In 1776 the 13 British colonies in North America declared independence from Britain and established this regime as a confederation. With the enactment of a constitution in 1787, the presidential system and federal system were adopted.
2. Federal Government (1789.3.4- )
Since 1853 the Democratic Party and the Republican Party were in power alternately.
In 1860 a number of southern states practising slavery system seceded from USA and formed the Confederate States of America (commonly called the Southern Confederation) in 1861. Defeated by the Federal Government in 1865, the southern states were reincorporated into USA.
Canada (1867.7.1- )
In 1867 Britain established this regime by uniting four of its colonies in North America. Upon independence, Canada adopted a parliamentary cabinet system of government which was ruled by the Liberal Party and the Liberal Conservative Party alternately.
Newfoundland became a British dominion in 1907 and was basically under the alternate rule of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. In 1934 the dominion status of Newfoundland was renounced and Newfoundland returned to the status of a colony.
*Liberal Party [Lib] 1907.9.26-1909.3.2
*People's Party 1909.3.2-1918.1.5
*Conservative Party [Con] 1919.5.22-.11.17
Greenland (1979.5.1- )
Being a Danish colony since 1775, Greenland became a self-governing country in 1979, and was under the prolonged rule of the Forward between 1979 and 2009.
*Forward [St] 1979.5.1-2009.6.12
*Inuit Community 2009.6.12-2013.4.5
Mexico (1813.11.6-1815.11.5; 1821.9.28- )
In 1810 revolution broke out in New Spain. In 1813 the revolutionaries declared the independence of New Spain from Spain and renamed the country Mexico. But the revolution failed in 1815. In 1821 General de Iturbide made himself Mexican Emperor. But the imperial system was abolished in 1823. Between 1824 and 1858 Mexico was basically under the alternate rule of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party, but the political scene was chaotic, which was followed by Diaz' dictatorial rule between 1876 and 1911. With the outbreak of a revolution in 1910, civil war ensued until 1920. Thereafter the political scene of Mexico was stablized, with the National Revolutionary Party being in power between 1924 and 2000.
*Liberal Party [Lib] 1824.10.10-1829.12.23
*Conservative Party [Con] 1830.1.1-1832.8.14
*Moderate Party [Mod] 1832.12.24-1833.4.1
*Federalist Party 1846.1.2-.8.4
*Liberal Moderate Party [L-Mod] 1855.8.15-.9.12
*Radical Liberal Party 1855.3.14-1856.9.15
*Constitutional Progressive Party 1911.11.6-1913.2.19
*Constitutionalist Party 1913.2.19-1914.8.13
*National Anti-Reelection Party 1914.8.20-.10.31
*Constitutional Liberal Party 1920.5.24-1924.11.30
*National Revolutionary Party [PNR] 1924.12.1-1938.3
*Party of the Mexican Revolution [PRM] (previously PNR) 1938.3-1946.1
*Institutional Revolutionary Party [PRI] (previously PRM) 1946.1-2000.11.30
*National Action Party 2000.12.1-2012.11.30
Central America (1823.7.10-1839.4.17; 1842.7.17-1844.12.1; 1852.10.13-.11.10; 1898; 1921.6.13-1922.1.14)
In 1821 and 1822 the provinces of Spanish Central America declared independence and were amalgamated with Mexico successively. Upon secession from Mexico in 1823, these provinces united to form this regime, which was torn by the internal strife between the Liberals and the Conservatives in its early years. Morazan's presidency starting in 1830 marked a period of political stability and democratic reforms. But in 1838 and 1839 the constituent states seceded from the federation successively, resulting in the formal dissolution of the federation in 1839. Thereafter the Central American republics formed confederations for 4 times in 1842, 1852, 1898 and 1921. But these confederations were all short-lived and the attempt to reunify Central America was never successful.
Upon independence from Central Amercia in 1838, Nicaragua was torn by internal strife between the Conservatives and the Liberals who occupied Granada and Leon, respectively. After a period of prolonged rule by the Conservative Party between 1857 and 1893, power was alternated between the Liberals and the Conservatives. Between 1933 and 1979 Nicaragua was under the dictatorial rule of the Somoza Family, who were overthrown by the Sandinist National Liberation Front (FSLN) in 1979. As FSLN stepped down in 1990, democracy was gradually restored in Nicaragua.
*Liberal Party [PL] 1838.4.30-1839.4.23
*Conservative Party [PC] 1853.4.1-1854.4.30
*Nationalist Liberal Party (split from PL) 1944-1979.7.17
*Sandinist National Liberation Front [FSLN] 1981.3.4-1990.4.25
*National Opposition Union 1990.4.25-1997.1.10
*Constitutional Liberal Party 1997.1.10-2007.1.10
Honduras (1838.10.26- )
Honduras declared independence from Central America in 1838. From 1841 onwards the country was basically ruled by the Liberals and the Conservatives alternately. Between 1963 and 1982 the country was basically under military rule. Civilian rule was restored in 1982, since when the Liberal Party and the National Party rule alternately. The democratic reforms in 1990s further stablized the political situation.
Upon independence from Central America in 1838, Costa Rica was torn by the internal strife between the Mora and Montealegre Families. The presidency of Guardia, who started ruling in 1870 and succeeded in curbing the power of the two families, marked the beginning of political stability in Costa Rica. Democracy was gradually established since 1919. Between 1932 and 1949 the country was ruled by the National Republican Party, whose rule was overthrown in a civil war in 1948. From 1949 onwards, a two-party system was established, with the two ruling parties being the National Union Party and the National Liberation Party (PLN) in the period 1949-1978, and the United Coalition and PLN in the period 1978-2014.
*National Union Party [PUN] 1902.5.8-1914.5.8
*National Republican Party [PRN] 1924.5.8-1928.5.8
*National Liberation Party [PLN] 1953.11.8-1958.5.8
*United Coalition [UC] 1978.5.8-1982.5.8
*Christian Social Unity Party [PUSC] (previously UC) 1990.5.8-1994.5.8
*Citizens' Action Party 2014.5.8-
Guatemala (1839.4.17- )
Upon independence from Central America in 1839, Guatemala was initially ruled by the Conservatives until 1865. The year of 1871 marked the beginning of a period of prolonged rule by the Liberals, including the dictatorship of Cabrera in 1898-1920. The dictatorial government was overthrown during a revolution in 1944, after which the Revolutionary Action Party (PAR) came to power in 1945. With the overthrow of the PAR Government in 1954, Guatemala entered another period of political turmoil and military rule until 1986, when civilian rule was restored.
*Conservative [Con] 1839.12.3-1848.8.16
*Liberal [Lib] 1871.6.29-1885.4.2
*Revolutionary Action Party 1945.3.15-1954.6.27
*National Redemption Party 1958.3.2-1963.3.31
*Democratic Institutional Party [PID] 1963.4.10-1966.7.1
*Revolutionary Party 1966.7.1-1970.7.1
*Christian Democratic Party 1986.1.14-1991.1.14
*Solidarity Action Movement 1991.1.14-1993.5.31
*National Progress Party 1996.1.14-2000.1.14
*Republic Guatemalan Front 2000.1.14-2004.1.14
*Grand National Alliance 2004.1.14-2008.1.14
*National Unity of Hope 2008.1.14-2012.1.14
*Patriotic Party 2012.1.14-2015.9.3
*National Convergence Front 2016.1.14-
el Salvador (1839.4.17- )
Upon dissolution of Central America, el Salvador became an independent state. Between 1839 and 1876 the country was ruled by the Conservatives and the Liberals alternately, but the political scene was ubstable. The year of 1931 marked the beginning of the dictatorship of Martinez. Despite the overthrow of Martinez in 1944, the country remained under military rule, which took the form of the prolonged rule of the National Conciliation Party formed by the military between 1962 and 1979. Civilian rule was not restored until 1984.
*Liberal [Lib] 1839.7.13-1840.4.4
*Conservative [Con] 1841.1.7-1842.2.1
*Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification 1950.9.14-1960.10.26
*National Conciliation Party 1962.7.1-1979.10.15
*Christian Democratic Party [PDC] 1980.12.22-1982.5.2
*Nationalist Republican Alliance 1989.6.1-2009.6.1
*Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front 2009.6.1-
British Honduras-Belize (1964.1.1- )
British Honduras became an associated state of Britain in 1964. The country's name was changed to Belize in 1973. The country has been under the alternate rule of the People's United Party and the United Democratic Party since 1964.
*People's United Party [PUP] 1964.1.1-1984.12.17
*United Democratic Party [UDP] 1984.12.17-1989.11.7
Haiti (1804.1.1- )
After gaining independence from France in 1804, Haiti had been under monarchical rule for three times. Despite the final establishment of the republican system in 1859, the political situation of Haiti remained chaotic and was under prolonged dictatorial rule, with the Duvalier Family being in power between 1957 and 1986. The overthrow of the Duvalier Family in 1986 led to another period of military rule until 1994, when USA put an end to Haiti's military government with its military forces.
*National Party 1879.10.2-1888.8.10
*Worker Peasant Movement 1957.5.25-.6.14
*Coalition of Progressive National Democrats 1988.2.7-.6.20
*Lavalas Political Organization 1991.2.7-.9.30
*Lavalas Political Organization 1994.10.12-1996.2.7
*Organization of Struggling People 1996.2.7-2001.2.7
*Fanmi Lavalas [FL] 2001.2.7-2004.2.29
*Hope Front [FLP] (split from FL) 2006.5.14-2009.11
*Unity (previously FLP) 2009.11-2011.5.14
*Farmers' Response 2011.5.14-2016.2.7
Upon independence from Haiti, Dominican Republic came under the alternate rule of the Blue Party and the Red Party. But the political situation was very unstable and the country reverted to Spanish rule in 1861. In 1863 independence was declared again. Between 1865 and 1879 the country was ruled by the Blues, Reds and Greens alternately. Between 1899 and 1916 was a period of alternate rule of the Jimenistas and the Horacistas, parties of supporters of two political figures. From 1916 onwards, the country was occupied by USA until 1924. In 1930 the Trujillo Family established dictatorial rule. After the collapse of the Trujillos in 1961, the country
was in turmoil again. The political scene was stablized in 1965. Between 1965 and 1996 the country was ruled by the Reformist Party and the Revolutionary Party alternately.
*Blue Party [PA] 1844.11.13-1848.8.4
*Red Party [PR] 1849.9.24-1853.2.15
*Restoration [Res] 1863.9.14-1865.1.23
*Green Party [PV] 1874.1.2-..22
*Jimenistas Party [Jim] 1899.11.15-1902.5.2
*Horacistas Party [Hor] 1902.4.26-1903.4.23
*National Progressive Party 1924.7.12-1930.3.3
*Dominican Party [PD] 1931-1940
*Trujillistas Party (previously PD) 1940-1960.8.3
*Popular Movement 1960.8.3-1962.1.16
*Republican Party 1962.1.18-1963.2.27
*Revolutionary Party [PRD] 1963.2.27-.9.25
*Reformist Party [PR] 1965.9.3-1978.8.16
*Social Christian Reformist Party (developed from PR) 1986.8.16-1996.8.16
*Liberation Party [PLD] 1996.8.16-2000.8.16
Cuba (1868.10.10-1878.5.28; 1895.9.18-1899.6.30; 1902.5.20- )
In 1868 the Cuban Revolutionary Party (PRC) staged a revolution against Spanish rule and declared independence of Cuba. Upon conclusion of a peace settlement with Spain, Cuba reverted to Spanish rule in 1878. In 1895 PRC staged the second revolution and declared independence again. But the country was occupied by USA in 1899. After gaining independence from USA in 1902, Cuba remained under control of USA and was occupied by the latter between 1906 and 1909. In 1925 Machado established dictatorial rule in Cuba. In a revolution in 1933, Machado was overthrown. But another dictator, Batista, soon came to power (in power in 1934-1944 and 1952-1959). In 1959 Batista was overthrown by the leftist revolutionaries. With the merger of these organisations into the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations in 1961, one-party rule was established in Cuba.
*Revolutionary Party [PRC] 1868.10.10-1878.2.10
*Moderate Party 1902.5.20-1906.9.28
*Liberal Party 1909.1.28-1913.5.20
*Conservative Party 1913.5.20-1921.5.20
*Popular Party 1921.5.20-1925.5.20
*A.B.C. Revolutionary Society 1933.8.24-.9.5
*Social Democratic Coalition 1940.10.10-1944.10.10
*Revolutionary Party-Authentic 1944.10.10-1952.3.10
*United Action Party 1952.3.10-1959.1.1
*Coalition formed by Revolutionary Movement of July 26th, People's Socialist Party and Revolutionary Directory March 13th 1959.1.2-1961.7
*Integrated Revolutionary Organizations [ORI] (formed by the merger of Revolutionary Movement of July 26th, People's Socialist Party and Revolutionary Directory March 13th) 1961.7-1962.5
*United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution [PURSC] (previously ORI) 1962.5-1965.10
*Communist Party (previously PURSC) 1965.10-
Puerto Rico (1952.7.25- )
In 1952 Puerto Rico became a commonwealth of USA and self-rule was granted. Since then Puerto Rico was under the alternate rule of the Popular Democratic Party and the New Progressive Party.
Upon independence from Britain in 1962, Jamaica came under the alternate rule of the Labour Party and the People's National Party.
*Labour Party [JLP] 1962.8.6-1972.3.2
*People's National Party [PNP] 1972.3.2-1980.11.1
Trinidad and Tobago (1962.8.31- )
Upon independence from Britain in 1962, Trinidad and Tobago came under the prolonged rule of the People's National Movement until 1986.
*People's National Movement [PNM] 1962.8.31-1986.12.18
*National Alliance for Reconstruction 1986.12.18-1991.12.17
*United National Congress [UNC] 1995.11.9-2001.12.24
Barbados (1966.11.30- )
Upon independence from Britain in 1966, Barbados came under the alternate rule of the Democratic Labour Party and the Labour Party.
*Democratic Labour Party [DLP] 1966.11.30-1976.9.8
*Labour Party [BLP] 1976.9.8-1986.5.29
Bahamas (1973.7.10- )
Upon independence from Britain in 1973, Bahamas came under the alternate rule of the Progressive Liberal Party and the Free National Movement.
*Progressive Liberal Party [PLP] 1973.7.10-1992.8.21
*Free National Movement [FNM] 1992.8.21-2002.5.3
Grenada (1967.2.27- )
Grenada became an associated state of Britain in 1967 and gained independence in 1974. Upon independence, Grenada was initially under the authoritarian rule of the United Labour Party, whose rule was supplanted by the New Jewel Movement (NJ) in 1979. In 1983 USA invaded Grenada and overthrew the NJ Government. Thereafter Grenada was ruled by the New National Party and the National Democratic Congress alternately.
*National Party 1967.2.27-.8
*United Labour Party 1967.8-1979.3.13
*New Jewel Movement 1979.3.13-1983.10.19
*National Democratic Congress [NDC] 1983.12.9-1984.12.4
*New National Party [NNP] 1984.12.4-1990.3.16
British Dominica-Commonwealth of Dominica (1967.2.27- )
In 1967 British Dominica became an associated state of Britain. Upon independence in 1978, the country's name was changed to the Commonwealth of Dominica.
*Labour Party [LPD] 1967.2.27-1974.7.27
*United Workers' Party [DUWP] 1974.7.27-1979.6.21
*Freedom Party 1980.7.21-1995.6.14
Saint Lucia (1967.2.27- )
Saint Lucia became an associated state of Britain in 1967 and gained independence in 1979. Since 1967, the country has been basically under the alternate rule of the United Workers Party and the Labour Party.
*United Workers Party [UWP] 1967.2.27-1979.7.2
*Labour Party [SLP] 1979.7.2-1981.5.4
*Labor Progressive Party 1982.1.17-.5.3
Saint Vincent-Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1969.10.27- )
Saint Vincent became an associated state of Britain in 1969. In 1979 the country gained independence and changed its name to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Since 1969, the country has been under the alternate rule of the Unity Labour Party and the New Democratic Party.
*Unity Labour Party [ULP] 1969.10.27-1972.4
*New Democratic Party [NDP] 1972.4-1974.12.8
Antigua-Antigua and Barbuda (1967.2.27- )
Antigua became an associated state of Britain in 1967. In 1981 the country gained independence and changed its name to Antigua and Barbuda. Between 1974 and 2004, the country was under the prolonged rule of the Labour Party.
*Labour Party [ALP] 1967.2.27-1971.2.14
*Progressive Labour Movement 1971.2.14-1976.2.1
*United Progressive Party 2004.3.24-2014.6.13
Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla-Saint Kitts and Nevis (1967.2.27- )
Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla became an associated state of Britain in 1967. In 1980 Anguilla split with Saint Kitts and Nevis and the two parts of the original dependency became two separate entities under British sovereignty. In 1983, Saint Kitts and Nevis gained independence. Between 1967 and 2015, the country was under the alternate rule of the People's Action Movement and the Labour Party.
*Labour Party [SKLP] 1967.2.27-1978.5.23
*People's Action Movement [PAM] 1978.5.23-1979.5.18
*People's Labour Party (split from SKLP) 2015.2.18-
Netherlands Antilles (1954.12.29-2010.10.10)
In 1954 Netherlands Antilles became a self-governing country of Netherlands. Between 1954 and 1979 the country was basically under the alternate rule of the Democratic Party and National People's Party. Netherlands Antilles was dissolved in 2010.
*Democratic Party [DP] 1954.12.29-1968.2.14
*National People's Party [PNP] 1968.2.14-1969.9
*Windward Islands People's Movement 1977.?-1977.10
*Patriotic Union of Bonaire 1979.7.6-.12
*New Antilles Movement [MAN] 1979.12-1984.9.18
*Party for the Restructured Antilles [PAR] 1994.3.31-1998.5.14
*Party Workers' Liberation Front 30th of May 2003.7.22-2004.6.3
Curacao (2010.10.10- )
Originally part of Netherlands Antilles, Curacao became a self-governing country of Netherlands upon dissolution of Netherlands Antilles.
*Movement for the Future of Curacao 2010.10.10-2012.9.29
*Sovereign People 2013.6.7-
Sint Maarten (2010.10.10- )
Originally part of Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maarten became a self-governing country of Netherlands upon dissolution of Netherlands Antilles.
*Democratic Party 2010.10.10-2014.12.19
*United People's Party 2014.12.19-2015.11.19
*National Alliance 2015.11.19-
Aruba (1986.1.1- )
In 1986 Aruba became a self-governing country of Netherlands. Since then the country is under the alternate rule of the People's Party and People's Electoral Movement.
*People's Party [AVP] 1986.1.1-1989.2.9
*People's Electoral Movement [MEP] 1989.2.9-1994.7.29