Great Lake Region
Ruanda-Rwanda (c.1350- )
Founded in c.1350. In 1960 the Hutus seized powers and abolished the monarchical system in 1961, since when the country's name was changed to Rwanda. Between 1973 and 1994 the country was ruled by Habyarimana, who formed the Revolutionary Movment for National Development in 1975 and exercised one-party rule in 1978. A multi-party system was introduced in 1991. But in 1994 Habyarimana was overthrown by the Patriotic Front.
*Accociation for the Social Betterment of the Masses 1960.10.18-1961.1.28
*Party for the Hutu Emacipation Movement 1961.1.28-1973.7.5
*Revolutionary Movment for National Development [MRND] 1975.7-1991.4
*Repulican Movment for National Democracy and Development (previously MRND) 1991.4-1994.4.6
*Patriotic Front 1994.7.19-
Founded in c.1400. In 1955 a constitutional monarchical system was adopted. In 1962 the country was incorporated into Uganda in 1962.
Urundi-Burundi (c.1650- )
Founded in c.1650, Urundi became a constitutional monarchy in 1962. After a coup staged by Micombero, the Prime Minister, in 1966, the monarchy was abolished and the country's name was changed to Burundi, which was under the one-party rule of the Union of National Progress. In 1992 a multi-party system was introduced but the country was in political turmoil thereafter.
*Union of National Progress [UPRONA] 1962-1993.7.10
*Front for the Democracy in Burundi [FRODEBU] 1993.7.10-.10.21
*National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy 2005.8.26-
Founded in 1856. Zanzibar gained independence and became a constitutional monarchy in 1963. In 1964 the monarchical system was abolished and Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
*Zanzibar and Pemba People's Party-Zanzibar Nationalist Party 1963.12.10-1964.1.12
*Afro-Shirazi Party 1964.1.12-.4.26
Tanganyika declared independence from Britain in 1961. From 1962 onwards, Nyerere was in power until 1985. In 1964 Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
*African National Union 1961.12.9-1964.4.26
Tanganyika and Zanzibar-Tanzania (1964.4.26- )
In 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form this regime, whose name was changed to Tanzania in the same year. Initially, the African National Union and the Afro-Shirazi Party were the ruling parties of their respective territory. In 1977 the two parties merged to form the Revolutionary State Party (CCM) and exercised one-party rule. Despite the introduction of a multi-party system in 1992, CCM remained in power.
*Tanganyika and Zanzibar ruled by African National Union [TANU] and Afro-Shirazi Party [ASP], respectively 1964.4.26-1977.2.5
*Revolutionary State Party (formed by the merger of TANU and ASP) 1977.2.5-
Uganda (1962.10.9- )
In 1962 Uganda declared independence from Britain. Between 1969 and 1971 Uganda was under the one-party rule of the People's Congress, whose rule was toppled by General Amin in 1917 and was succeeded by Amin's dictatorial rule between 1971 and 1979. In 1979 Amin was overthrown by the National Resistance Movement. But then Uganda was torn by internal strife.
*People's Congress [UPC] 1962.10.9-1971.1.25
*National Liberation Front 1979.4.13-1980.5.22
*National Resistance Movement 1986.1.26-
Kenya (1963.12.12- )
Upon independence from Britain in 1963, Kenya came under the successive rule of two strongmen: Kenyatta (1964-1978) and Moi (1978-2002), who ruled through the African National Union (KANU). KANU became the only legal party in 1982. In 1991 a multi-party system was introduced. But KANU remained in power until 2002.
*African National Union 1963.12.12-2002.12.30
*Democratic Party [DP] 2002.12.30-
*Party of National Unity [PNU] (developed from DP) 2007.9.16-2013.4.9
*The National Alliance (split from PNU) 2013.4.9-
[West] Congo (1958.11.28- )
In 1958 French Congo became an autonomous republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1964 and 1990 the country was under the one-party rule of the National Revolutionary Movement. But the political scene was unstable and there were several military coups. Despite the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990, the political scene remained unstable and the country was torn by internal strife.
*Democratic Union for the Defence of African Interests 1960.8.15-1963.8.15
*National Revolutionary Movement [MNR] 1964.7-1969.12.31
*Labour Party [PCT] (previously MNR) 1969.12.31-1992.8.31
*Union for Development and Social Progress 1992.8.31-1997.10.15
Gabon (1958.11.28- )
In 1958 Gabon became an autonomous republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1964 and 1990 the country was under the one-party rule of the Democratic Bloc. President Bongo was in power between 1967 and 2009. Despite the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990, the Democratic Party remained in power.
*Democratic Bloc [BDG] 1958.11.28-1964.2.17
*Democratic and Social League 1964.2.18-..19
*Democratic Party (previously BDG) 1968.3-
[East] Congo-Zaire (1960.6.30- )
1. Central Government (1960.6.30- )
In 1960 Belgain Congo declared independence from Belgium and established this regime. Civil war broke out in the same year. With the regional independence movements suppressed in 1963, the Central Government reunified the country. In 1965 [East] Congo came under the dictatorial rule of Mobutu, who established the one-party rule of the Popular Revolutionary Movement. In 1971 the country's name was changed to Zaire. In 1990 a multi-party system was introduced. But in 1997, when Mobutu was overthrown by the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL). The country was then renamed [East] Congo and one-party rule restored. In 2003, as AFDL finally concluded a peace agreement with the opposition parties, one-party rule was put to an end.
*Association of the Bakongo People [commonly known as ABAKO] 1960.6.30-1965.11.25
*Popular Revolutionary Movement 1967.5-1997.5.16
*Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo 1997.5.17-2002.3.31
*People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy 2002.3.31-2019.1.24
*Democratic Union for the Social Progress 2019.1.24-
2. First Stanleyville Government (1960.12.13-1961.8.5)
Established by Gizenga, leader of the left wing, in Stanleyville in 1960. Dissolved in 1961 when Gizenga paid allegiance to the Central Government.
*National Movement-Lumumba Faction [MNC-L] 1960.12.13-1961.8.5
3. Second Stanleyville Government (1964.9.7-1965.12.8)
Reestablished by the National Movement-Lumumba Faction in 1964. Toppled by the USA and Belgium in 1965.
In 1960 Tshombe, President of Katanga Province under [East] Congo, declared independence of the province. In 1963 the regime was toppled by the United Nations Army and Katanga reverted to [East] Congo.
*Confederation of Tribal Associations 1960.7.11-1963.1.21
South Kasai (1960.8.8-1961.12.30)
In 1960 Kalonji, President of South Kasai Province under [East] Congo, declared independence of the province. In 1961 the regime was destroyed by [East] Congo.
*National Movement-Kalonji Faction 1960.8.8-1961.7.14
Equatorial Guinea (1968.10.12- )
In 1968 Equatorial Guinea declared independence from Spain. Between 1970 and 1979 the country was under the one-party rule of the National United Party, which was supplanted by General Obiang in 1979. With the formation of the Democratic Party (PDGE) in 1987, one-party rule was restored. Despite the introduction of a multi-party system in 1991, PDGE remained in power.
*National United Party [PUN] 1970.7-1972.7
*Worker's National United Party (previously PUN) 1972.7-1979.8.3
*Democratic Party 1987.10.11-
Sao Tome and Principe (1975.7.12- )
Upon independence from Portugal in 1975, Sao Tome came under the one-party rule of the Liberation Movement. In 1990 a multi-party system was introduced.
*Liberation Movement [MLSTP] 1975.7.12-1990.10
*Liberation Movement-Democratic Socialist Party (previously MLSTP) 1990.10-1991.4.3
*Independent Democratic Action [ADI] 1994-1995.8.15
In 1975 the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda unilaterally declared independence of Cabina from Portugal. In 1976 the regime was destroyed by Angola and Cabina was incorporated into Angola.
*Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda 1975.8.1-1976.1
Angola (1975.11.11- )
1. Central Government (1975.11.11- )
Upon independence from Portugal in 1975, Angola came under the one-party rule of the Popular Liberation Movement. Since 1979, J.E. dos Santos has been in power. Despite the introduction of a multi-party system in 1991, the Popular Liberation Movement-Labour Party remained in power.
*Popular Liberation Movement [MPLA] 1975.11.11-1977.12
*Popular Liberation Movement-Labour Party (previously MPLA) 1977.12-
2. National Revolutionary Council (1975.11.11-1976.2.11)
Established by the National Front for the Liberation of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola in opposition to the Central Government in 1975. Crushed by the joint forces of the Central Government and Cuba in 1976.
*Alliance formed by he National Front for the Liberation of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 1975.11.11-1976.2.11
Malawi (1964.7.6- )
In 1964 Malawi declared independence from Britain. After independence, Malawi came under the prolonged rule of Banda (-1994), who installed a one-party system dominated by the Malawi Congress Party in 1966. A multi-party system was introduced in 1993.
*Malawi Congress Party 1964.7.6-1994.5.21
*United Democratic Front [UDF] 1994.5.21-2005.2
*Democratic Progressive Party [DPP] (split from UDF) 2005.2-2012.4.5
*People's Party [PP] (split from DPP) 2012.4.7-2014.5.31
Zambia (1964.10.24- )
In 1964 Zambia declared independence from Britain. After independence, Zambia came under the prolonged rule of Kaunda (-1991), who installed a one-party system dominated by the United National Independence Party was established. A multi-party system was introduced in 1990.
*United National Independence Party [UNIP] 1964.10.24-1991.11.2
*Movement for Multi-party Democracy [MMD] 1991.11.2-2008.6.29
*Patriotic Front (split from MMD) 2011.9.23-
Rhodesia-Zimbabwe (1965.11.11-1979.12.12¡F1980.4.18- )
In 1965 the colonial government of Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence from Britain and exercised racist rule in the country. With the implementation of the "internal settlement" agreement, the country's name was changed to Zimbabwe-Rhodesia and a Black majority government was formed without international recognition. In the same year independenc was renounced and the country returned to colonial status. Independence was finally granted in 1980 and the country's name was changed to Zimbabwe, with the Black majority rule established. Since independence the African National Union has been in power.
*Rhodesian Front 1965.11.11-1979.6.1
*United African Congress 1979.6.1-.12.12
*African National Union [ZANU] 1980.4.18-1989.12
*African National Union-Patriotic Front (developed from ZANU) 1989.12-
Mozambique (1975.6.25- )
1. Central Government (1975.6.25- )
Upon independence from Portugal in 1975, Mozambique came under the one-party rule of the Liberation Front. In 1990 a multi-party system was introduced but the Liberation Front Party remained in power since then.
*Liberation Front [FRELIMO] 1975.6.25-1977.2
*Liberation Front Party (previously FRELIMO) 1977.2-
2. National Resistance Government (1976-1992.10.9)
Established by the National Resistance in opposition to the Central Government in 1976. Dissolved in 1992 when the National Resistance concluded a peace settlement with the Central Government.
*National Resistance 1976-1992.10.9
Swazi-Swaziland (c.1820- )
Founded in c.1820. A constitutional system was installed in 1963 when a constitution was granted by the British colonial government. In 1968 Swazi gained independence from Britain, with the country's name changed to Swaziland. Upon independence, a constitutional monarchical system was adopted. In 1973 King Sobhuza II resumed absolute powers.
*Imbokodvo National Movement 1967.5.16-1976.3.31
Basuto-Lesotho (1822- )
Founded in 1822, Basuto gained independence from Britain in 1968, with the country's name changed to Lesotho. Upon independence, a constitutional monarchical system was adopted. Between 1966 and 1986 Lesotho was under the dictatorship of Prime Minister Jonathan, whose rule was replaced by military rule in 1986. Civilian rule was not resumed until 1993. Since then, the parliamentary cabinet system was established gradually.
*Basuto National Party 1966.10.4-1986.1.20
*Basuto Congress Party [BCP] 1993.4.2-1994.8.17
*Congress for Democracy [LCD] (split from BCP) 1997.6-2012.6.8
*All Basotho Convention [ABC] (split from LCD) 2012.6.8-2014.8.30; 2014.9.3-2015.3.17
*Democratic Congress (split from LCD) 2015.3.17-2017.6.16
Established in 1838. Destroyed by Britain in 1843.
In 1854 Orange River Sovereignty declared independence from Britain and established the Orange Free State, which was destroyed by Britain in 1902.
South Africa-Transvaal (1856.12.16-1877.4.12; 1881.8.8-1902.5.31)
Established in 1856. Dissolved in 1877 and returned to the status of a British colony in 1877, with the name changed to Transvaal. In 1881 Transvaal declared independence from Britain and changed its name back to South Africa in 1884. The country was destroyed by Britain in 1902.
Established in 1882. Conquered by Britain and incorporated into the Cape Colony in 1885.
Established in 1883. Conquered by Britain and incorporated into the Cape Colony in 1885.
South Africa (1910.5.31- )
Established as a racist regime by Britain in 1910. Between 1910 and 1934 the country was ruled by the South Africa Party and the National Party (NP) alternately. In 1931 full independence was granted. From 1948 onwards South Africa was under the prolonged rule of NP. In 1994 the racist policy was finally abandoned and a Black majority government was established. Since then, South Africa was under the prolonged rule of the African National Congress.
*South Africa Party [SAP] 1910.5.31-1924.6.30
*National Party [NP] 1924.6.30-1934
*United Party [UP] (formed by the merger of SAP and NP) 1934-1948.6.4
*NP (split from UP) 1948.6.4-1994.5.10
*African National Congress 1994.5.10-
Botswana (1966.9.30- )
Upon independence from Britain in 1966, Botswana has been under the prolonged rule of the Democratic Party.
*Democratic Party 1966.9.30-
Installed by South Africa in 1976. Reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
*National Independence Party 1976.10.26-1987
Installed by South Africa in 1977. Reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
*Democratic Party 1977.12.6-1994.3.13
Installed by South Africa in 1979. Between 1986 and 1990 the country was under the one-party rule of the National Party. The country was finally reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
*National Party 1979.9.13-1990.4.5
Installed by South Africa in 1982. Reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
*National Independence Party 1981.12.4-1990.3.4
Namibia (1990.3.21- )
Upon independence in 1990, Namibia has been under the prolonged rule of the South West African People's Organization.
*South West African People's Organization 1990.3.21-
Islands on Western Indian Ocean
Malagasy-Madagascar (1958.10.14- )
Malagasy became an autonomous republic of France in 1958. Upon independence in 1960, the country came under the prolonged rule of the Social Democratic Party. After the military seized power in 1972, military rule was established. In 1975 Ratsiraka seized power and renamed the country as Madagascar. With the formation of the Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution in 1976, ohe-party rule was established. A multi-party system was introduced in 1990.
*Social Democratic Party [PSD] 1958.10.14-1970.1
*Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution [AREMA] 1976.3.19-1993.2
*Pillar and Structure for the Salvation of Madagascar [AREM] (previously AREMA) 1993.2-.3.27
*National Union for Development and Democracy 1993.3.27-1996.9.5
*I Love Madagascar Party 2002.7.5-2009.3.17
*Young Malagasies Determined [TGV] 2009.3.17-2014.1.25
*New Forces for Madagascar 2014.1.25-2019.1.18
Comoros (1975.7.6- )
After gaining independence from France in 1975, Comoros has been in political turmoil. Between 1983 and 1989 the country was under the one-party rule of the Union for Progress. The introduction of a multi-party system in 1990 brought political instability to the country again.
*Democratic Union [UDC] 1975.7.6-.8.3
*United National Front [UNF] 1975.8.3-1976.1.3
*Democratic Assembly of the Comoran People 1976.1.3-1978.5.13
*Union for Progress [UCP] (commonly known as Oudzima) 1983.5-1989.11.26
*National Rally for Democracy 1996.3.25-.10.6
*National Rally for Development (formed by the merger of the National Rally for Democracy and UCP) 1996.10.6-1998.11.6
*Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros [CRC] 2002.5.26-2006.5.26
*Baobab Coalition 2006.5.26-2016.5.26
Mauritius (1968.3.12- )
Upon independence from Britain in 1968, Mauritius has been basically under the alternate rule of Labour Party and the Militant Movement.
*Labour Party [PTr] 1968.3.12-1982.6.16
*Militant Movement (MMM) 1982.6.16-1983.4.8
*Militant Socialist Movement [MSM] (split from MMM) 1983.4.8-1995.12.22
Seychelles (1976.6.29- )
Seychelles declared independence from Britain in 1976. Between 1979 and 1991 the country was under the one-party rule of the Progressive Front of the Seychelles People (FPPS). Despite the introduction of a multi-party system in 1991, FPPS remained in power.
*Democratic Party 1976.6.29-1977.6.5
*People's Unity Party [SPUP] 1977.6.5-1978.6
*Progressive Front of the Seychelles People [SPPF] (previously SPUP) 1978.6-2009.6
*People's Party (previously SPPF) 2009.6-
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