Denmark (c.803-1332.8.2; 1340- )

Founded in c.803. A constiutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1849. In 1901 the parliamentary cabinet was finally established. Since 1924, Denmark was basically under the alternate rule of the left wing (Social Democracy) and the central-right wing. Germany occupied Denmark in 1940 and replaced the Danish government with German direct rule in 1943. With the Germans expelled by the Allies in 1945, Denmark regained independence.

*Conservative Party [Con] 1852.1.27-1856.10.18
*National Liberal [NL] 1857.5.13-1859.12.2
*Farmers Friend 1859.12.2-1860.2.8
*NL 1860.2.24-1864.7.11
*Con 1864.7.11-1875.6.11
*Right Party 1875.6.11-1901.7.24
*Liberal Party-Left [LP-V] 1901.7.24-1909.10.28
*Radical Left Party [RV] 1909.10.28-1910.7.4
*LP-V 1910.7.4-1913.6.21
*Radical Party 1913.6.21-1920.3.30
*LP-V 1920.5.5-1924.4.23
*Social Democracy [SD] 1924.4.23-1926.12.13
*Conservative People's Party [KF] 1926.12.13-1929.4.28
*SD 1929.4.28-1942.11.10
*SD 1945.5.5-.11.8
*LP-V 1945.11.8-1947.11.13
*SD 1947.11.13-1950.10.27
*LP-V 1950.10.27-1953.9.30
*SD 1953.9.30-1968.2.18
*RV 1968.2.18-1971.10.9
*SD 1971.10.9-1973.12.18
*LP-V 1973.12.18-1975.2.13
*SD 1975.2.13-1982.9.10
*KF 1982.9.10-1993.1.25
*SD 1993.1.25-2001.11.27
*LP-V 2001.11.27-2011.10.3
*SD 2011.10.3-2015.6.28
*LP-V 2015.6.28-

Sweden (c.820- )

Founded in c.820, Sweden adopted the parliamentary cabinet system with the promulgation of a constitution in 1720 and was then under the alternate rule of the Caps and the Hats. In 1772 King Gustav III abrogated the constitution and resumed absolute powers. The parliamentary system was finally restored in 1809. Between 1932 and 1976 Sweden was under the prolonged rule of the Social Democratic Workers' Party.

*Cap 1720-1739
*Hat 1739-1765.8
*Cap 1765-1769
*Hat 1769-1771.10.9
*Cap 1771-1772.8.22
*Liberal Party [LP] 1858.4.7-1870.6.3
*Conservative Party [HP] 1870.6.3-1874.4.8
*HP 1874.5.4-1875.5.11
*LP 1875.5.11-1880.4.19
*Farmer's Party 1880.4.19-1883.6.13
*HP 1883.6.13-1884.5.16
*LP 1884.5.16-1888.2.6
*HP 1888.2.6-1889.10.12
*Protectionary Majority Party [PMP] 1889.10.12-1891.7.10
*New Farmer's Party [NL] 1891.7.10-1900.9.12
*NL 1902.7.5-1905.4.13
*PMP 1905.8.12-.11.8
*Liberal Coalition Party [LS] 1905.11.8-1906.5.29
*Moderate Coalition Party [MS] (previously HP) 1906.5.29-1911.10.7
*LS 1911.10.7-1914.2.16
*MS 1914.2.16-1917.10.19
*LP 1917.10.19-1920.3.10
*Social Democratic Workers' Party [SAP] 1920.3.10-.10.27
*SAP 1921.10.13-1923.4.29
*HP 1923.4.29-1924.10.19
*SAP 1924.10.19-1926.6.6
*National Liberal Alliance [F] 1926.6.6-1928.10.1
*HP 1928.10.1-1930.6.6
*F 1930.6.6-1932.9.26
*SAP 1932.9.26-1936.6.19
*Agrarian Alliance 1936.6.19-.9.28
*SAP 1936.9.28-1976.10.7
*Centre Party [CP] 1976.10.7-1978.10.13
*People's Party Liberals 1978.10.13-1979.10.9
*CP 1979.10.9-1982.10.7
*SAP 1982.10.7-1991.10.3
*MS 1991.10.3-1994.10.7
*SAP 1994.10.7-2006.10.6
*MS 2006.10.6-2014.10.3
*SAP 2014.10.3-

Norway (c.872-1000; c.1015- )

Founded in c.872, Norway was under Danish rule since 1387. During the independence movement in 1814, a constiutional monarchical system was introduced with the promulgation of a constitution. In the same year Norway was occupied by Sweden. In 1882 the parliamentary cabinet system was adopted. In 1905 Norway declared independence from Sweden. Between 1873 and 1928 the cabinets were basically formed by the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party alternately. In 1940 Germany invaded and installed a puppet government in Norway. The Germans were expellded by the Allies in 1945. Thereafter, Norway was under the alternate rule of the left wing (Labour Party) and the central-right wing.

*Conservative Party [H] 1873.7.21-1884.6.26
*Liberal Party [LP] 1884.6.26-1889.7.13.
*H 1889.7.13-1891.3.6
*LP 1891.3.6-1893.5.2
*H 1893.5.2-1898.2.17
*LP 1898.2.17-1903.10.22
*H 1903.10.22-1905.3.11
*LP 1905.3.11-1910.2.2
*LP 1884.4.29-1889.7.13
*LP 1908.3.19-1910.2.2
*Moderate Left Party 1910.2.2-1912.2.20
*H 1910.2.2-1913.1.31
*LP 1913.1.31-1920.6.21
*H 1920.6.21-1921.6.22
*LP 1921.6.22-1923.3.6
*H 1923.3.6-.5.23
*H 1923.5.30-1924.7.25
*LP 1924.7.25-1926.3.5
*H 1926.3.5-1928.1.28
*Labour Party [DNA] 1928.1.28-.2.15
*LP 1928.2.15-1931.5.12
*Agrarian Party [AP] 1931.5.12-1933.3.3
*LP 1933.3.3-1935.3.20
*DNA 1935.3.20-1940.6.7
*National Socialist Party [NS] 1940.4.9-..15
*NS 1942.2.1-1945.5.9
*DNA 1945.5.31-1963.8.28
*H 1963.8.28-.9.25
*DNA 1963.9.25-1965.10.12
*Centre Party (previously AP) 1965.10.12-1971.3.17
*DNA 1971.3.17-1972.10.18
*Christian People's Party [KFp] 1972.10.18-1973.10.16
*DNA 1973.10.16-1981.10.14
*H 1981.10.14-1986.5.9
*DNA 1986.5.9-1989.10.16
*H 1989.10.16-1990.11.3
*DNA 1990.11.3-1997.10.17
*KFp 1997.10.17-2000.3.17
*DNA 2000.3.17-2001.10.19
*KFp 2001.10.19-2005.10.17
*DNA 2005.10.17-2013.10.16
*H 2013.10.16-

Iceland (1918.12.1- )

Established in 1918. Adopting a constiutional monarchical system but under the control of Denmark. In 1941 Iceland declared independence from Denmark. The monarchical system was abolished in 1944, since then Iceland was under the alternate rule of the Independence Party, Social Democratic Party and Progressive Party.

*Home Rule Party 1918.12.1-1922.3.7
*Conservative Party [CP] 1922.3.7-1927.8.28
*Progressive Party [FSF] 1927.8.28-1942.5.16
*Independence Party [SSF] (previously CP) 1942.5.16-.12.16
*SSF 1944.10.21-1947.2.4
*Social Democratic Party [SD] 1947.2.4-1949.12.6
*SSF 1949.12.6-1950.3.14
*FSF 1950.3.14-1953.9.11
*SSF 1953.9.11-1956.7.24
*FSF 1956.7.24-1958.12.23
*SD 1958.12.23-1959.11.20
*SSF 1959.11.20-1978.9.1
*FSF 1978.9.1-1979.10.15
*SD 1979.10.15-1980.2.8
*SSF 1980.2.8-1983.5.26
*FSF 1983.5.26-1987.7.8
*SSF 1987.7.8-1988.9.28
*FSF 1988.9.28-1991.4.30
*SSF 1991.4.30-2004.9.15
*FSF 2004.9.15-2006.6.15
*SSF 2006.6.15-2009.2.1
*Social Democratic Alliance 2009.2.1-2013.5.23
*FSF 2013.5.23-2017.1.11
*SSF 2017.1.11-

Finland (1581- )

1. Foreign Rule (1581-1917.3.15)

Finland had been under Swedish rule since the 13th Century. A Grand Duchy was formally established when King Johan III crowned himself Grand Duke of Finland in 1581. In 1772 a constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution. In 1809 Sweden ceded Finland to Russia, whose rule over Finland ended in 1917.

*Finnish Party [SP] 1908.8.1-1909.11.13

2. National Government (1917.3.26- )

Established in 1917. Initially adopting the constitutional monarchical system, which was finally replaced by the republican system in 1919. From 1956 onwards, Finland was basically under the joint or alternate rule of the central-ring wing and left wing (Social Democratic Party).

*Social Demoractic Party [SDP] 1917.3.26-.8.17
*Young Finnish Party 1917.8.17-1918.5.27
*National Coalition Party (previously SP) [KOK] 1918.5.27-1919.4.17
*National Progressive Party [ED] 1919.4.17-1925.3.1
*Agrarian League [ML] 1925.3.1-1931.3.1
*SDP 1931.3.1-1937.3.1
*ML 1937.3.1-1940.12.19
*ED 1940.12.21-1944.8.4
*KOK 1946.3.11-1956.3.1
*ML 1956.3.1-1965.10
*Centre Party [KESK] (previously ML) 1965.10-1981.10.27
*SDP 1982.1.27-2012.3.1
*KOK 2012.3.1-

3. Soviet Government (1918.1.28-.4.25)

Established by the Communists who seized power in Helsinki in 1918 and was crushed by the National Government in the same year.

*Communist Party 1918.1.28-.4.25

Faroe Islands (1948.3.30- )

Being a Danish overseas dependent territory since 1814, Faroe Islands became a self-governing country of Denmark in 1948. Between 1967 and 1994 the country was under the prolonged rule of the Social Democratic Party.

*Unionist Party [SF] 1948.5.12-1959.1.8
*Social Democratic Party [JF] 1959.1.8-1963.1.4
*People's Party [FF] 1963.1.4-1967.1.12
*JF 1967.1.12-1994.9.15
*SF 1994.9.15-1998.5.15
*FF 1998.5.15-2004.2.3
*JF 2004.2.3-2008.9.26
*SF 2008.9.26-2015.9.15
*JF 2015.9.15-

North Germany

Saxe-Wittenberg (1260-1871.1.18)

Founded in 1260. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1831. Annexed by Germany in 1871.

Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1345-1806.11.10; 1813.11.6-1871.1.18)

Founded in 1345. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1832. Annexed by Germany in 1871.

Hanover (1692.12.19-1803.6.1; 1813.11.6-1866.9.20)

Founded in 1692. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1833. Annexed by Prussia in 1866.

Prussia (1525.4.8-1871.1.18)

Founded in 1525. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1848. As Prussia unified Germany in 1871, King Wilhelm I of Prussia retitled himself German Kaiser (Emperor).

German Confederation (1815.6.20-1866.8.24)

Formed by German states in 1815. After revolutions broke out in various German states in 1848, a Parliament was convened in Frankfurt. A constitution was enacted and a central authority was set up. The constitutional movement failed in 1849 and the confederation was dissolved in 1866.

*Liberal-Conservative 1848.7.15-.12.18
*Conservative 1849.5.16-..21

Germany (1871.1.18-1945.5.23; 1949.5.23- )

1. Second Reich (1871.1.18-1918.11.10)

In 1871 a unified German Empire adopting a constitutional monarchical system was established. In 1918 the Second Reich was overthrown.

*Cathoilic Centre Party [Z] 1917.12.2-1918.10.5
*Social Democratic Party [SPD] 1918.11.9-..10

2. Republican Government (1918.11.10-1933.1.30)

With the implementation of the Weimar Constitution, Germany adopted the parliamentary cabinet system in 1919. Between 1923 and 1932, Germany was basically ruled by the Catholic Centre Party and the Social Democratic Party alternately. This government came to an end when the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) came into power.

*SPD 1918.11.10-1920.6.21
*Z 1920.6.21-1922.11.22
*People's Party [DVP] 1923.8.13-.11.30
*Z 1923.11.30-1925.1.16
*Z 1926.5.17-1928.6.28
*SPD 1928.6.28-1930.3.30
*Z 1930.3.30-1932.12.3

3. Royalist Government (1920.3.13-..17)

Established by Kapp, leader of the royalists, who staged a revolt in 1920. The revolt was soon suppressed.

*All-German Union 1920.3.13-..17

4. Third Reich (1933.1.30-1945.5.23)

After NSDAP came to power in 1933, fascist rule befell Germany in the same year. The Third Reich was finally overthrown by the Allies in 1945. Thereafter, Germany was under the military rule of Britain, France, USA and USSR.

*National Socialist German Workers' Party (commonly known as Nazi Party) 1933.1.30-1945.5.1

5. [West] Germany (1949.5.23-1990.10.3)

Established in the occupation zone under the joint rule of USA, Britain and France in 1949. The parliamentary cabinet system was adopted and Germany was basically ruled by the rightist coalition (Christian-Democratic Union being the main party) and the Social Democratic Party. In 1990 this government reunified Germany.

*Christian-Democratic Union [CDU] 1949.9.15-1969.10.21
*SPD 1969.10.21-1974.5.7
*SPD 1974.5.16-1982.10.1
*CDU 1982.10.1-1990.10.3

6. [East] Germany (1949.10.7-1990.10.3)

Established by USSR in the Soviet occupation zone under the one-party rule of the Socialist Unity Party in 1949. With the outbreak of the pro-democracy movement in 1989, the one-party rule came to an end. In 1990 [East] Germany reunified with [West] Germany.

*Socialist Unity Party [SED] 1949.10.7-1989.12.16
*Socialist Unity Party-Party of Democratic Socialism [SED-PDS] (previously SED) 1989.12.16- 1990.2.4
*Party of Democratic Socialism (previously SED-PDS) 1990.2.4-.4.12
*CDU 1990.4.12-.10.2

7. Unified Government (1990.10.3- )

Since the reunification of Germany in 1990, the political scene was dominated by the political parties of the original [West] Germany.

*CDU 1990.10.3-1998.10.27
*SPD 1998.10.27-2005.11.22
*CDU 2005.11.22-

South Germany

Bavaria (889-1706.4.29; 1714.3.6-1871.1.18)

Founded in 889. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1818. Annexed by Germany in 1871.

Wurttemberg (1083-1519; 1534-1871.1.18)

Founded in 1083. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1819. Annexed by Germany in 1871.

Baden (c.1100-1871.1.18)

Founded in c.11-0. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1818. Annexed by Germany in 1871.

Nassau (1816.3.24-1866.9.20)

Founded in 1816. Nassau adopted a constitutional monarchical system. The state was annexed by Prussia in 1866.

Hesse-Kassel (1567.3.31-1807; 1813.10.30-1866.9.20)

Founded in 1567. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1831. Annexed by Prussia in 1866.

Hesse-Darmstadt (1567.3.31-1871.1.18)

Founded in 1567. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution in 1820. Annexed by Germany in 1871.

Bavaria (1919.4.7-.5.1)

In 1919 the Communist Party of Germany revolted in Munich and established this regime in conjunction with the Independent Social Democratic Party-Left Wing of Germany. With the revolt suppressed by Germany, this regime collapsed in the same year.

*Coalition formed by the Communist Party of Germany and the Independent Social Democratic Party-Left Wing of Germany 1919.4.7-.5.1


Austria-Germany-Austria (1156-1938.3.13; 1945.4.27- )

Founded in 1156, Austria became a constitutional monarchy in 1848. In 1851 the Emperor resumed absolute power until 1867, when the constitutional system was reintroduced. With the abolition of the imperial system in 1918, the country's name was changed to Germany-Austria, but was changed back to Austria in 1919. In 1934 the Fatherland Front established one-party rule, but was replaced by the National Socialist German Workers' Party installed by Germany in 1938. In the same year, Austria was annexed by Germany. With the occupation of Austria by the Allies in 1945, the Austrian state was restored. Between 1945 and 1966 Austria was under the joint rule of the Socialist Party (SPO) and the People's Party (OVP). Since 1966 Austria is ruled by SPO and OVP alternately.

*German-Liberal Party [DLP] 1867.12.21-1870.1.15
*DLP 1870.4.12-.10.30
*DLP 1871.11.25-1879.2.15
*Social Democratic Labour Party [SDAP] 1918.11.12-1920.7.7
*Christian Social Party [CS] 1920.7.7-1921.6.21
*CS 1922.5.31-1929.9.26
*Schober Group 1929.9.26-1930.9.30
*CS 1930.9.30-1933.3
*Fatherland Front (developed from CS) 1933.3-1938.3.11
*National Socialist German Workers' Party 1938.3.12-..13
*Socialist Party [SPO] (previously SDAP) 1945.4.29-.12.20
*People's Party [OVP] (previously CS) 1945.12.20-1970.4.21
*SPO 1970.4.21-1991.6.15
*Social-Democratic Party [SPO] (previously SPO) 1991.6.15-2000.2.4
*OVP 2000.2.4-2007.1.11
*SPO 2007.1.11-

Liechtenstein (1719.1.23- )

Founded in 1719, Liechtenstein became a constitutional monarchy with the promulgation of a constitution in 1818. Between 1928 and 1970, the political scene was dominated by the Progressive Citizens' Party (FBPL). From 1970 onwards, FBPL and the Fatherland Union take turns to form cabinets.

*People's Party 1922.6.6-1928.6.28
*Progressive Citizens' Party [FBP] 1928.8.4-1970.3.18
*Fatherland Union [VU] 1970.3.18-1974.3.27
*FBP 1974.3.27-1978.4.26
*VU 1978.4.26-2001.4.5
*FBP 2001.4.5-2009.3.25
*VU 2009.3.25-2013.3.27
*FBP 2013.3.27-


Switzerland-Helvetia (1499.9.22- )

Founded in 1499, Switzerland was initially a confederation. When the Helvetic Society staged a revolution in 1798, France occupied Switzerland and unified the Swiss cantons into the Helvetic Republic. In 1803 the cantons regained independence and restored the Swiss Confederation, which implemented a collective government head system. With the promulgation of a new constitution in 1848, the cantons were unified into a federal state. Since 1959 Switzerland has been ruled by a coalition of the Free Democratic Party (later renamed Free Democratic Party.The Liberals), Social Democratic Party, Conservative Christian Social People's Party (later renamed Christian Democratic People's Party) and Peasants', Business, and Citizens' Party (later renamed People's Party or Democratic Union of the Centre) of Switzerland. Later the Conservative Democratic Party also joined the coalition.

Northern Italy

San Marino (10th Century- )

Founded in the 10th Century. Since 1263, San Marino is ruled by two Consuls with parallel power. In 1906 universal suffrage was granted. Between 1923 and 1943, San Marino was under the prolonged rule of the Fascist Party, which established a one-party rule until 1943. In 1944 the Republican Fascist Party re-established one-party rule and the country was occupied by the German army. After the Germans were expelled by the Allies, the Republican Fascist Party was outlawed and San Marino reverted to the multi-party system.

Savoy-Sardinia (c.1027-1861.3.17)

Founded in c.1027, the country's name was changed to Sardinia in 1720. In the wake of a revolution in 1821, a constitutional monarchical system was adopted. Later the revolution was suppressed. In 1848 the constitutional system was restored. In 1860 this regime unified the most part of Italy and changed its name to Italy in 1861.

Florence-Tuscany-Etruria (1197-1859.5.10)

Founded in 1197, the country's name was changed to Tuscany in 1569 and was twice changed to Etruria in 1799 and 1801-1808. A constitutional monarchical system was introduced in 1848. The regime was finally annexed by Sardinia in 1859.

Central Italy

Rome (756-1809.5.17; 1814.3.24-1870.10.17)

The Roman Papal State was founded in 756. During the revolutionary period in 1848, the Papacy was forced to grant a constitution and adopt a constiutional monarchical system. A revolutionary government was set up in 1849. With the revolution suppressed by France in the same year, the Pope resumed absolute power. In 1870 Rome was finally annexed by Italy.

Italy (1861.3.17- )

1. Royal Government (1861.3.17-1946.6.18)

In 1861 King Vittorio-Emanuele II of Sardinia assumed the title of "King of Italy" and established this regime, which was a constitutional monarchy. In 1922 Mussolini, leader of the National Fascist Party (PNF), seized power and established fascist one-party rule in 1926. In 1943 the PNF government was overthrown and the monarchical system was abolished in 1946.

*Center-Right Party [CD] 1861.3.17-.6.6
*Center-Left Party [CS] 1862.3.4-1863.3.24
*Right Party [Des] 1863.3.24-1866.6.17
*CS 1866.6.17-1867.10.27
*CD 1867.10.27-1869.12.12
*Des 1869.12.12-1876.3.25
*CS 1876.3.25-1878.3.23
*Left Party [Sin] 1878.3.23-.12.18
*CS 1878.12.18-1879.7.12
*Sin 1879.7.12-1881.5.28
*CS 1881.5.28-1887.7.29
*Sin 1887.8.8-1891.2.9
*Des 1891.2.9-1892.5.15
*Liberal party [PL] 1892.5.15-1893.12.10
*Sin 1893.12.10-1896.3.10
*Des 1896.3.10-1900.6.24
*CS 1900.6.24-1901.2.15
*Sin 1901.2.15-1903.11.3
*PL 1903.11.3-1905.3.27
*CS 1905.3.27-1906.2.8
*CD 1906.2.8-.5.29
*PL 1906.5.29-1909.12.10
*CD 1909.12.10-1911.3.27
*PL 1911.3.27-1914.3.21
*Des 1914.3.21-1916.6.19
*CD 1916.6.19-1917.10.30
*Des 1917.10.30-1919.6.23
*Radical Party 1919.6.23-1920.6.16
*PL 1920.6.16-1921.7.4
*Social Reform Party 1921.7.4-1922.2.25
*PL 1922.2.25-.10.31
*National Fascist Party [PNF] 1922.10.31-1943.7.25

2. Salo Government (1943.9.15-1945.4.28)

In 1943 Germany occupied northern and central Italy and installed Mussolini, the former Italian Prime Minister, as head of this government, which was overthrown in 1945.

*Republican Fascist Party (previously PNF) 1943.9.15-1945.4.28

3. Republican Government (1946.6.18- )

The parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in 1946. Between 1946 and 1992, Italy was basically ruled by the coalition of the Christian Democratic Party (DC) and other parties. After DC lost its dominant status in the political scene in early 1990s, Italy is ruled by the central-left and central-right wings alternately.

*Christian Democratic Party [DC] 1946.6.18-1981.6.28
*Republican Party 1981.6.28-1982.11.30
*DC 1982.11.30-1983.8.4
*Socialist Party [PSI] 1983.8.4-1987.4.18
*DC 1987.4.18-1992.6.28
*PSI 1992.6.28-1993.4.29
*Forwards Italy [FI] 1994.5.11-1995.1.17
*Olive Tree Coalition [OT] 1996.5.18-1998.10.21
*Democrats of the Left 1998.10.21-2000.4.26
*FI 2001.6.11-2006.5.17
*OT 2006.5.17-2008.5.8
*FI 2008.5.8-2011.11.16
*Democratic Party 2013.4.28-

Southern Italy

Two Sicilies (1816.12.8-1860.11.8)

Founded in 1816, Two Sicilies twice adopted the constitutional monarchical system in 1820 and 1848. In 1860 it was annexed by Sardinia.

Malta (1964.9.21- )

In 1964 Malta gained independence from Britain. Thereafter, Malta is under the alternate rule of the Nationalist Party and Labour Party.

*Nationalist Party [PN] 1964.9.21-1971.6.21
*Labour Party [MLP] 1971.6.21-1987.5.12
*PN 1987.5.12-1996.10.28
*MLP 1996.10.28-1998.9.6
*PN 1998.9.6-2013.3.11
*MLP 2013.3.11-

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