East India

Bangladesh (1971.3.26- )

In 1971 the People's League of East Pakistan proclaimed the independence of East Pakistan and the establishment of this regime. In 1975 the Peasants, Workers and People's League declared one-party rule, but was overthrown by the military in the same year. Since then, there appeared several military governments. Civilian rule was not resumed until 1991.

*People's League [BAL] 1971.4.11-1975.2
*Peasants, Workers and People's League (developed from BAL) 1975.2-.11.6
*Nationalist Party [BJD] 1977.4.21-1982.3.24
*National Party 1986.1.1-1990.12.6
*BJD 1991.3.20-1996.3.30
*BAL 1996.6.23-2001.7.15
*BJD 2001.10.10-2006.10.29
*BAL 2009.1.6-

Himalayan States

Bhutan (1616- )

Founded in 1616. But the hereditary system of the throne was not established until 1907. A legislature was set up in 1953. Party cabinets began to appear and a constitutional system was adopted in 2008.

*Peace and Prosperity Party 2008.4.9-2013.4.28
*People's Democratic Party 2013.7.27-2018.8.9
*Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa 2018.11.7-

Sikkim (1642-1975.5.16)

Founded in 1642, Sikkim became a client state of India in 1950. In 1970 a constitutional system was adopted. In 1975 Sikkim became an associated state of India and was annexed by India in the same year.

*National Congress Party 1974.7.23-1975.5.16

Nepal (1768.9.25- )

Founded in 1768. A provisional constitution was granted and a constitutional monarchical system was adopted in 1951. Party politics was suspended and replaced by a non-partisan "panchayat" (assembly) system in 1961. In 1990, the panchayat system was abolished and party cabinets reappeared. In 2002, the King dissolved the Parliament and reestablished an absolute monarchy. The parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in 2006 and the monarchical system was finally abolished in 2008. Since then Nepal was under the alternate rule of the Nepalese Congress Party, Communist Party (United Marxist-Leninist) and Communist Party (Maoist).

*Napalese Congress Party [NCP] 1951.11.16-1952.8.14;1953.6.15-1955.4.14
*NCP 1959.5.27-1960.12.15
*NCP 1990.4.6-1994.11.30
*Communist Party (United Marxist-Leninist) [CPN-UML] 1994.11.30-1995.9.12
*NCP 1995.9.12-1997.3.12
*National Democratic Party 1997.3.12-1998.4.15
*NCP 1998.4.15-2002.10.4
*NCP 2004.6.3-2005.2.1
*NCP 2006.4.30-2008.8.18
*Communist Party (Maoist) [CPN-M] 2008.8.18-2009.5.25
*CPN-UML 2009.5.25-2011.8.29
*CPN-M 2011.8.29-2013.3.142013.3.14
*NCP 2014.2.11-2015.10.12
*CPN-UML 2015.10.12-2016.8.4
*CPN-M 2016.8.4-2017.6.7
*NCP 2017.6.7-2018.2.15
*CPN-UML 2018.2.15-

North India

India (1877.1.1- )

In 1877 Britain established an empire in the Indian Sub-continent. In 1947 India gained independence and adopted a parliamentary cabinet political system. India was under the prolonged rule of the National Congress Party between 1947 and 1977.

*National Congress Party [INC] 1947.8.15-1969.12
*National Congress Party-Indira Gandhi Faction [INC-I] (split from INC) 1969.12-1977.3.24
*People's Party 1977.3.24-1979.7.28
*Janata Secular Party [JSP] 1979.7.28-.9
*Lok Dal (developed from JSP) 1979.9-1980.1.14
*INC-I 1980.1.14-1989.12.2
*Janata Dal [JD] 1989.12.2-1991.6.21
*INC-I 1991.6.21-1996.5.16
*Indian People's Party [BJP] 1996.5.16-.6.1
*JD 1996.6.1-1998.3.19
*BJP 1998.3.19-2004.5.22
*INC-I 2004.5.22-2014.5.26
*BJP 2014.5.26-

West India

Pakistan (1947.8.14- )

In the early post-independence years, Pakistan adopted a parliamentary cabinet system, which was replaced by military dictatorship in 1958-1971. In 1962 a presidential system was adopted and the military rule ended in 1971. The parliamentary cabinet system was resumed in 1973, but was suspended by Zia-ul-Haq's coup in 1977. After that, Pakistan was under military and civic (People's Party and Muslim League) rule alternatively.

*Muslim League [PML] 1947.8.14-1956.9.12
*Awami League 1956.9.12-1957.10.17
*PML 1957.10.17-.12.16
*Republican Party 1957.12.16-1958.10.7
*People's Party [PPP] 1971.12.7-1977.7.5
*PPP 1988.12.2-1990.8.6
*Muslim League-Nawaz Faction [PMLN] (developed from PML) 1990.11.6-1993.4.18
*PMLN 1993.5.26-.7.18
*PPP 1993.10.19-1997.2.17
*PMLN 1997.2.17-1999.10.12
*PPP 2008.9.9-2013.3.25
*PMLN 2013.6.5-2018.6.1
*Movement for Justice 2018.8.18-

Islands on Eastern Indian Ocean

Ceylon-Sri Lanka (1948.2.4- )

After gaining independence, a parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in Ceylon, where the government was formed by the United National Party and the Freedom Party alternatively. In 1972 the country's name was changed to Sri Lanka and the political system was switched to one with the President as the executive head in 1978.

*United National Party [EJP] 1948.2.4-1956.4.12
*Freedom Party [SLNP] 1956.4.12-1959.9.26
*EJP 1960.3.21-.7.21
*SLNP 1960.7.21-1965.3.27
*EJP 1965.3.27-1970.5.29
*SLNP 1970.5.29-1977.7.23
*EJP 1977.7.23-1994.11.12
*SLNP 1994.11.12-2015.1.9
*New Democratic Front 2015.1.9-

Maldives (1116-1558; 1573- )

Founded in 1116. A constitutional system was established in 1932 with the promulgation of a constitution. Despite the replacement of the monarchical system by a republican system in 1968, Maldives remained under authoritarian rule and political parties were prohibited. Between 1978 and 2008 the country was under the prolonged rule of Gayoom. Political parties are allowed since 2005. After Gayoom stepped down in 2008, Maldives began to adopt a democratic system.

*Peoples Party 2005-2008.11.11
*Democratic Party 2008.11.11-2012.2.7
*National Unity Party 2012.2.7-2013.11.17
*Progressive Party 2013.11.17-2018.11.17

Central Asia

Bukhara (1561-1925.2.17)

Founded in 1561. In 1920 Russia overthrew the royal government and installed a Soviet Government with the Communist Party exercising one-party rule. The regime was abrogated by USSR in 1925.

*Communist Party 1920.10-1925.2.17

Khiva-Khwarizm (1598-1925.2.17)

Founded in 1598. In 1920 Russia overthrew the royal government and installed a government led by the Young Khiva Party. The country's name was changed to Khwarizm, with the Communist Party exercising one-party rule. The regime was abrogated by USSR in 1925.

*Young Khiva Party 1920.2.2-.4.4
*Communist Party (previously Young Khiva Party) 1920.4.4-1925.2.17

Afghanistan (1747.7- )

1. Royal Government (1747.7-1973.7.17)

Founded in 1747. With a consitution granted in 1923, a constitutional monarchical system was established. After Daud, the former Prime Minister, seized power in 1973, the monarchical system was abolished.

2. Daud's Rule (1973.7.17-1978.4.30)

As Daud assumed the presidency and started his dictatorial rule in 1973. He was overthrown in a coup staged by the People's Democratic Party (HDK) in 1978.

*National Revolutionary Party 1977-1978.4.27

3. Government of People's Democratic Party (1978.4.30-1992.4.16)

At the onset of the one-party rule of HDK (split into the Khalq and Parcham Factions), power was held by the Khalqis. With the invasion of USSR in 1979, the Parchamis were put into power. The HDK Government was finally overthrown by the Islamic Government in 1992.

*People's Democratic Party-Khalq Faction 1978.4.30-1979.12.27
*People's Democratic Party-Parcham Faction [HDK-Parcham] 1979.12.27-1990.6
*Fatherland Party (previously HDK-Parcham) 1990.6-1992.4.16

4. Islamic Government (1989.2.23- )

Established by the anti-Soviet forces in 1989. After the collapse of the HDK Government in 1992, civil war broke out among the different factions within the coalition government. In 1996 the Koran Students (commonly known as Taliban) seized power, but was overthrown by an alliance of USA and the United Islamic and National Front for Salvation of Afghanistan.

*Mujahideen Alliance 1989.2.23-1992.7.6
*Coalition formed by Mujahideen Alliance and Islamic Party 1989.2.23-1996.9.27
*Koran Students (commonly known as Taliban) 1996.9.27-2001.11.13
*United Islamic and National Front for Salvation of Afghanistan (commonly known as Anti-Taliban Alliance) 2001.11.17-.12.22

Turkmen (1924.10.27-1925.5.13)

Established in Central Asia by USSR in 1924 and was under the one-party rule of the Communists in 1925. It was finally annexed into USSR in the same year.

*Communist Party 1925.2-.5.13

Uzbek (1924.12.5-1925.5.13)

Established in Central Asia by USSR and was under the one-party rule of the Communists in 1924. It was annexed into USSR in 1925.

*Communist Party 1924.12.5-1925.5.13

Kyrgyzstan (1991.8.31- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Kyrgyzstan declared independence in 1991.

*People's Movement 2005.8.14-2007.10
*Bright Path 2007.10-2010.4.7
*Social Democratic Party 2010.4.7-

Uzbekistan (1991.8.31- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Uzbekistan declared independence in 1991. But the Communist Party continues to be the ruling party since independence.

*Communist Party [CPU] 1991.8.31-.11.1
*People's Democratic Party (previously CPU) 1991.11.1-2007
*Liberal Democratic Party 2007-

Tajikistan (1991.9.9- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Tajikistan declared independence in 1991.

*People's Democratic Party 1992.11.27-

Kazakhstan (1991.12.16- )

Originally a union republic of USSR, Kazakhstan declared independence in 1991.

*People's Union of Kazakhstan Unity [PUKU] 1995-1999.3.1
*Fatherland Party (developed from PUKU) [OTAN] 1999.3.1-2006.12.22
*Fatherland's Ray of Light Party (developed from OTAN) 2006.12.22-


Persia-Iran (c.1502.5.11- )

Founded in c.1502. A constitutional system was introduced in 1906 when a constitution was enacted. Real power was held by Mosaddeq, the Prime Minister, between 1951 and 1953, after which the Shah (King) regained power. In 1979 the royal government was overthrown by a revolution staged by the Shiahs, who established a theocratic regime in Iran.

*National Front [NF] 1951.4.30-1952.7.17
*NF 1952.7.22-1953.8.19
*Nationalist Party 1957.4.3-1961.5.5
*People's Party 1962.7.19-1964.3.7
*New Iran Party 1964.3.7-1977.8.7
*Iran Resurgence 1977.8.7-1978.8.27
*NF 1979.1.4-.2.5
*Islamic Republican Party 1981.6.22-1987.6
*Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 2005.8.3-2013.8.3
*Combatant Clergy Association 2013.8.3-

Gilan (1920.6.5-1921.10)

Established by the Jangal Movement and the Communist Party. Crushed by Persia in 1921.

*Coalition formed by Jangal Movement and Communist Party 1920.6.5-1921.10

Kurdistan (1946.1.22-.12.15)

Installed by USSR in Mahabad under the rule of the Democratic Party in 1946 and was crushed by Iran in the same year.

*Democratic Party 1946.1.22-.12.15

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