.2

5. Unified Government (1976.7.2- )

Formed by the merger of [North] Viet Nam and Viet Nam South in 1976 and under the one-party rule of the Communist Party.

*DLDV (1976.7.2-.12.20)
*Communist Party (1976.12.20- )


Luang Prabang Lanchang-Laos (1707- )

1. Royal Government (1707-1945.9.15)

Founded in 1707 and later became a French protectorate. In 1945 the Issara National Independence Movement staged a revolution and formed the Independent Provisional Government. The unification of Laos was also proclaimed and the name of the country was changed to Laos.

2. Independent Provisional Government (1945.9.15-1946.4.23)

In 1945 the monarchical system was abolished. In 1946 France reoccupied Laos and restored the Royal Government.

*Issara National Independence Movement 1945.10.20-1946.4.23

3. Royal Government (1946.4.23-1975.12.2)

In 1947 a constitution was granted and a constitutional monarchical system was introduced. In 1975 the People's Revolutionary Party (PPPL) seized power and abolished the monarchical system.

*National Progressive Party 1951.11.21-1958.8.17
*Committee for the Defence of the National Interests 1959.12.31-1960.1.7
*Peace and Neutrality Party 1960.12.11-..13

3. Resistance Government (1950.8.15-1956.4.10)

Established by the Issara Front in Xam Nua in 1950. Dissolved in 1956 after Issara Front concluded a peace settlement with the Royal Government.

*Issara Front (commonly known as Pathet Lao) 1950.8.15-1956.4.10

4. One-Party Rule (1975.12.2- )

One-party rule was established by the PPPL in 1975.

*People's Revolutionary Party (previously Issara Front) 1975.12.2-


Cambodia-Khmer (c.1432- )

1. Royal Government (c.1432-1970.10.9)

Founded in c.1432. In 1947 a constitution was granted and a constitutional monarchical system was instituted. From 1955 onwards, the political scene was dominated by the Popular Socialist Community formed by Sihanouk, the former King. After a coup staged by Primer Minister Lon Nol, the monarchical system was abolished and the country's name was changed to Khmer.

*Democratic Party [DP] 1947-1950.4.28
*Khmer Renovation Party 1950.5.30-1951.3.3
*DP 1951.10.13-1952.6.16
*DP 1953.1.24-.11.22
*DP 1954.4.18-1955.10.3
*Popular Socialist Community 1955.10.3-1970.10.9

2. Resistance Provisional Government of Khmer (1950.4-1954.7.21)

Established by the Khmer Issara which staged an anti-French revolt in 1950. Dissolved in 1954 when Khmer Issara concluded a peace settlement with France.

*Khmer Issarak 1950.4-1954.7.21

3. Lon Nol Dictatorial Government (1970.10.9-1975.4.17)

Established by Lon Nol in 1970, this government was under Lon Nol's dictatorial rule until 1975 when it was overthrown by the Communists.

*Social Republican Party 1972.3.14-1975.4.1

4. Communist Government (1975.4.17-1979.1.7)

In 1975 the Communist Party seized power and established one-party rule, which was overthrown by the Vietnamese invaders in 1979.

*Communist Party [KCP] (commonly known as Khmer Rouge) 1975.4.17-1979.1.7

5. Resistance Government (1979.1.7-1993.6.14)

After being ousted by the Vietnamese, the Communists fled to the frontiers and resisted against the Vietnamese. In 1982, three anti-Vietnamese forces joined hands to form a coalition government. Upon the formation of the National Unification Government in 1993, this government was dissolved.

*KCP 1979.1.7-1982.7.9
*Coalition formed by KCP, United National Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) and Khmer People's National Liberation Front 1982.7.9- 1993.6.14

6. Government of People's Revolutionary Party (1979.1.7-1993.6.14)

Established by the Vietnamese in 1979 and under the one-party rule of the People's Revolutionary Party. Dissolved upon the formation of the National Unification Government in 1993.

*People's Revolutionary Party 1979.1.7-1991.10.18
*People's Party [KPK] (previously People's Revolutionary Party) 1991.10.18-1993.6.14

7. National Unification Government (1993.6.14-)

Monarchical system was restored and a coalition government was formed in 1993. But real power is held by the People's Party since then.

*Coalition formed by FUNCINPEC and KPK 1993.7.2-1998.11.30
*KPK 1998.11.30-


Siam-Thailand (1350- )

Founded in 1350, the country was originally called Siam. After a revolution staged by the military, a constitutional government was set up, but was dominated by the military. In 1939, the country's name was changed to Thailand. After a pro-democracy movement in 1992, the military government stepped down and democracy started to develop in Thailand. But military coups took place in Thailand occasionally.

*People's Party 1932.6.24-..28
*People's Party 1933.6.24-1944.8.1
*Free Thai 1945.8.31-1947.11.8
*Democratic Party [PP] 1975.2.26-.3.14
*Social Action Party 1975.3.14-1976.4.21
*PP 1976.4.21-.10.6
*Thai Nation Party [CT] 1988.8.4-1991.2.23
*PP 1992.9.23-1995.7.13
*CT 1995.7.13-1996.12.1
*New Aspiration Party 1996.12.1-1997.11.9
*PP 1997.11.9-2001.2.9
*Thai Love Thais Party [TRT] 2001.2.9-2006.9.19
*People's Power Party [PPP] (previously TRT) 2008.1.29-.12.15
*PP 2008.12.15-2011.8.8
*For Thais Party (previously PPP) 2011.8.8-2014.5.22


Burma (1930.10.28-1931.8.2; 1943.8.1-1945.5.1; 1948.1.4- )

Established by Saya San, who revolted against the British colonial rule in 1930, but failed in 1931. After occupying Burma in 1942, Japan declared the independence of Burma and set up a puppet government, which was overthrown by the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) and the British in 1945. Colonial rule was resumed. But Burma finally gained independence in 1948. After independence, Burma was initially ruled by AFPFL, which was overthrown by the coup of General Ne Win in 1962. One-party rule by the Party of the Socialist Program (PSPB) ensued until 1988 when a pro-democracy movement forced PSPB to end its one-party rule. With the collapse of the PSPB government, the army seized power and established military dictatorship. Civilian government was restored in 2011.

*Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League [AFPFL] 1948.1.4-1958.10.28
*Union Party (previously AFPFL) 1960.4.4-1962.3.2
*Party of the Socialist Program 1962.7.4-1988.9.18
*Union Solidarity and Development Party 2011.3.30-2016.3.30
*National League for Democracy 2016.3.30-

Malay Peninsula

Malaya-Malaysia (1957.8.31- )

After independence in 1957, Malaya was ruled by the United Malays National Organisation (UNMO). In 1963, the new state Malaysia was formed by the amalgamation of Malaysia, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak and UNMO has remained in power since then until 2018. Between 1981 and 2003 the premiership was occupied by Mahathir.

*United Malays National Organisation 1957.8.31-2018.5.10
*United Indigenous Party 2018.5.10-

Singapore (1965.8.9- )

Originally part of Malaysia, Singapore gained independence in 1965 and has been under the prolonged rule of the People's Action Party since independence. Between 1965 and 1990 the premiership was occupied by Lee Kuan Yew.

*People's Action Party 1965.8.9-

Malay Archipelago

Brunei (c.1405- )

Founded in c.1405. In 1959 a constitution was granted but the sultan retained much of the power.

Philippines (1897.3.23-1901.4.1; 1935.11.15-1942.1.3; 1943.10.14- )

1. Revolutionary Government (1897.3.23-1901.4.1)

In 1896, a revolution against the Spanish rule was organised by Katipunan, a Filipino revolutionary organisation. A Revolutionary Government was formed in 1897. Later this government reached a peace settlement with the colonial government and the revolution came to a halt. But revolution restarted in 1898 and the independence of the Philippines was declared. In 1901 the government was crushed by USA.

*Katipunan 1897.3.23-.12.16
*Katipunan 1898.6.12-1901.4.1

2. Period under USA and Japanese Rule (1935.11.15-1946.7.4)

Home rule was granted and a Commonwealth was established in 1935. In 1942 Japan invaded the Philippines and established a puppet government. In 1944 the USA forces reentered the Philippines and restored the Commonwealth. The Philippines gained full independence in 1946.

*Nationalist Party [PN] 1935.11.15-1942.1.3
*PN 1944.10.20-1946.5.28
*Liberal Party [PL] 1946.5.28-.7.4

3. Independence Period (1946.7.4- )

After a period of alternate rule by the Liberal Party and the Nationalist Party between 1946 and 1972, military rule was imposed by President Marcos in 1972. In 1986 Marcos' dictatorship was overthrown by a revolution and democracy resumed.

*PL 1946.7.4-1953.11.12
*PN 1953.11.12-1961.12.30
*PL 1961.12.30-1965.12.30
*PN 1965.12.30-1978.2
*New Society Movement (developed from PN) 1978.2-1986.2.25
*PL 1986.2.25-1992.6.30
*People's Power-National Union of Christian Democrats [LEN-NUCD] 1992.6.30-1998.6.30
*Struggle of the Philippine Masses 1998.6.30-2001.1.20
*LEN-NUCD 2001.1.20-2010.6.30
*PL 2010.6.30-2016.6.30
*Democratic Party-People's Power 2016.6.30-

Indonesia (1945.8.17- )

1. Central Government

Established in 1945 when a revolution against the Dutch colonial rule broke out in 1945. Full independence was finally granted in 1950. Between 1950 and 1965, Indonesia was under Sukarno's rule, which was succeeded by the dictatorship of Soeharto. Soeharto was forced to step down in a pro-democracy movement in 1998.

*National Party 1945.8.17-1965.10.1
*Functional Groups 1970.12-1998.5.21
*National Awakening Party 1999.10.20-2001.7.23
*Democratic Party - Struggle [PDI-P] 2001.7.23-2004.10.20
*Democrat Party 2004.10.20-2014.10.20
*PDI-P 2014.10.20-

2. Sjafruddin's Insurrection Government (1958.2.15-1961.8.28)

In 1958, Sjafruddin, leader of the Masyumi Party, revolted against the Central Government in conjunction with the Socialist Party and established this government, which was finally crushed by the Central Government in 1961.

*Masyumi Party 1958.2.15-1961.8.28

East Timor (1975.11.28-1978.12.31; 2002.5.20- )

In the wake of a plebiscite of self-determination held by the Portuguese colonial government in 1975, civil war broke out between different political parties in East Timor. The Revolutionary Front for the Indpendence of East Timor (FRETILIN) proclaimed independence and established this regime. In the same year, Indonesia invaded East Timor and set up a government under the nominal rule of the People's Democracy Assoication. In 1976 Indonesia declared the annexation of East Timor and suppressed the resistance of FRETILIN in 1978. East Timor finally regained indepedence in 2002.

*Revolutionary Front for the Indpendence of East Timor [FRETILIN] 1975.11.28-1978.9
*People's Democracy Assoication 1975.12.17-1976.7.17
*FRETILIN 2002.5.20-2006.6.26
*FRETILIN 2007.5.19-.8.8
*National Congress for Reconstruction of East Timor 2007.8.8-015.2.16
*FRETILIN 2015.2.16-2018.6.22
*People's Liberation Party 2018.6.22-

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