Mongolia (1911.12-1920.1.2; 1921.2.15- )

Mongolia seceded from China in 1911 and was reunited with China later. In 1921, the People's Party seized power, declared the independence of Mongolia and establised one-party rule. The periods 1924-1952 and 1958-1984 saw the prolonged rule of Choibalsan and Tsedenbal, respectively. One-party rule came to an end in 1990 when multi-party system was introduced. Since then, the leftist (People's Revolutionary Party) and the rightist (National Democratic Party) parties ruled alternately.

*People's Party 1921.2.15-1924.8
*People's Revolutionary Party [MAKN] (previously People's Party) 1924.8-1990.9.3
*National Democratic Party 1990.9.3-1997.6.20
*MAKN 1997.6.20-2009.6.18
*Democratic Party 2009.6.18-

Far Eastern Republic (1920.4.6-1922.11.15)

In 1920, Russia established this state in Siberia as its satellite state, which was ruled by the Russian Social Democratic Workers's Party. The state was annexed by Russia in 1922.

*Russian Social Democratic Workers's Party 1920.4.6-1922.11.15

Northeastern China

Qing (1636.4M-1912.3.10; 1917.7.1-..12)

Founded in 1636. In 1911, the regime underwent political reform in which a modernised government was set up. Revolution broke out in the same year and the regime ended in 1912. In 1917, the royalists restored the regime, which was again overthrown by the Republic of China.

Manchuria (1932.3.1-1945.8.18)

Establised by Japan in 1932 as a puppet state (also called Manchukuo), the regime collapsed and Manchuria reverted to China upon the defeat of Japan in 1945.

Northwestern China

East Turkestan (1933.12.12-1934.2; 1944.11.12-1946.6.16)

In 1933 the Uighurs in Xinjiang Province revolted and established this regime, which collapsed later. In 1944 the Ghulja Liberation Organisation staged another revolt and restored the regime. The regime reverted to China in 1946.

*Ghulja Liberation Organisation 1944.11.12-1946.6.16

Northern China

China (1912.1.1- )

1. Provisional Government (1912.1.1-1913.10.10)

After the 1911 Revolution, military governments were set up in a number of provinces. In 1912, the Provisional Government was set up. After Yuan Shikai, the Provisional President, assumed dictatorial powers, this government was reorganised into the Beiyang Government.

*Alliance of Chinese Revolutionaries [Tungmenghui] 1912.1.1-.4.1

2. Beiyang Government (1913.10.10-1928.6.3)

Ruled by the warlords, this government was overthrown by the Nationalist Government.

3. Constitutional Military Government (1917.9.1-1925.7.1)

Established by the Revolutonary Party in Guangzhou in 1917, this government was later controlled by the warlords for several times. The Nationalist Party (KMT) regained powers in 1923 and reorganised this government into the Nationalist Government in 1925.

*Revolutionary Party (developed from Tungmenghui) 1917.9.1-1918.5.4
*Revolutionary Party 1920.11.9-.12.1
*Nationalist Party [KMT] (previously Revolutionary Party) 1920.12.1-1922.8.9
*KMT 1923.3.2-1925.3.12

4. Nationalist Government (1925.7.1-1949.12.8)

Reunifying China in 1928, KMT established one-party rule in the same year. In 1932 Chiang Kai-shek consolidated his power and exercised dictatorial rule in China. With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, KMT cooperated with the Communists and ended its one-party rule. In 1949, KMT's rule in Mainland China was supplanted by the Communists and this government moved to Taiwan.

*KMT 1925.7.1-1949.12.8

5. Puppet Government (1937.12.14-1945.8.16)

In 1937, Japan invaded China and established two puppet governments in Beiping and Nanjing afterwards. In 1940, the two puppet governments were merged into one single government, which collapsed upon the defeat of Japan in 1945.

*Nationalist Party-Wang Jingwei Faction 1940.11.28-1944.11.10

6. Taiwan Government (1949.12.8- )

In 1949, KMT retreated to Taiwan, where it carried out one-party rule. Between 1949 and 1988, the regime was held by the Chiang Family. In 1987 a multi-party system was introduced, but KMT continued to be the ruling party until 2000.

*KMT 1949.12.8-2000.5.20
*Democratic Progressive Party [MCT] 2000.5.20-2008.5.20
*KMT 2008.5.20-2016.5.20
*MCT 2016.5.20-

7. Soviet Government (1931.11.7-1937.9.22)

In 1931 the Communist Party (CPC) established this government in Jiangsu Province. Recognizing the authority of the Nationalist Government, CPC dissolved this government in 1937.

*Communist Party [CPC] 1931.11.7-1937.9.22

8. People's Republic (1949.10.1- )

In 1949, CPC supplanted KMT's rule in Mainland China and established one-party rule, with Mao Zedong being in power between 1949 and 1976.

*CPC 1949.10.1-

Korean Peninsula

[North] Korea (1946.2.8- )

In 1946 the Commuinist Party established a regime in North Korea. In 1948, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and one-party rule of the Workers Party were formally established. Power was monopolised by the Kim Family.

*Communist Party of North Korea 1946.2.8-.8.28
*Workers Party of North Korea (developed from the Communist Party of North Korea) 1946.8.28-1949.6.30
*Workers Party of Korea (developed from the Workers Party of North Korea) 1949.6.30-

[South] Korea (1948.8.15- )

Established in 1948, this regime was under the prolonged military dictatorship of Park Chung Hee (1961-1979) and Chun Doo Hwan (1979-1988). Military rule came to an end in 1988 and democracy began to take root since then.

*Liberal Party 1948.8.15-1960.8.18
*Democratic Party 1960.8.18-1961.5.16
*Democratic Republican Party 1963.8-1980.8.16
*Democratic Justice Party [DJP] 1981.1.15-1990.2.9
*Democratic Liberal Party [MDD] (developed from DJP) 1990.2.9-1996.2
*New Korea Party [SHD] (developed from MDD) 1996.2-1997.11
*Great National Party [HD] (developed from SHD) 1997.11-1998.2.25
*National Congress for New Politics [SJKH] 1998.2.25-2000.1.21
*Millennium Democratic Party [SMD] (previously SJKH) 2000.1.21-2003.9.29
*Our Open Party (split from SMD) 2004.5.20-2007.2.28
*HD 2008.2.25-2012.2
*New Frontier Party (previously HD) 2012.2-2016.12.9
*Democratic Party (developed from SMD) 2017.5.10-


Japan (c.660 BC- )

Founded in c.660 BC. In 1889, a constitution was granted and an Emperor-dominating constiutional system was established. Militarism began to gain ground in 1930s. Since 1936, political power was held by the military, culminating in the establishment of one-party rule by the Imperial Rule Assistance Association in 1940 and the outbreak of the Pacific War afterwards. With Japan defeated in the war, the fascist government collapsed, to be replaced by a parliamentary cabinet system. Between 1946 and 1955, Japan was under the alternate rule of the Liberal Party and the Democratic Party. Between 1955 and 1993, the political scene was dominated by the Liberal Democratic Party for a prolonged period.

*Association for Constitutional Politics [Con] 1898.6.30-.11.8
*Friends of Constitutional Government [FC] 1900.10.10-1901.6.2
*FC 1906.1.7-1908.7.14
*FC 1911.8.30-1912.12.19
*Constitutional Alliance 1912.12.19-1913.2.12
*Constitutional Nationalist Party 1914.4.15-1916.10.9
*FC 1918.9.29-1922.6.12
*Con 1924.6.11-1927.4.19
*FC 1927.4.19-1929.7.2
*Constitutional Party of Popular Politics (previously Con) 1929.7.2-1931.12.13
*FC 1931.12.13-1932.5.16
*Imperial Rule Assistance Association 1940.10.12-1945.6
*Liberal Party [LP] 1946.5.20-1947.5.21
*Socialist Party [SPJ] 1947.5.21-1948.2.23
*Democratic Party [JD] 1948.2.23-.10.15
*LP 1948.10.15-1954.12.10
*JD 1954.12.10-1955.11.15
*Liberal Democratic Party [LDP] (formed by the merger of LP and JD) 1955.11.15-1993.8.9
*New Party 1993.8.9-1994.4.25
*Renewal Party 1994.4.25-.6.29
*SPJ 1994.6.29-1996.1.11
*LDP 1996.1.11-2009.9.16
*Democratic Party 2009.9.16-
*LDP 2012.12.26-

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