NORTHEAST EUROPE


Russia

Russia (1547.1.16-1922.12.30)

Founded in 1547. A constitutional reform was carried out in 1905-1907. In the wake of the February Revolution in 1917, the monarchical system was abolished. In the same year the Social Democratic Labour Party-Bolshevik (RSDLP-B) staged the October Revolution and established the soviet government. In 1918 RSDLP-B was restructured as the Communist Party and exercised one-party rule. In 1922 Russia was amalgamated with Ukraine, Byelorussia and Transcaucasus to form USSR.

*Constitutional Democrat Party 1917.3.16-.7.21
*Socialist Revolutionary Party 1917.7.21-.11.8
*Social Democratic Labour Party-Bolshevik [RSDLP-B] 1917.11.8-1918.3
*Communist Party (Bolshevik) (previously RSDLP-B) 1918.3-1922.12.30

Ukraine (1917.11.20-1922.12.30)

1. Rada Government (1917.11.20-1921.5.7)

In 1917, Ukrainian nationalists convened the Central Rada and establised this government, which was overthrown by the Soviet Government in 1921.

*Socialist Revolutionary Party [USRP] 1917.11.20-1918.4.29
*Social Democratic Worker's Party-Menshevik 1918.12.14-1919.2.11
*USRP 1919.2.11-1921.5.7

2. Soviet Government (1917.12.25-1922.12.30)

Established by the Social Democratic Worker's Party-Bolshevik in 1917, this government defeated the Rada Government and unified Eastern Ukraine in 1921. One-party rule was then established in Ukraine. But the country was incorporated into USSR in 1922.

*Social Democratic Worker's Party-Bolshevik [USDRP-B] 1917.12.25-1918
*Communist Party (previously USDRP-B) 1918-1922.12.30

Byelorussia (1918.3.9-1919.2.27)

In 1918 the Byelorussian nationalists convened the Byelorussian Rada and established this government. In 1919 the Communists toppled the Rada government and established the soviet government and one-party rule. In the same year Byelorussia amalgamated with Lithuania to form Lithuania-Byelorussia.

*Communist Party 1919.1.1-.2.27

Byelorussia (1919.12.13-1922.12.30)

Restored by the Byelorussian Rada in 1919. With the Rada government toppled by Russia in 1920, the soviet government and one-party rule were restored. In 1922 Byelorussia was incorporated into USSR.

*Communist Party 1920.8.1-1922.12.30

USSR (1922.12.30-1991.12.25)

Established with the merger of Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Transcaucasus in 1922, this regime was under the one-party rule of the Communist Party, with Stalin being in power between 1924 and 1953. In 1990, the one-party system was replaced by a multi-party system. The Communists lost power and USSR disintegrated in 1991.

*Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) [RCP] 1922.12.30-1925.12.18
*All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) [AUCP] (previously RCP) 1925.12.18-1952.10.5
*Communist Party of the Soviet Union (previously AUCP) 1952.10.5-1991.8.23

Ukraine (1991.8.24- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Ukraine declared independence in 1991.

*National Movement 1991.8.24-1994.7.19
*People's Union Our Ukraine [NSNU] 2005.1.23-2009.7
*Our Ukraine (previously NSNU) 2009.7-2010.2.25
*Party of Regions 2010.2.25-.3.10

Belarus (1991.8.25- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Byelorussia declared independence and was renamed as Belarus in 1991.

Russia (1991.12.21- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Russia declared independence in 1991.

*United Russia Party 2012.5.7-


Baltic States

Lithuania (c.1240-1795.1.7; 1812.7.1-.12.8; 1918.2.16-1940.8.3; 1990.3.11- )

1. Pre-modern Period (c.1240-1795.1.7; 1812.7.1-.12.8)

Founded in c.1240. After forming a real union with Poland in 1569, Lithuania came under Polish control. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1791, a constitutional monarchical system was adopted. In late 18 century Lithuania (together with Poland) was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia three times and ceased to exist in 1795. In 1812 France occupied Lithuania and restored a government, which was crushed by Russia in the same year.

2. First Republic (1918.2.16-1940.7.21)

Lithuania declared indepedence in 1918. After a coup in 1926, Smetona seized power and established dictatorial rule. Between 1936 and 1940 Lithuania was under the one-party rule of the Nationalist Union. The First Republic finally came to an end in 1940 when USSR invaded Lithuania.

*Party of National Progress 1918.6.11-1919.4.4; 1919.4.6-1920.6.19
*Farmer's Union 1920.6.19-1926.6.7
*Social-Democratic Party [LSDP] 1926.6.8-.12.18
*Nationalist Union (commonly known as Tautininkai) 1926.12.19-1940.6.15

3. Soviet Government (1918.12.16-1919.2.27)

In 1918 the Communists established this government in the region under their control. In 1919 this government merged with Byelorussia to form Lithuania-Byelorussia.

*Communist Party 1918.12.16-1919.2.27

4. Soviet Socialist Republic (1940.7.21-.8.3)

In 1940, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was established and was later annexed by USSR.

5. Second Republic (1990.3.11- )

In 1990 Lithuania declared independence from USSR, which was not recognized by USSR until 1991.

*Reconstruction Movement (commonly known as SAJUDIS) 1990.3.11-1992.12.2
*Democratic Labour Party 1993.3.10-1996.11.27
*Homeland Union-Conservatives [TS-LK] 1996.11.27-2000.10.26
*Liberal Union 2000.10.26-2001.6.20
*LSDP 2001.7.12-2008.11.27
*Homeland Union-Christian Democrats (formerly TS-LK) 2008.11.27-
*LSDP 2012.12.13-2016.12.13
*Peasant and Greens Union 2016.12.13-

Lithuania-Byelorussia (1919.2.27 -.9.1)

Formed by the merger of the Lithuanian Soviet Government and Byelorussia in 1919, with Lithuania being the centre. The regime collapsed in the same year.

*Communist Party 1919.2.27 -.9.1

Estonia (1918.2.24-1940.8.6; 1991.8.20- )

1. First Republic (1918.2.24-1940.7.21)

Estonia gained independence from Russia in 1918. After a coup in 1934, Pats seized power and established dictatorial rule. Between 1935 and 1940 Estonia was under the one-party rule of the Fatherland Union. The First Republic finally came to an end in 1940 when USSR invaded Estonia.

*Labour Party [ETE] 1920.12.21-1921.1.25
*Farmers Union [PK] 1921.1.25-1922.11.21
*ETE 1922.11.21-1923.8.2
*PK 1923.8.2-1924.3.26
*Christian People's Party 1924.3.26-.12.16
*People's Party [ER] 1924.12.16-1925.12.15
*PK 1925.12.15-1927.12.9
*ER 1927.12.9-1928.12.4
*Socialist Workers Party 1928.12.4-1929.7.9
*ETE 1929.7.9-1931.2.12
*PK 1931.2.12-1932.7.19
*United Peasants Party 1932.7.19-.11.1
*National Centre Party (formed by merger of ETE and ER) 1933.5.18-.10.21
*Fatherland Union 1935.2-1940.7.21

2. Soviet Government (1918.11.29-1919.7.5)

Established by the Communists in 1918. Overthrown by the Estonian nationalists in 1919.

*Communist Party 1918.11.29-1919.7.5

3. Soviet Socialist Republic (1940.7.21-.8.6)

In 1940, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was established and was later annexed by USSR.

4. Second Republic (1991.8.20- )

In 1991 Estonia declared independence from USSR.

*Popular Front 1991.8.20-1992.1.30
*Party Pro Patria [RK] 1992.10.21-1994.11.8
*Coalition Party 1995.4.17-1999.3.25
*Pro Patria Union (developed from RK) 1999.3.25-2002.1.28
*Reform Party [Ref] 2002.1.28-2003.4.10
*Union for the Republic 2003.4.10-2005.4.12
*Ref 2005.4.12-2016.11.23
*Centre Party 2016.11.23-

Latvia (1918.11.18-1940.8.5; 1991.8.21- )

1. First Republic (1918.11.18-1940.7.21)

Established in 1918. Between 1934 and 1940, the country was under the dictatorial rule of K. Ulmanis. The First Republic finally came to an end in 1940 when USSR invaded Latvia.

*Farmers' Union [LZS] 1918.11.18-1922
*Democratic Centre Party 1922-1925.11.3; 1925.11.10-1927.3.14; 1927.4.8-1930.4.8
*LZS 1930.4.11-1934.5.15

2. Soviet Government (1918.12.17-1920.1.13)

Established by the Communists in 1918 in opposition to the First Republic, this government collapsed in 1920.

*Communist Party 1918.12.17-1920.1.13

3. Soviet Socialist Republic (1940.7.21-.8.5)

In 1940, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic was established and was later annexed by USSR.

4. Second Republic (1991.8.21- )

In 1991 Latvia declared independence from USSR.

*People's Front 1991.8.21-1993.7.8
*Union Latvia's Way [LC] 1993.7.8-1995.12.21
*Union for Fatherland and Freedom - National Independence Movement 1997.8.7-1998.11.26
*LC 1998.11.26-1999.7.16
*People's Party [TP] 1999.7.16-2000.5.5
*LC 2000.5.5-2002.11.7
*New Era Party [JL] 2002.11.7-2004.3.9
*Green and Farmers Union 2004.3.9-.12.2
*TP 2004.12.2-2007.12.20
*LC 2007.12.20-2009.3.12
*JL 2009.3.12-2011.8.6
*Unity Party (developed from JL) 2011.8.6-2016.2.11
*Liepaja Party 2016.2.11-


Poland

Poland-Warsaw (966-1795.1.7; 1807.7.9-1813.3.14; 1815.6.20-1915.8.5; 1917.1.14-1939.9.28; 1944.7.22- )

Founded in 966. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1791, Poland became a constitutional monarchy. In late 18th century Poland was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia three times and ceased to exist in 1795. In 1807 France established the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in part of the Polish territory. The regime was destroyed by Russia in 1813. In 1815 Russia established the Kingdom of Poland in part of the Polish territory. But the regime was practically under Russian rule. Occupied by Germany and Austria in 1915, Poland regained independence in 1917. After a coup staged by Pilsudski in 1926, Poland came under military dictatorship. In 1939 Poland was partitioned by Germany and USSR and the Polish Government was forced to exile. In 1944, USSR induced the Workers' Party to restore the regime and form a coalition government with members of the Government-in-exile. In 1947 the Workers' Party became the dominant political power. With the merger of the Workers' Party and the Socialist Party to become the United Workers' Party in 1948, one-party rule was established in Poland. After the adoption of a multi-party system and the presidential system in 1948, the political power was held alternately by the right wing and the left wing (represented by the Social Democrats). In 1997 the political system changed to the parliamentary cabinet system.

*Workers' Party [PPR] 1944.7.22-1948.12.20
*United Workers' Party [PZPR] (developed from PPR) 1948.12.20-1989.8.24
*Solidarity 1989.8.24-1991.1.4
*Liberal Democratic Congress 1991.1.4-.12.5
*Center Alliance 1991.12.6-1992.6.5
*Peasant Party [PSL] 1992.6.5-.7.8
*Democratic Union 1992.7.8-1993.10.26
*PSL 1993.10.26-1995.3.6
*Social Democrats [SLD] (previously PZPR) 1995.3.6-1997.10.17
*Electoral Action Solidarity (developed from Solidarity) 1997.10.31-2001.10.19
*Democratic Left Alliance (developed from SLD) 2001.10.19-2005.10.31
*Law and Justice [PiS] 2005.10.31-2007.11.16
*Citizens' Platform 2007.11.16-2015.11.13
*PiS 2015.11.13-

Danzig (1920.11.15-1939.9.1)

Declared a free city by the League of Nations and under the protection of the League of Nations in 1920. One-party rule by the National Socialist German Worker's Party was established in 1937. Danzig was finally annexed by Germany in 1939.

*German-National People's Party 1931.1.10-1933.6.20
*National Socialist German Worker's Party 1933.6.20-1939.9.1


Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia (1918.10.28-1939.3.16)

Established in 1918. In 1939 Germany occupied Czechoslovakia and partitioned it into Bohemia and Slovakia.

*Constitutional Democratic Party 1918.11.16-1919.7.8
*Social Democratic Workers' Party 1919.7.8-1920.9.16
*Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants [RSZML] 1920.9.16-1921.9.20
*Socialist Party 1921.9.20-1922.10.8
*RSZML 1922.10.8-1938.9.22
*Party of National Unity 1938.12.1-1939.3.13

Slovakia (1919.6.16-.7.7)

In 1919 the Hungarian Red Army invaded Czechoslovakia and installed a soviet republic in Presov. The regime was crushed by Czechoslovakia in the same year.

*Communist Party 1919.6.20-.7.7

Carpathian-Ukraine (1939.3.14-..16)

In 1939 Germany induced Ruthenia (located in the eastern part of Czechoslovakia) to secede from Czechoslovakia and established this regime, which was annexed by Hungary in the same year.

*Ruthenian National Christian Party 1939.3.14-..16

Slovakia (1939.3.14-1945.4.4)

In 1939 Germany induced Slovakia to secede from Czechoslovakia and established this regime, which was under the one-party rule of the People's Party. In 1945 the regime was destroyed by USSR and the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and Slovakia then reverted to Czechoslovakia.

*People's Party 1939.3.14-1945.4.3

Bohemia and Moravia (1939.3.15-1945.5.9)

As a result of the partition of Czechoslovakia by Germany in 1939, this regime was set up as a German protectorate in the region of Bohemia and Moravia. The regime was destroyed by USSR and Czechoslovakia in 1945.

Czechoslovakia-Czech and Slovakia (1945.4.3-1993.1.1)

This regime was restored and the German invaders were ousted in 1945. In 1948 the Communist Party seized full power and exercised one-party rule. With the outbreak of the pro-democracy movement in 1989, a multi-party system was adopted. The country's name was changed to Czech and Slovakia in 1990 and the country finally split into two countries.

*Social Democratic Party 1945.4.7-1946.7.3
*Communist Party 1946.7.3-1992.7.1
*Civic Democratic Party 1992.7.1-.12.31

Slovakia (1993.1.1- )

As a result of the split of Czech and Slovakia in 1993, this regime was established in the region of Slovkia.

*Movement for a Democratic Slovakia [HZDS] 1993.1.1-1994.3.16
*HZDS 1994.12.13-1998.10.30
*Democratic Coalition [SDK] 1998.10.30-2000.1
*Democratic and Christian Union [SDKU] (split from SDK) 2000.1-2006.1.21
*Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party [SDKU-DS] (developed from SDKU) 2006.1.21-.7.4
*Direction-Social Democracy [SMER-SD] 2006.7.4-2010.7.8
*SDKU-DS 2010.7.8-2012.4.4
*SMER-SD 2012.4.4-

Czech (1993.1.1- )

As a result of the split of Czech and Slovakia in 1993, this regime was established in the region of Czech and was then basically under the alternate rule of the Civic Democratic Party and the Social Democratic Party.

*Civic Democratic Party [ODS] 1993.1.1-1997.12.17
*Social Democratic Party [CSSD] 1998.7.17-2006.9.4
*ODS 2006.9.4-2009.5.8
*ODS 2010.7.13-2013.7.10
*CSSD 2014.1.29-


Hungary

Hungary (c.896-1526.8.29; c.1527.9.2- )

1. Royal Government (c.896-1526.8.29; c.1527.9.2-1918.11.16)

Founded in c.896, Hungary formed a real union (the so-called Austro-Hungarian Empire) with Austria in 1867. A constitutional monarchical system was also set up. Between 1875 and 1910 the cabinet was monopolized by the Liberal Party. With the independence of Hungary and the abolition of the monarchical system, the First Republic was established.

*Liberal Party [SzP] 1875.3.2-1903.6.27
*SzP 1903.11.3-1910.1.17
*Party of National Work 1912.4.22-1917.6.15
*Party of Independence [PI] 1918.11.1-..16

2. First Republic (1918.11.16-1919.8.7)

After the Communists seized power in 1919, such countries as Romania intervened the Hungarian Revolution and installed a Governing Council in Hungary. The Governing Council was reorganised as a Regency in the same year.

*PI 1918.11.16-1919.1.11
*Social Democratic Party 1919.8.1-..6

3. Soviet Government (1919.3.21-.8.1)

Formed by the coalition of the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party in the wake of a communist revolution in 1919, with the Communists holding real powers. This government was toppled by the Allied Powers in the same year.

*Communist Party 1919.3.21-.8.1

4. Regency (1919.8.7-1944.11.3)

Hungary was under Horthy's dictatorial rule between 1920 and 1944. In 1944 Germany occupied Hungary and overthrew this government.

5. Puppet Government (1944.11.4-1945.3.28)

In 1944 Germany installed Szalasi, the Hungarian Prime Minister and leader of the Arrow Cross Party, as the Hungarian Leader, who was indeed a puppet of Germany. In 1945 this government was overthrown by the Resistance Government.

*Arrow Cross Party 1944.11.4-1945.3.28

6. Resistance Government (1944.12.21-1946.2.1)

Establised by the anti-fascist parties in 1944, this government ousted the Germans in conjunction with USSR in 1945. In 1946 the republican government was restored.

*National Independence Front 1944.12.21-1945.11.15
*Independent Party of Smallholders [FkgP] 1945.11.15-1946.2.1

7. Period of Independence (1946.2.1- )

In 1948 a coalition of the left wing was formed with the Party of the Hungarian Workers (MDP) holding real powers. In 1949 one-party rule of MDP was finally established. Between 1956 and 1988 power was held by Kadar. As the radical reformists gained ground in 1989, a multi-party system was adopted and Hungary was under the alternate rule of the left wing (Socialist Party) and the right wing since then.

*FKgP 1946.2.1-1948.12.9
*Party of the Hungarian Workers [MDP] 1948.12.9-1956.11.1
*Socialist Workers' Party [MSzMP] (previously MDP) 1956.11.1-1989.10.6
*Socialist Party [MSzP] (previously MSzMP) 1989.10.6-1990.5.3
*Democratic Forum 1990.5.3-1994.7.15
*MSzP 1994.7.15-1998.7.6
*Alliance of Young Democrats-Civic Union [Fidesz-MPP] 1998.7.6-2002.5.27
*MSzP 2002.5.27-2010.5.29
*Fidesz-MPP 2010.5.29-


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