Brazil (1822.9.7- )

1. Royal Government (1822.9.7-1889.11.15)

Brazil declared independence from Portugal in 1822. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1824, Brazil became a constitutional monarchy. Between 1840 and 1889, the cabinets were formed by the Liberal Party and Conservative Party alternately. In 1889 the monarchical system was overthrown and replaced by a republican system.

*Liberal Party [PL] 1840.7.24-1841.3.27
*Conservative Party [PC] 1841.3.27-1843.1.20
*PL 1844.2.2-1848.9.29
*PC 1848.9.29-1858.12.12
*PL 1858.12.12-1859.8.10
*PC 1859.8.10-1862.5.24
*PL 1862.5.24-..30
*PC 1862.5.30-.10.8
*PC 1862.11.18-1864.1.15
*PL 1864.1.15-1868.7.16
*PC 1868.7.16-1878.1.5
*PL 1878.1.5-1885.8.20
*PC 1885.8.20-1889.6.7
*PL 1889.6.7-.11.15

2. Republican Government (1889.11.15- )

Between 1930 and 1945 Brazil was under the dictatorial rule of Vargas. After the overthrow of Vargas in 1945, democracy began to take shape in Brazil, with the Social Democratic Party and the Workers' Party ruling alternately. After the military seized powers in 1964, a period of military rule in Brazlian history began. In 1985 the military government came to an end and civilian rule was restored in Brazil.

*Republican Party [Rep] 1889.11.15-1894.11.15
*Republican Party of the state of Sao Paulo 1894.11.15-1906.11.15
*Republican Party of the state of Minas Gerais [PRM] 1906.11.15-1909.6.14
*Republican Party of Niteroi 1909.6.14-1910.11.15
*PRM 1914.11.15-1918.11.15
*Rep 1918.11.15-1919.1.16
*PRM 1919.7.28-1926.11.15
*Rep 1926.11.15-1930.10.24
*Workers' Party [PTB] 1945.3-10.29
*Social Democratic Party [PSD] 1946.1.31-1951.1.31
*PTB 1951.1.31-1955.11.9
*PSD 1956.1.31-1961.1.31
*National Democratic Union 1961.1.31-.8.25
*PTB 1961.9.7-1964.4.1
*Alliance for National Renewal [ARENA] 1965.10-1980.3
*Democratic Social Party (previously ARENA) 1980.3-1985.3.15
*Democratic Movement Party [PMDB] 1985.4.22-1990.3.15
*Party of National Reconstruction 1990.3.15-1995.1.1
*Party of the Brazil Social-Democracy 1995.1.1-2003.1.1
*Workers' Party 2003.1.1-2016.5.12
*PMDB 2016.8.31-

Guyana (1966.5.26- )

Upon independence from Britain in 1966, Guyana adopted the parliamentary cabinet system and was ruled by the People's National Congress-Reform. In 1980 Guyana shifted to a political system with the President holding real power. Since then, Guyana was under the alternate rule of the People's National Congress-Reform and the People's Progressive Party.

*People's National Congress-Reform [PNC-R] 1966.5.26-1992.10.9
*People's Progressive Party 1992.10.9-2015.5.16
*PNC-R 2015.5.16-

Suriname (1954.12.15- )

In 1954 Suriname became a self-governing country of Netherlands. The country declared independence from Netherlands in 1975. Between 1980 and 1991, General Bouterse seized powers for several times and did not hand over powers to a civilian government until 1991.

*National Party [NPS] 1963.6-1969.3.5
*National Progressive Party [PNP] 1969.11.20-1973.12.24
*National Coalition (formed by NPS and PNP) 1973.12.24-1977
*NPS 1977-1980.2.25
*Progressive Reform Party 1988.1.25-1990.12.24
*NPS 1991.9.16-1996.9.15
*National Democratic Party [NDP] 1996.9.15-2000.8.12
*NPS 2000.8.12-2010.8.12
*NDP 2010.8.12-

Greater Colombia

Venezuela (1811.7.14-1812.7.25; 1813.8.8-1814.9.8; 1816.6.1-1819.12.17)

In 1810 revolution broke out in Venezuela. Thereafter Venezuela declared independence from Spain for three times in 1811, 1813 and 1816. In 1819 Venezuela amalgamated with the provinces of New Granada to form Greater Colombia.

Quito (1811.12.11-1812.12.9)

Quito, i.e. the present day Ecuador, declared independence in 1811. But the regime was crushed by Spain in 1812.

New Granada (1812.10.4-1816.7)

In 1811 and 1812, the provinces under New Granada, i.e. the present day Colombia, declared independence from Spain successively. In 1812 some of the independent provinces formed this regime, which was crushed by Spain in 1816.

Greater Colombia (1819.12.17-1831.11.21)

In 1819 the provinces of New Granada declared independence and amalgamated with Venezuela to form this regime. Later Quito and Panama also seceded from Spain and were incorporated into this regime. As Venezuela and Quito seceded from Greater Colombia in 1830, only New Granada remained in the regime. In 1831 the regime was renamed New Granada.

Venezuela (1830.1.13- )

Upon independence from Greater Colombia in 1830, Venezuela came under the prolonged rule of the Conservative Party, whose rule was succeeded by the dictatorship of the Monagas Family between 1847 and 1858. Between 1870 and 1935 Venezuela was under the prolonged rule of two parties successively - Liberal Party (1870-1899) and Liberal Resotration Party (1899-1935). The 20th century saw the emergence of two dictators - Gomez (1908-1935) and Jimenez (1948-1958). As the military rule came to an end in 1959, democracy began to take root in Venezuela, with the Democratic Action and the Social Christian Party ruling alternately between 1959 and 1999.

*Conservative Party [PC] 1830.1.13-1847.1.20
*Liberal Party [PL] 1847.3.1-1851.1.20
*PL 1851.2.5-1855.1.20
*PL 1855.1.31-1858.3.15
*Centralist (i.e. PC) 1858.3.15-1861.5.20
*Federalist (i.e. PL) 1861.9.10-1868.6.27
*PL 1868.6.28-1869.3.8
*Unitarian 1869.3.8-1870.3.20
*PL 1870.4.27-1878.11.30
*PL 1879.2.13-1894.2.28
*PL 1894.3.14-1898.2.20
*PL 1898.2.28-1899.10.20
*Liberal Resotration Party 1899.10.23-1935.12.17
*Democratic Party 1943-1945.10.19
*Democratic Action [AD] 1945.10.19-1948.11.24
*AD 1959.2.13-1969.3.11
*Social Christian Party [COPEI] 1969.3.11-1974.3.12
*AD 1974.3.12-1979.3.12
*COPEI 1979.3.12-1984.2.2
*AD 1984.2.2-1993.5.21
*AD 1994.2.2-1999.2.2
*Movement for the Fifth Republic [MVR] 1999.2.2-2002.4.12
*MVR 2002.4.14-2007.10
*United Socialist Party (developed from MVR) 2007.10-

Southern Colombia-Ecuador (1830.5.13- )

In 1830 Quito seceded from Greater Colombia and established this regime whose name was changed to Ecuador in the same year. Between 1830 and 1895 the country was basically under the alternate rule of the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party. But the party politics was characterized by political turmoil and the dictatorial rule of Garcia during the period of 1859-1875. From 1916 onwards, real power was held by the plutocracy of the Commercial and Agricultural Bank. With the military seizing power in 1925, Ecuador entered a period of political turmoil (only the period between 1948 and 1960 was relatively stable). In 1963 the military seized power again and Ecuador was under military rule for several times. Civilian rule was not restored until 1979.

*Conservative Party [PC] 1830.9.22-1834.9.10
*Liberal Party [PL] 1834.9.10-1839.1.31
*PC 1839.1.31-1845.6.18
*PL 1845.6.18-1859.9.17
*PC 1859.9.17-1875.12.9
*PC 1876.12.19-1883.7.9
*Progressive Party 1884.2.10-1895.4.16
*Radical Liberal Party [PLR] (split from PL) 1895.8.23-1901.9.1
*PL 1901.9.1-1906.1.16
*Republican Union [UR] 1906.1.16-1911.8.12
*PL 1911.9.1-.12.22
*PL 1912.9.1-1925.7.9
*Anti-Liberal 1926.4.1-1931.8.24
*UR 1932.12.5-1933.10.20
*Democratic Alliance [AD] 1934.9.1-1935.8.21
*PL 1938.8.10-1939.11.17
*PLR 1940.9.1-1944.5.29
*AD 1944.5.31-1947.8.23
*PC 1947.9.2-..15
*PL 1948.9.1-1952.9.1
*National Velasquista Federation [FNV] 1952.9.1-1956.9.1
*FNV 1960.9.1-1961.11.7
*National Revolutionary Party 1961.11.7-1963.7.11
*Democratic Institutional Coalition 1966.11.16-1968.9.1
*FNV 1968.9.1-1972.2.15
*Concert of the Popular Forces 1979.8.10-1981.5.24
*Popular Democracy [DP] 1981.5.24-1984.8.10
*Social-Christian Party 1984.8.10-1988.8.10
*Democratic Left 1988.8.10-1992.8.10
*Republican Union Party 1992.8.10-1996.8.10
*Roldosist Party 1996.8.10-1997.2.6
*Alfarista Radical Front [FRA] 1997.2.6-..9
*FRA 1997.2.11-1998.1
*Alfarista Union (developed from FRA) 1998.1-.8.10
*DP 1998.8.10-2000.1.21
*DP 2000.1.22-2003.1.15
*Party Patriotic Society 21 January 2003.1.15-2005.4.20
*DP 2005.4.20-2007.1.15
*Country Alliance 2007.1.15-

New Granada-Granada-Colombia (1831.11.21- )

In 1831 Greater Colombia was renamed New Granada. With the promulgation of a new constitution in 1858, the country's name was changed to Granadine Confederation and the constituent states gained the status of sovereign states. In 1861 the federal system was adopted and the country's name was further changed to Colombia. Between 1861 and 1930 Colombia was under the prolonged rule of two parties successively - Liberal Party (1861-1884) and National Party (1886-1930). From 1930 onwards, a two-party system was gradually established, with the Liberal Party (PL) and the Social Conservative Party (PCS) ruling alternately. Party politics was suspended in 1953 after a coup staged by General Rojas, who was overthrown in 1957. Between 1958 and 1974 the country was jointly ruled by PCS and PL through the formation of the National Front. With the dissolution of the National Front in 1974, Colombia came under the alternate rule of PL and PCS.

*Federalist 1832.10.7-1837.4.1
*Moderate Liberal Party [PLM] 1837.4.1-1841.4.1
*PLM 1841.5.2-1848
*Social Conservative Party [PCS] (previously PLM) 1848-1849.4.1
*Liberal Party [PL] 1849.4.1-1854.4.17
*PCS 1857.4.1-1861.4.1
*PL 1861.7.18-1863.2.4
*Radical Liberal Party 1863.2.4-..9
*PL 1863.2.9-1884.4.1
*PL 1884.8.11-1885
*National Party [PN] (formed by the merger of PL-Independent Faction and PC) 1885-1904.8.7
*PCS (previously PN) 1904.8.7-1930.8.7
*PL 1930.8.7-1946.8.7
*PCS 1946.8.7-1953.6.13
*National Front (formed by PL and PCS) 1958.8.7-1974.8.7
*PL 1974.8.7-1982.8.7
*PCS 1982.8.7-1986.8.7
*PL 1986.8.7-1998.8.7
*PCS 1998.8.7-2002.8.7
*Colombia First 2006.8.7-2010.8.7
*Social Party of National Unity 2010.8.7-

Panama-State of the Isthmus (1840.11.18-1841.12.31)

In 1840 Panama seceded from New Granada. In 1841 the country's name was changed to the State of the Isthmus, which was reincorporated into New Granada in the same year.

Panama (1903.11.4- )

In 1903 Panama declared independence from Colombia. Between 1968 and 1981 real power was held by General Torrijos. As General Noriega came into power in 1983, there was much conflict between the military and the civilian government. Noriega's rule was finally overthrown when USA invaded Panama in 1989. Between 1989 and 2009, Panama was ruled by the Arnulfist Party and the Revolutionary Democratic Party alternately.

*Conservative Party 1903.11.4-1910.3.1
*Liberal Party [PL] 1910.10.5-1918.6.3
*PL 1920.10.1-1932.6.5
*Doctrinary Liberal Party 1932.6.5-1936.10.1
*National Liberal Party [PLN] 1936.10.1-1939.12.16
*National Revolutionary Party [PNR] 1940.10.1-1941.10.9
*PL 1945.6.15-1949.11.20
*PLN 1949.11.20-..24
*Authenitc Revolutionary Party 1949.11.24-1952.10.1
*National Patriotic Coalition 1952.10.1-1960.10.1
*PLN 1960.10.1-1968.10.1
*Panamenista Party [PP] (previously PNR) 1968.10.1-..11
*Revolutionary Democratic Party [PRD] 1979.9-1981.8.1
*Arnulfist Party [PA] (split from PP) 1989.12.20-1994.9.1
*PRD 1994.9.1-1999.9.1
*PA 1999.9.1-2004.9.1
*PRD 2004.9.1-2009.7.1
*Democratic Change 2009.7.1-2014.7.1
*PP 2014.9.1-


Paraguay (1811.5.15- )

Upon independence from Spain in 1811, Paraguay joined the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. In 1813 this province seceded from Rio de la Plata. Thereafter, Paraguay came under the dictatorial rule of Francia (1814-1840) and the Lopez Family (1841-1870) successively. Between 1880 and 1940 Paraguay was under the prolonged rule of two parties successively - Republican National Alliance (ANR) (1887-1904) and Liberal Party (1904-1940). In 1948 ANR came to power again, with Stroessner assuming dictatorial power in 1954. Despite the overthrow of Stroessner in 1989, ANR remained in power until 2008.

*People's Club 1878.11.25-1887.9.11
*Republican National Alliance [ANR] (commonly known as Colorado Party, developed from People's Club) 1887.9.11-1904.12.19
*Liberal Party [PL] (commonly known as Azule Party) 1904.12.19-1936.2.17
*Revolutionary National Union (commonly known as February Revolutionary Party 1936.2.20-1937.8.15
*PL 1937.8.16-1940.9.7
*ANR 1948.8.15-2008.8.15
*Christian Democratic Party 2008.8.15-2012.6.22
*Authentic Radical Liberal Party 2012.6.22-2013.8.15
*ANR 2013.8.15-

Bolivia (1825.8.11- )

In 1825 Upper Peru declared independence from Spain and established this regime. Upon independence Bolivia was under military rule. Party politics began to develop from 1880 onwards. In 1930 military rule was resumed. In 1952 the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR) staged a revolution and seized power. With the collapse of the MNR government in a military coup in 1964, Bolivia entered a period of political turmoil and a number of military governments arose. Democratic system was not restored until 1982.

*Populist Party [PP] 1848.1.6-..18
*PP 1848.12.6-1857.10.21
*Liberal Party [PL] 1871.1.15-1872.11.27
*PL 1872.11.28-1873.5.9
*PL 1874.2.14-1876.5.4
*Conservative Party 1880.1.19-1899.4.12
*PL 1899.4.12-1920.7.12
*Republican Party [PR] 1920.7.12-1930.5.28
*PR 1931.3.5-1934.11.27
*PL 1934.11.28-1936.5.17
*Socialist Republican Union Party 1947.3.10-1951.5.16
*Nationalist Revolutionary Movement [MNR] 1952.4.11-1964.11.4
*Revolutionary Front 1966.8.6-1969.9.26
*Nationalist Revolutionary Left Movement (split from MNR) 1982.10.10-1985.8.6
*MNR 1985.8.6-1989.8.6
*Movement of Revolutionary Left 1989.8.6-1993.8.6
*MNR 1993.8.6-1997.8.6
*Nationalist Democratic Alliance 1997.8.6-2002.8.6
*MNR 2002.8.6-2003.10.17
*Movement Towards Socialism 2006.1.22-

Peru (1821.7.28- )

Declaring independence from Spain in 1821, Peru came under military rule. In 1836 Bolivia partitioned Peru into North-Peruvian State and South Peruvian State. Upon reunification, Peru came under military rule again. From 1895 onwards party politics began to take shape in Peru. But a series of military governments came to power in the period between 1948 and 1980. Civilian rule was not restored until 1980.

*Civilista Party [PC] 1872.8.2-1876.8.2
*National Party 1879.12.23-1881.3.12
*Democratic Party [PD] 1895.9.8-1899.9.8
*PC 1899.9.8-1904.5.7
*PC 1904.9.24-1908.9.24
*Democratic Reformist Party [PDR] 1908.9.24-1912.9.24
*PD 1912.9.24-1914.2.4
*PC 1915.8.18-1919.7.4
*PDR 1919.7.4-1930.8.25
*American Revolutionary People's Alliance [APRA] 1931.12.8-1933.4.30
*Conservative Coalition 1939.12.8-1945.7.28
*National Dmocration Front 1945.7.28-1948.10.29
*Restoration Party 1950.7.28-1956.7.28
*Pradista Democratic Movement 1956.7.28-1962.7.18
*People's Action [AP] 1963.7.28-1968.10.3
*AP 1980.7.28-1985.7.28
*APRA 1985.7.28-1990.7.28
*Alliance Change 1990 1990.7.28-2000.11.22
*AP 2000.11.22-2001.7.28
*Possible Peru 2001.7.28-2006.7.28
*APRA 2006.7.28-2011.7.28
*Nationalist Party 2011.7.28-2016.7.28
*Peruvians for Change 2016.7.28-

Southern Cone Region

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1810.5.25-1831.12)

In 1810 the provinces of Rio de la Plata declared independence from Spain and established this confederation. Later the provinces split into the Centrist bloc and Federalist bloc and a civil war broke out in 1830. Being defeated in 1831, the Centrist provinces were forced to join the Argentine Confederation formed by the Federalist provinces and this regime was dissolved.

*Unitarian 1826.2.8-1827.8.9
*Conciliator 1827.8.9-..17

Argentina (1831.1.4- )

In 1831 the Federalist provinces formed a confederation. Between 1835 and 1852 the provinces were under the control of de Rosas, Governor of Buenos Aires. In 1860 the confederative system was abolished. With the unification of the whole country in 1862, the civil war came to an end and party politics began to take shape in the country. From 1943 onwards, Argentina was in political turmoil and a number of military governments emerged. Democracy was restored in 1983. Argentina was ruled by the Radical Civic Union and the Justicalist Party alternately between 1983 and 2015.

*Federalist 1851.9.20-1861.11.5
*Liberal 1862.10.12-1874.10.12
*Civic Union [UC] 1874.10.12-1886.10.12
*National Autonomist Party 1886.10.12-1892.10.12
*UC 1892.10.12-1895.1.23
*Autonomist 1895.1.23-1904.10.12
*Conservative Party 1904.10.12-1916.10.12
*Radical Civic Union [UCR] (commonly known as Radical Party, split from UC) 1916.10.12-1930.9.6
*Concordancista Party 1932.2.20-1938.2.20
*UCR 1938.2.20-1943.6.4
*Labor Party [PL] 1946.6.4-1947.7
*United Party for National Revolution [UNR] (developed from PL) 1947.7-.12
*Peronist Party [PP] (previously UNR) 1947.12-1955.9.21
*Civic Radical Union-Intransigente (split from UCR) 1958.5.1-1963.10.12
*Radical Civic Union of the People [UCP] (split from UCR) 1963.10.12-1966.6.28
*Justicalist Party [PJ] (previously PP) 1973.5.25-1976.3.24
*UCR (previously UCP) 1983.12.10-1989.7.8
*PJ 1989.7.8-1999.12.10
*UCR 1999.12.10-2001.12.21
*PJ 2001.12.23-2015.12.10
*Republican Proposal 2015.12.10-

Chile (1810.9.18-1814.10.2; 1818.1.12- )

1. Government of the Republic (1810.9.18-1814.10.2; 1818.1.12- )

In 1810 revolution broke out in Chile and the revolutionaries established this regime, which was crushed by Spain in 1814. In 1818 Chile declared independence from Spain again. Between 1823 and 1891 Chile was basically ruled by the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party alternately. From 1891 onwards real power was held by the Congress dominated by the Conservatives. In 1925 the President resumed power. After Pinochet staged a coup in 1973, Chile came under dictatorial rule until 1990, when civilian rule was restored. But Pinochet continued to hold the military power until 1998. Thereafter democracy was gradually restored in Chile.

*Liberal Party [PL] 1823.4.5-.8.13
*PL 1823.9.2-1826.7.9
*PL 1827.2.1 -1829.7.16
*PL 1829.10.19-.11.2
*PL 1829.11.7-..13
*PL 1829.12.7-.12.24
*Conservative Party [PC] 1829.12.24-1830.2.18
*PC 1831.9.18-1871.9.18
*PL 1871.9.18-1891.8.28
*PC 1891.8.28-1925.1.27
*PL 1925.1.27-1927.5.10
*Radical Party [PR] 1931.12.4-1932.6.4
*PL 1932.12.24-1938.12.24
*PR 1938.12.24-1941.11.25
*PR 1942.4.2-1946.6.27
*PR 1946.11.3-1952.11.3
*Popular Liberating Alliance 1952.11.3-1958.11.3
*PC 1958.11.3-1964.11.3
*Christian Democratic Party [PDC] 1964.11.3-1970.11.3
*Socialist Party [PS] 1970.11.3-1973.9.11
*PDC 1990.3.11-2000.3.11
*Party for Democracy 2000.3.11-2006.3.11
*PS 2006.3.11-2010.3.11
*National Renewal 2010.3.11-2014.3.11
*PS 2014.3.11-

2. Socialist Republic (1932.6.4-.9.13)

Established by the leftist generals in 1932 and toppled by the rightist generals in the same year.

*PS 1932.6.4-.9.13

Provincia Oriental del Rio de la Plata-Montevideo-Uruguay (1825.8.25- )

In 1825 Provincia Oriental del Rio de la Plata declared independence from Brazil and joined the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. In 1828 this province seceded from Rio de la Plata and established the State of Montevideo, which was renamed Uruguay in 1830. Between 1830 and 1868 Uruguay was under the alternate rule of the National Party and the Colorado Party. But the political situation was unstable. Between 1868 and 1952 the Colorado Party was in power. After a self-coup initiated by President Terra in 1933, dictatorial rule was established. Democracy was restored in 1938. In 1952 the Presidency was replaced by a National Council of Government in which the Colorado Party and the National Party shared power. But the country reverted to the presidential system in 1967. Democracy was once again suspended after a military coup in 1976. Democracy was restored in 1985 and Uruguay was again under the alternate rule of the Colorado Party and the National Party between 1985 and 2005.

*Colorado Party [PC] 1830.11.6-1834.10.24
*National Party [PN] (commonly known as Blanco Party) 1835.3.1-1838.10.24
*PC 1838.11.11-1839.2.28
*PC 1839.3.25-1843.3.1
*PN 1843.2.16-1851.10.8
*PC 1843.3.1-1852.2.15
*PN 1852.3.1-1853.9.24
*PC 1854.3.12-1855.9.10
*PC 1860.3.1-1864.3.1
*PN 1865.2.20-1868.2.15
*PC 1868.3.1-1875.1.15
*PC 1879.3.1-1952.3.1
*Power shared by PC and PN 1952.3.1-1967.3.1
*PC 1967.3.1-1976.7.13
*PC 1985.3.1-1990.3.1
*PN 1990.3.1-1995.3.1
*PC 1995.3.1-2005.3.1
*Broad Front Union 2005.3.1-

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