A Chronology of World Political History
(1926 - 1950 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1926.4.20 Zhang Zuolin, head of the Fengtian Clique warlords of China, united with the Zhili Clique against the Nationalist Army, who were forced to retreat from Beijing. Provisional Consul Duan Qirui was forced to step down. The Anti-Fengtian War thus came to an end. In June of the same year Zhang Zuolin controlled the Beiyang Government. On 1927.6.18 Zhang Zuolin set up a military government and made himself Generalissimo.
1926.5.17 Pilsudski, former Head of State of Poland, staged the May Coup of Poland and seized power. He then carried out dictatorial rule.
1926.5.30 da Costa and Carmona, Portuguese military officers, seized power in a coup. On the next day, the First Republic of Portugal came to an end and the Second Portuguese Republic began. Since then Portugal was under prolonged military dictatorship.
1926.6.5 Britain, Turkey and Iraq signed the Treaty of Mosul, by which the majority of Mosul was given to Iraq. The Kurdistan region originally under Osmanli rule was thus divided into three parts: Southern Kurdistan (including Mosul) belonged to Iraq, Western Kurdistan belonged to Syria and Northern Kurdistan belonged to Turkey (Eastern Kurdistan remained under Persian rule).
1926.7.9 China (Nationalist Government) launched the Northern Expedition.
1926.8.11 Present-day Equatorial Guinea became a Spanish colony named Spanish Guinea.
1926.9.1 France reorganised the State of Great Lebanon as the Republic of Lebanon.
1926.9.2 The Qasimi Regime was renamed the Yemeni Regime ([Northern] Yemen).
1926.10.7 The Italian Government prohibited all non-Fascist parties. The National Fascist Party thus established one-party rule in Italy.
1926.11.14 Trotsky was expelled from the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik). In 1929.1 Trotsky was expelled from USSR. Later there emerged a Trotskyist Faction within the international socialist movement.

Supported by USA, Diaz, leader of the Nicaraguan Conservative Party, became the President. The Liberal Party rose against the Conservative Party and a civil war broke out in Nicaragua. In December USA despatched a troop to intervene in the civil war. Sandino launched a guerillar warfare against USA (the Sandino Movement) In May of the next year the Liberal Party compromised with USA and ended the war. But Sandino continued his resistance against USA.
1926.11.12 The Communist Party of Indonesia started a revolt in Dutch East Indies (1926 National Revolt of Indonesia, which was suppressed by the Dutch Colonial Government in January of the next year.
1926.12.17 Smetona, former President of Lithuania and leader of the Nationalist Union, staged a coup in conjunction with the Christian-Democratic Party and seized power. On ..19 of the same month Smetona resumed the presidency and carried out dictatorial rule.
1927.1.1 China (Nationalist Government) moved the capital to Wuhan. On .4.13 of the same year, Chiang Kai-shek purged the Communists within the Nationalist Party in Shanghai ("April 12th Purge"). On ..18 of the same month, Chiang Kai-shek set up another Nationalist Government in Nanjing in opposition to the Nationalist Government in Wuhan. On .7.15 the Central Committee of the Nationalist Party in Wuhan also purged the Communists ("July 15th Purge"). On .9.15 the two Nationalist Governments in Nanjing and Wuhan were reunified. Nanjing was chosen as the capital.
1927.4.12 Britain was renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1927.5.20 Britain signed the Treaty of Jedda with Najd by which Britain recognized the independence of the territories under the rule of the al-Saud Family (including Najd and Hejaz). Najd and Hejaz were thus freed from the status of semi-colony.
1927.8.1 The Chinese Communists started an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist Government, which marked the beginning of the First Nationalist-Communist Civil War. Subsequently, the Communists also started unsuccessful uprisings in several cities in southern China. Thereafter the Communists turned to the rural areas as their revolutionary bases, where they established a number of soviet governments.
1928
Tafari seized control of the Ethiopian royal court. On 1930.4.3 Tafari succeeded as Emperor of Ethiopia and was renamed Haile Selassie.
1928.4 Jordan promulgated the Organic Law and adopted a constituional monarchical system.

Salazar seized control of the Portuguese Government. In 1930.7 he formed the National Union. One-party rule of the National Union started in 1933.2.
1928.6.3 China (Nationalist Government) attacked Beijing. Generalissimo Zhang Zuolin fled and the Beiyang Government collapsed. On .10.3 of the same year, the Nationalist Government proclaimed the beginning of the one-party rule of the Nationalist Party. On .10.8 Chiang Kai-shek became the Chairman of the National Government. On .12.29 Zhang Xueliang, a warlord in northeastern China, submitted to the authority of the Nationalist Government, thus completing the unification of China. But the Nationalist Revolutionary Army split into cliques headed by Chiang Kai-shek, Li Zongren (Guangxi Clique), Yen Tsi-shan, Feng Yuxiang and Zhang Xueliang, the so-called "New Warlords".
1928.8.27 A number of countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in Paris whereby they were committed to abandoning war and settling international disputes by peaceful means.
1928.10.1 USSR implemented the first Five-Year Plan, which marked the beginning of planned economy and extensive socialist policies within the country.
1928.11 Bacha-i-Saqqo, Chief of an Afghan tribe, rose against the Barakzai Dynasty. On .1.17 of the next year, he overthrew the Barakzai Dynasty. He made himself Amir and was renamed Habibullah Ghazi. On .10.17 Mohammad Nadir established Afghanistan (Zahir Dynasty). On .11.1 Mohammad Nadir overthrew Habibullah Ghazi.
1929 USSR launched the Collectivization Campaign to establish a common ownership system in agriculture. In 1937 common ownership became predominant in USSR.
1929.1.6 King Aleksandar of Serbs-Croats-Slovenes staged a coup. By abrogating the constitution, he resumed dictatorial power.
1929.2.11 The Roman Papacy and Italy concluded the Lateran Treaties, by which Italy recognized the suzerainty of the Roman Papacy over Vatican City. On .6.7 of the same year, Vatican City gained independent status and established the Vatican City State.
1929.3 Outbreak of the Chiang-Guangxi War between Chiang Kai-shek, Chairman of the Chinese Nationalist Government and the Guangxi Clique warlords. In April of the same year, the Guangxi Clique warlords were defeated.
1929.5.8 The island of Jan Mayen became a Norwegian dependency.
1929.6.7 An expert committee on the German reparations problem proposed the "Young Plan" to replace the Dawes Plan, which was ratified by the Allies on .8.6 of the same year.
1929.9 The first television broadcast in history took place in Britain.
1929.10.3 The Kingdom of Serbs-Croats-Slovenes was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
1929.10.24 The stock market crash in New York, USA led to economic crisis, culminating in the Great Depression of the capitalist world.
1929.12.5 USSR established the Tadzikh Soviet Socialist Republic in eastern part of Central Asia as one of its union republics.
1930.1 A Republican Revolution broke out in Spain. On ..30 the dictator de Rivera was forced to step down. When King Alfonso XIII was forced to abdicate on 1931.4.14, the Bourbon Dynasty was supplanted by the Second Spanish Republic.
1930.1.21 The imperialist powers held the London Naval Conference, on which they reached agreement on the reduction and limitation of the powers' naval armaments.
1930.2.9 Nguyen Thai Hoc and Nguyen Khac Nhu, leaders of the Vietnames Nationalist Party, started the Yen Bai Uprising against French rule. The uprising was suppressed on ..15 of the same month.
1930.3 The Guangxi Clique warlords, Yen Tsi-shan and Feng Yuxiang united to oppose Chiang Kai-shek. In April of the same year, the Henan War broke out between Chiang Kai-shek and the Anti-Chiang factions. In November Chiang Kai-shek defeated his opponents.
1930.3.3 Rafael Leonida Trujillo, a military officer of the Dominican Republic, seized power in a coup and established the dictatorship of the Trujillo Family.
1930.3.12 To oppose a colonial act on the sale of salt, Gandhi launched the "Salt March", which marked the beginning of the Second Non-Cooperation Movement. On .5.5 of the same year, the Colonial Government suppressed the movement. On 1931.5.4 Gandhi concluded the Delhi Pact with the Colonial Government and halted the Non-Cooperation Movement.
1930.6.30 All the Allied armies withdrew from Rhineland.
1930.8.25 Cerro, a Peruvian military officer, staged a coup and overthrew President Leguia.
1930.9 The Vietnamese Communist Party started uprisings in the two provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh, where they set up soviet governments of workers and peasants (Nghe An-Ha Tinh Soviet Movement. On ..12 of the same month the French Colonial Government suppressed the uprisings. On ..10 the Vietnamese Communist Party was renamed the Indochinese Communist Party.
1930.9.6 de Uriburu, an Argentine military officer, staged a coup and toppled the Government of the Radical Civic Union.
1930.10
Vargas, Governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, started a revolt (Vargas Revolution) and overthrew the First Republic of Brazil on ..24 of the same month. Brazil then entered the Period of the "Transitional Republic". On .11.3 Vargas made himself President and carried out dictatorial rule.
1930.10.28 Saya San, a Burmese, rose against British rule and established the Burmese Kingdom. On 1931.8.2 Saya San was defeated and arrested. In 1933 the British Colonial Government crushed the rebellion.
1931.2.14 Ubico, a Guatemalan military officer, seized power in a coup and established a personal dictatorship.
1931.5.28 The Anti-Chiang factions within the Chinese Nationalist Party set up a Nationalist Government in Guangzhou in opposition to the Nanjing Nationalist Government. Wang Ching-wei was chosen as the Chairman. On .12.15 of the same year, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as Chairman of the Nationalist Government. On 1932.1.1 the position was succeeded by Lin Sen. But real power was still held by Chiang Kai-shek. On .1.5 the Guangzhou Nationalist Government was dissolved.
1931.7.16 Ethiopia promulgated a constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1931.9.18 Japan invaded northeastern China (the "September 18th Incident", also called the Shenyang Incident). On .2.5 of the next year, the Japanese army captured Harbin and occupied northeastern China.
1931.11 Britain formed the Pound Sterling Bloc with the member states of the British Colonial Empire and other countries closely associated with Britain. France and USA also formed the US Dollar Bloc and the Gold Bloc in 1933 and 1934, respectively. A situation of competition between the three currency blocs thus emerged.
1931.11.7 The Chinese Communist Party established China (Soviet Government) in Jiangsu to direct the local soviet governments. On .12.16 of the same year, the Nationalist Government started to attack the Soviet Government.
1931.12.3 Martinez seized power in a coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
1931.12.11 Britain passed the Statute of Westminster, which recognized the independent status of its dominions (except for Newfoundland). The British Colonial Empire was thus formally transformed to the British Commonwealth of Nations (also called the Commonwealth). Ireland, South Africa, Canada, Australia and New Zealand formally gained independence.
1932 Kim Il Song, a Korean Communist, started a guerilla warfare against Japanese colonial rule.
1932.1 The First National Uprising of el Salvador agaisnt President Martinez broke out. Martinez crushed the uprising.
1932.1.7 Stimson, Secretary of State of USA, stated that USA would not recognize Japanese invasion of northeastern China ("Stimson Doctrine"), but the statement could not halt the invasion.
1932.1.28 The Japanese army attacked Shanghai of China ("January 28th Incident", also called Shanghai Incident). On .5.5 of the same year China concluded the Shanghai Armistice, by which the Japanese army withdrew from the occupied territories.
1932.2.2 The Geneva Disarmament Conference was convened. Due to disagreement among the participating countries, no convention was made.
1932.3.1 Japan established the Manchurian Regime in northeastern China as its puppet state. On ..9 Japan installed Puyi, the former Qing Emperor, as the Consul of Manchuria and Concordia Association as the single ruling party of Manchuria. On 1934.3.1 Puyi changed his title to Emperor of Manchuria.
1932.5.8 The National Republican Party of Costa Rica came to power and carried out leftist policies.
1932.5.15 A Japanese ultrarightist group assassinted Prime Miniter Inukai Tsuyoshi in an attempt to seize power, but was suppressed ("May 15th Incident"). On ..26 of the same month, Saito Makoto succeeded as Prime Minister and formed a non-partisan cabinet, which marked the end of the Period of Party Cabinet of Japan.
1932.6 To contend for the northern Chaco region, Bolivia and Paraguay entered into the Chaco War (also called Gran Chaco War). On 1935.6.12 the war ended. On 1938.7.21 the two countries concluded the Buenos Aires Peace Treaty, by which Paraguay acquired the most territories of northern Chaco.
1932.6.4 Davila and Grove, leftist military officers of Chile, staged a coup and established the Socialist Republic of Chile, which was toppled by the rightist military men.
1932.6.24 The People's Party of Siam seized power in a coup (the 1932 Revolution of Siam) and established a Military Government. On ..27 of the same month King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) was forced to sign the Provisional Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1932.7.9 The Constitutionalists composed of the Brazilian agricultural plutocrats rebelled against President Vargas (the Constitutionalist War). On .10.2 of the same year the Constitutionalists surrendered.
1932.7.21 The British Commonwealth held the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa of Canada and decided to launch the Imperial Preference System, a system of trade protectionism.
1932.7.27 The anti-war activists of various countries held the International Anti-War Congress in Amsterdam, where they set up the International Anti-War Committee.
1932.9.22 Abdul-Aziz II, Kings of Najd and Hejaz, united the two countries as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
1932.9.26 The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden came to power. During their rule the Party established the welfare state system which became the model of the Western welfare state system.
1932.10.3 Britain declared that Iraq ceased to be a British mandate. But Iraq remained under British control.
1932.12.22 A constitution was granted in Maldives, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.
1933.1.1 Somoza Garcia, a Nicaraguan military officer, seized control of the government. Since then, Nicaragua was under the dictatorship of the Somoza Family. In the same month the USA army withdrew from Nicaragua.
1933.1.30
Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, succeeded as Chancellor, which marked the end of the Period of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Third Reich Period. On .7.14 of the same year, the National Socialist German Workers' Party established one-party fascist rule in Germany.
1933.3.1 President Terra of Uruguay staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule. Democracy was not restored until 1938.
1933.3.4 Japan occupied Rehe of China. On .5.31 of the same year, China and Japan concluded the Tanggu Truce, by which China recognized Japan's occupation of northeastern China and Rehe. Chahar and northern Hebei were designated as a demilitarized zone.
Franklin Roosevelt became USA President. During his presidency he adopted the Keynesian Theory and carried out the "New Deal" to revive the economy. In foreign affairs he adopted the "Good Neighbour Policy" to improve the relationship between USA and the Latin American countries.
1933.4.3 King Prajadhipok of Siam declared suspension of the constitutional government. On .6.20 of the same year, Phraya Phahon, a a military officer of the People's Party, staged the "June 20th Coup and restored the constitutional government.
1933.4.14 Sheng Shicai, a miliatry officer of Xinjiang, China, seized power in Xinjiang. During his rule he adopted the pro-USSR policy and unified Xinjiang making use of the USSR army. Xinjiang thus became a sphere of influence of USSR.
1933.6.12 The nations in the world held the International Economic Conference in London to discuss the international agreement on the stablization of currencies. On .7.27 the Conference was adjourned without success.
1933.8.24 A revolution broke out in Cuba. President Machado was overthrown. After a coup staged by Batista, a military officer, on .9.5 of the same year, Grau San Martin succeeded as President. After Batista forced Grau San Martin to resign on .1.15 of the next year, Batista held real power and carried out dictatorial rule.
1933.11 Li Jishen and Cai Tingkai, military officers of the Chinese 19th Route Army, rebelled in Fujian. On ..22 of the same month they set up the Fujian People's Government. On .1.21 of the next year the rebellion was crushed by the Nationalist Government.
1933.12.12 Hoja Niyaz Hajji, head of the Uygurs in Xinjiang, China, began to rule Xinjiang and founded the Islamic Republic of East Turkestan, which was toppled by Ma Zhongying, a warlord in Xinjiang, in February of next year.
1934 Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria and leader of the Fatherland Front, proclaimed one-party rule. On .7.25 of the same year, Germany instigated a Nazi Coup staged by the National Socialist German Workers' Party of Austria. Dollfuss was killed. But the coup was soon suppressed.
1934.1.1 Italy united Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan as Libya.
1934.1.30 Britain abrogated the dominion status of Newfoundland because of the corruption and maladministration of the Newfoundland Government. Newfoundland reverted to the status of a British crown colony.
1934.2.2 Sandino concluded peace with the Nicaraguan Government and ceased the guerilla warfare. On ..21 of the same month USA induced President Somoza Garcia of Nicaragua to assassinate Sandino.
1934.2.9 Greece, Turkey, Romania and Yugoslavia Balkan Pact and formed the Balkan Entente.
1934.3.12 Pats, State Elder of Estonia, staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule. In 1935.2 he formed the Fatherland Union and established one-party rule.
1934.3.17 Hungary, Italy and Austria signed the Rome Protocols and formed a Bloc of Danube States in opposition to the Little Entente.
1934.5.15 Premier Karlis Ulmanis of Latvia staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
1934.5.19 The People's League of Bulgaria seized power in a coup and established one-party rule.
1934.6.30 Hitler arrested and killed Roehm, head of the Storm Troops, the armed forces of the National Socialist Workers' Party and purged the Storm Troops (Roehm Incident). Thereafter the Schutzstaffel replaced the Storm Troops as the main armed forces of the National Socialist Workers' Party.
1934.10.16
Being besieged by the Nationalist Government, China (Soviet Government) was compelled to make a breakthrough and started the Chinese Communist Long March. In the Zunyi Conference held in January of the next year, Mao Zedong established his leadership role within the Party.
1935.1.13 In a plebiscite held in Saarland, the voters decided that Saarland was to revert to Germany. On .3.1 of the same year, the League of Nations returned Saarland to Germany.
1935.1.22 Emperor Boris III of Bulgaria staged a coup to overthrow the Government headed by the People's League. Boris III restored the absolute monarchy.
1935.3.21 Persia was renamed the Kingdom of Iran.
1935.9 In an attempt to acquire northern China, Japan induced five provinces in northern China (Hebei, Chahar, Suiyuan, Shandong and Shanxi) to launch an autonomous campaign (Northern China Incident). On .11.25 of the same year, Japan induced Yin Rugeng to establish the East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Government as a puppet government of Japan. On .12.9 the "December 9th Movement" against Japanese invasion broke out in Beiping. Thereafter the anti-Japanese movement spread throughout China.
1935.10.3 Italy started the Third Italo-Ehtiopian War and invaded Ethiopia. On 1936.5.2 Ethiopia (Solomonic Dynasty) was overthrown. On ..9 King Vittorio-Emanuele III of Italy assumed the title of Emperor of Ethiopia and established Ethiopia (Savoy Dynasty).
1935.10.10 Kondilis, former Premier of Greece, staged a coup and overthrew the Second Republic. Kondilis made himself Regent and Prime Minister and restored Greece (Danish Dynasty). On .11.4 of the same year Georgios II, the former King, was restored to the throne.
1935.11.15 Philippines became a commonwealth of USA and established self-rule.
1935.11.23 The Alliance of National Liberation of Brazil started a revolt in Rio Grande do Norte against President Vargas and established a People's Revolutionary Government ("November Revolution of 1935"). On ..27 of the same month the revolt was crushed by the Brazilian Government.
1936.1.15 The leftist parties of Spain formed the Popular Front in opposition to the rightist groups. On .2.19 of the same year, the Popular Front came to power. On .7.18 Franco, a rightist military officer, rebelled against the Government of the Second Republic. The Spanish Civil War broke out. On .7.23 Franco established Spain (Fascist Government). Later Germany and Italy dispatched armed forces to support the rightists, while USSR and the anti-Fascist strength in Europe formed the International Column to support the leftists. On .9.9 the countries concerned concluded an international convention by which the signatories promised not to intevene in the Spanish Civil War.
1936.2.6 Beginning of one-party rule of the Nationalist Union in Lithuania.
1936.2.17 The Paraguayan military forces staged the February Revolution of Paraguay and toppled the Government of the Liberal Party. On ..20 of the same month, Franco succeeded as President. In November he formed the Revolutionary National Union (commonly known as the February Revolutionary Party). After Franco was overthrown by the rightist military men on 1937.8.15, the Liberal Party returned to power.
1936.2.26 The Imperial Way Faction of the Japanese military forces staged a coup in an attempt to overthrow the Control Group, another faction of the military forces ("February 26th Incident". The coup failed on ..29 of the same month. Since then the Japanese army was controlled by the Control Group. On .3.9 Hirota Koki succeeded as Prime Minister and formed a cabinet which included members of the active army. Thereafter militarism started to gain ground in Japan.
1936.3.7 Germany dispatched a troop to reoccupy Rhineland.
1936.4.2 Saudi Arabia and Iraq concluded the Treaty of Non-Agression and Arab Brotherliness and launched the Pan-Arab Movement.
1936.4.13 Ioannis Metaxas became Prime Minister of Greece. After I. Metaxas staged a coup on .8.4 of the same year, he dissolved the Parliament and carried out dictatorial rule.
1936.6.1 Italy united Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia as Italian East Africa.
1936.6.22 The signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne held a conference in Montreux to discuss the issue of the Black Sea straits. With the signing of the Montreux Convention on .7.20, the International Straits Commission was dissolved and Turkey resumed control of the Black Sea straits.
1936.6.28 Japan induced Prince Demchugdongrub of Inner Mongolia to establish the Mongolian Military Government (commonly called the Mengjiang Government) as its puppet government. On 1937.11.22 the Mongolian Military Government was reorganised as the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government. In 1939.9 the Government was further reorganised as the Mongolian United Autonomous Government.
1936.8.27 Britain and Egypt concluded the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, by which Britain was to wtihdraw most of its armed forces. On .11.14 of the same year Egypt gained independence but continued to be under British control. Suez Canal Zone became a British colony.
1936.9.3 The anti-war activists in the world held the World Peace Congress in Brussels to promote the world peace movement.
1936.10 The Chinese Communists halted the Long March upon arrival in Gansu. On .1.1 of the next year, China (Soviet Government) moved the capital to Yan'an of Shaanxi.
1936.10.25 Germany and Italy concluded a pact and formed the Berlin-Rome Axix. On .11.25 of the same year, Germany and Japan concluded the Anti-COMINTERN Pact. On 1937.11.6 Italy joined the Pact. Germany, Italy and Japan thus formed the Axis Powers bloc.
1936.11 France abandoned the gold standard and the Gold Bloc disintegrated. Later France formed the Franc Bloc with its colonies to compete with the Pound Sterling Bloc and the US Dollar Bloc.
1936.12.5 USSR elevated Kazakh as Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic as one of its union republics.

USSR established the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic in eastern part of Central Asia as one of its union republics.

USSR dissolved Transcaucasus. Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic became a union republic of USSR. Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic became a union republic of USSR. Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic became a union republic of USSR.
1936.12.12 Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, twp Chinese military officers, took Chiang Kai-shek captive in Xi'an and forced Chiang to agree to stop fighting against the Communists to pave the way for a national united front against Japanese aggression (Xi'an Incident). On ..25 of the same month Zhang Xueliang released Chiang Kai-shek. But he was soon put under house arrest by Chiang.
1937.4.1 Britain reorganized its protectorates in Southern Yemen and established the Eastern Aden Protectorate (comprising of Kathiri, Qishn and Suqutra Mahri, Wahidi, ash-Shihr and al-Mukalla) and Western Aden Protectorate (comprising of Aqrabi, Lower Yafa, Lower Awlaqi, Upper Awlaqi, Fadli, Hawshabi, Upper Yafa, Dathina, Bayhan, Dali, Awdhali, Lahej, Alawi).
1937.5.28 Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. During his tenure he adopted the Appeasement Policy towards the Fascist regimes.
1937.7.7 Japan launched an offensive ("July 7th Lugouqiao Incident") and started an all-out invasion of China. The Second Sino-Japanese War broke out. On .8.13 Japan launched a campaign against Shanghai ("August 13th Incident").
1937.7.8 Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan concluded the Saadabad Pact. When the Pact took effect in June of next year, the Oriental Entente came into being.
1937.9.22 The Chinese Communists declared their submission to the authority of the Nationalist Government and the dissolution of the Soviet Government. On ..23 Chiang Kai-shek proclaimed recognition of the legal status of the Communist Party, which marked the formation of the united front against Japanese aggression and the end of the one-party rule of the Nationalist Party.
1937.12.13 The Japanese troops captured Nanjing, the capital of China and carried out the Nanjing Massacre. On ..14 Japan installed a Provisional Government in Beiping to govern northern China. On 1938.3.27 another Reformed Government was installed in Nanjing to govern eastern China.
1937.12.29 With a new constitution of [Southern] Ireland coming into force, the country's name was changed from Irish Free State to Ireland and the position of President was created. But Ireland retained the dominion status. A political system with two heads of state - a King (assumed by the British King) and a President was established.
1938.2.20 King Carol II of Romania promulgated a new constitution which restored the absolute monarchy. On .12.15 Carol II formed the National Renasisance Front, which carried out one-party rule.

The Radical Civic Union of Argentina returned to power.
1938.3.12 Germany directed Arthur Seyss-Inquart, head of the Austrian National Socialist Workers' Party to seize power. Germany annexed Austria on the next day.
1938.9.3 The Trotskyist groups of various countries formed the Fourth International.
1938.9.5 France separated Alexandretta from Syria and established the State of Hatay. On .7.23 of the next year Turkey annexed Hatay.
1938.9.12 Germany requested Czechoslovakia to grant autonomous rights to Sudetenland and led to the September Crisis. On ..29 of the same month Britain, France, Germany and Italy held the Munich Conference, on which Britain and France sacrificed the interests of Czechoslovakia. On ..30 the four powers concluded the Munich Agreement. On .10.1 Czechoslovakia ceded Sudetenland to Germany. On ..2 Czechoslovakia ceded Teschen to Poland.
1938.10.7 Germany induced Slovakia under Czechoslovakia to establish an autonomous government.
1938.10.11 Germany induced Ruthenia under Czechoslovakia (now under Ukraine) to establish an autonomous government. On ..28 of the same month Ruthenia was renamed Carpathian-Ukraine. On .11.2 Germany and Italy carried out the First Vienna Arbitration and decided that the southern part of Carpathian-Ukraine should belong to Hungary.
1939.3.14 Germany induced Carpathian-Ukraine to secede from Czechoslovakia and established the Carpathian-Ukraine Regime.

Germany induced Slovakia to declare independence and establish the Slovak Regime.
1939.3.15 Germany occupied Prague. On ..16 of the same month Germany annhilated Czechoslovakia and established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the remaining territory of Czechoslovakia (the Prague Incident).
1939.3.16 Hungary annexed Carpathian-Ukraine.
1939.3.22 Britain and France formed a mutual assistance military alliance against the Axis Powers. The Allied Powers bloc was thus reestablished.
1939.3.23 Germany annexed Klaipeda (i.e. Memel) under Lithuania.
1939.4.1 Spain (Fascist Government) annihilated the Second Republic and established the fascist rule of the Phalange Party in the whole country.
1939.4.7 Italy invaded Albania and deposed Zogu on ..8 of the same month. On ..11 the Fascist Party, with Italian support, established one-party rule in Albania. On ..16 King Vittorio-Emanuele III of Italy assumed the title of King of Albania and established Albania (Savoy Dynasty).
1939.5.22 Germany and Italy signed an agreement which came to be known as the "Pact of Steel" by historians.
1939.6.23 Siam was renamed the Kingdom of Thailand.
1939.8.23 Germany and USSR signed the German-Russian Non-Aggression Pact and delineated their spheres of influence in northeastern Europe.
1939.9.1 Germany launched the Blitzkrieg and invaded Poland and annexed Danzig. The Second World War broke out. The War subsequently developed into a war between the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers.
1939.9.3 Britain and France declared war on Germany without any military operation (the "Strange War").
1939.9.17 USSR invaded Poland and occupied Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia.
1939.9.28 Germany and USSR partitioned the territories of Poland. Some Polish government members fled overseas and formed a Government-in-Exile in Britain later.
1939.11.30 Finland and USSR entered into the Soviet-Finnish War(also called the "Winter War"). On .3.12 of the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Moscow, by which Finland leased Hanko Peninsula to USSR.
1940.1.1 British Dominica seceded from the British Leeward Islands and joined the British Windward Islands.
1940.3.30 Japan united the two puppet governments in Beiping and Nanjing as the Nationalist Government and installed Wang Ching-wei as the President of the Executive Yuan. On .11.28 of the same year, Wang Ching-wei became the Chairman of the Government concurrently.
1940.4.9 The German armies invaded Denmark. Denmark surrendered and bacame a German protectorate.

The German armies invaded Norway and installed Quisling as head of a puppet government. On .6.7 of the same year Norway (Oldenburg Dynasty) was overthrown.

Iceland suspended its relation with Denmark. On .5.17 of next year Iceland formally declared independence from Denmark.
1940.4.12 Britain occupied Faroe Islands.
1940.5.10 Germany invaded the Low Countries. Germany conquered Luxembourg.
1940.5.12 The German armies invaded France and started the Battle of France. A large area in northern France was swiftly occupied.

Churchill succeeded as the Prime Minister of Britain. During his tenure he led Britain in the war against the invasions of the Axis Powers.
1940.5.13 Germany conquered the Netherlands.
1940.5.28 Germany conquered Belgium.
1940.6.10 Italy joined the Second World War. The Italian armies intruded into the British dependencies in East Africa from Italian East Africa.
1940.6.15 USSR invaded the Baltic region and occupied Lithuania.
1940.6.16 Petain succeeded as Premier of France. On ..22 of the same month France and Germany signed the Compiegne Armistice, by which the northwestern part of France was ceded to Germany.
1940.6.17 USSR occupied Estonia and Latvia.
1940.6.18 de Gaulle, a French military officer, proclaimed the formation of the Free French Forces (renamed the Fighting French Forces on 1942.7) and called on the populace to resist the invaders. Anti-Fascist Resistance Movements began to arise in various European countries.
1940.6.22 The National Renasisance Front of Romania was re-established as the Party of the Nation, which carried out one-party rule.
1940.6.27 USSR compelled Romania to cede Bessarabia and northern Bukovina.
1940.7.10 The French Government moved the capital to Vichy (called the Vichy Government by historians) and governed southern France. The Third French Republic came to an end.
1940.7.21 USSR reorganised Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia as soviet socialist republics.
1940.8.2 USSR established the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in Bessarabia as one of its constituent republics. This constituent republic was renamed Moldova on 1990.6.23.
1940.8.3 Lithuania was incorporated into USSR.
1940.8.5 Latvia was incorporated into USSR.
1940.8.6 Estonia was incorporated into USSR.
1940.8.8 Germany launched an extensive air raid offensive against Britain (the Battle of Britain). From .6.22 of the next year onwards, Germany gradually stopped the air raids.
1940.8.30 Germany carried out the Second Vienna Arbitration and compelled Romania to cede northern Transylvania to Hungary and southern Dobruja to Bulgaria.
1940.9.4 Antonescu, a Romanian military officer, united with the Iron Guard and seized power in a coup. Antonescu became the Prime Minister. On ..14 of the same month, Iron Guard replaced the Party of the Nation as the only legal party. On .1.23 of the next year, Antonescu purged the Iron Guard and established a personal dictatorship.
1940.9.13 The Italian armies intruded into Egypt from Libya, which marked the beginning of the North African Campaign. On .2.11 of the next year, Germany dispatched troops to aid the Italian armies.
1940.9.22 The Japanese armies intruded into French Indochina. Thereafter French Indochina became a condominium of France (Vichy Government) and Japan.
1940.9.27 Germany, Italy and Japan concluded the Three-Power Pact by which the Axis Powers formally became a military alliance.
1940.10.12 The Japanese ultrarightists formed the Imperial Rule Assistance Association as a substitute of party politics and a means to carry out Fascist rule.
1940.11.20 Hungary joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
1940.11.23 Romania joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
1940.11.28 Thailand launched the Thailand-French War and occupied parts of the territories of Laos and Cambodia. On 1941.5.9, France and Thailand signed an agreement by which France recognized the occupation of the territories.
1941 The Belgian Communist Party, Socialist Party, Liberal Party and Catholic Party formed the Independent Brigades and began the resistance movement.
1941.1.15 The British armies in East Africa launched a counter-offensive against Italy and occupied Italian East Africa.
1941.3.1 Bulgaria joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
1941.3.11 The Land-Lease Act of USA took effect. Thereafter USA abandoned the isolationist policy and supported the Allies' struggle against the Axis Powers.
1941.3.25 Yugoslavia joined the Axis Powers. On ..26 of the same month Simovich of Yugoslavia staged a coup. On ..27 the Pro-German Provisional Regency was overthrown and King Petar II was put to power. An anti-German policy was then adopted.
1941.4 The Iraqi army installed al-Kaylani as the Prime Minister, who adopted an anti-British policy. The British army attacked the Iraqi army (Thirteen Days' War). In May of the same year al-Kaylani was overthrown by Britain.
1941.4.6 The Axis Powers invaded Yugoslavia.

The Axis Powers invaded Greece, which was then partitioned by Germany and Italy. On ..19 of the same month Bulgaria obtained part of Greece.
1941.4.8 Germany, Italy and Hungary began to partition the region of Slovenia under Yugoslavia.
1941.4.10 Germany induced Croatia to secede from Yugoslavia and established the Independent State of Croatia, which was a German vassal state ruling present-day Croatia and Bosnia under the one-party dictatorship of the Ustasha.
1941.4.17 King Petar II of Yugoslavia fled overseas and the Yugoslav Kingdom collapsed. Germany occupied Serbia. On ..30 of the same month a Serbian Regime was established as a German vassal state.

Italy occupied Montenegro. On .7.12 of the same year Italy established the Montenegrin Regime.
1941.4.18 Bulgaria occupied Vardar Macedonia.
1941.4.24
Norodom Sihanouk succeeded as King of Cambodia.
1941.5.5 Former Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia restored the Solomonic Dynasty. On ..16 of the same month, the Italian rule in Ethiopia came to an end.
1941.5.7 Germany installed a Puppet Government in Greece. On .6.2 of the same year King Georgios II of Greece fled overseas. Greece (Danish Dynasty) collapsed.
1941.6.22 The Axis Powers invaded USSR, which marked the beginning of the German-Soviet War (also called the Soviet Patriotic War). USSR joined the Allied Powers.

Finland attacked USSR, which marked the beginning of the Continuation War. On ..26 of the same month Finland joined the Axis Powers. From then on the Continuation War became a part of the Second World War. On .12.4 of the same year Finland recaptured Hanko Peninsula from USSR.
1941.6.27
The Yugoslav Communist Party led by Tito started a guerilla warfare against the invaders.
1941.6.29 Italy incorporated Kosovo into Albania. Italy incorporated part of Vardar Macedonia into Albania.
1941.8.9 USA and Britain held the Atlantic Conference in Newfoundland. On ..14 of the same month the two countries issued the Atlantic Charter and set out a series of international principles which became the basis of the aims of the future United Nations.
1941.8.25 Britain and USSR dispatched armied to occupy the southern and northern parts of Iran, respectively. On .9.16 of the same year, King Reza Khan of Iran abdicated and was succeeded by Mohammad Reza.
1941.11.26 Lebanon declared independence from France but France continued to control Lebanon, whose independence was not recognized by France until 1943.11.22.
1941.12.7 Japan launched a surprise attack against the Pearl Harbour in Hawaii, thus starting the Pacific War, which was a part of the Second World War.
1941.12.8 Japan invaded Thailand, which then became a vassal state of Japan.

USA joined the Allied Powers in the Second World War.
1941.12.22 Japan occupied Brunei.
1941.12.25 Japan occupied Hong Kong.

Japan annihilated Sarawak.
1942.1.1 26 countries signed the Declaration by United Nations in Washington and formed the Anti-Fascist League (a colloquial term for the Allied Powers) in opposition to the Axis Powers.
1942.1.3 Japan overthrew the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and occupied the Philippines.
1942.1.18 Japan occupied North Borneo.
1942.1.21 Japan occupied New Guinea.
1942.1.25 Japan forced Thailand to join the Axis Powers in the Second World War.
1942.1.31 Japan occupied Malaya.
1942.2.15 Japan occupied the Straits Settlements.
1942.3.8 Japan occupied Dutch East Indies.
1942.3.23 Japan occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
1942.4.11 Gandhi requested Britain to grant independence to India and launched the Quit India Movement, i.e. the Third Non-Cooperation Movement, which was soon suppressed by the Indian Government.
1942.5 The Polish Workers' Party and the Government-in-Exile started a guerilla warfare against the German invaders.
1942.5.3 Japan occupied British Solomon Islands.
1942.6.4 Japan and USA commenced the Battle of Midway Island. On ..7 of the same month the Japanese navy inflicted heavy losses. Since then USA gained an upper hand in the Pacific War.
1942.7.17 The German army started an offensive against Stalingrad of USSR, which marked the beginning of the Stalingrad Campaign.
1942.8.1 Japan occupied Burma.
1942.8.26 Japan occupied Nauru.
1942.10.5 Sheng Shicai, warlord of Xinjiang, declared submission to the authority of the Nationalist Government and broke off relation with USSR by requesting the Soviet army to withdraw from Xinjiang.
1942.10.23 The Allies launched a counter offensive against the Axis Powers in North Africa. On .11.12 of the same year the Axis Powers were expelled from Egypt.
1942.11.6 Italy occupied Monaco.
1942.12.1 Darlan, an official of France (Vichy Government), revolted and set up France (Resistance Government) in Algeria. On .6.3 of the next year, the Resistance Government cooperated with the Fighting French Forces and was reorganised as the Committee of National Liberation.
1943.2.2 The Soviet Army destroyed the German army. Thereafter the Axis Powers were at a disadvantage in the war.
1943.3 The various religious sects of Lebanon concluded the National Pact and established a political system that balanced the power of various Christian and Islamic sects.
1943.5.13 The armies of the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies, which marked the end of the North African Campaign.
1943.6.4 The Argentine United Officers' Group launched the "June 4th Movement" and overthrew the Government of the Radical Civic Union. Thereafter Argentina was under military and civilian rules alternately.
1943.6.15 The Communist International was dissolved.
1943.7.10 The Allies launched the Sicilian Campaign and landed on Sicily. In the same month, the Anti-Fascist United Freedom Front of Italy started an uprising. On ..25 the top leaders of the National Fascist Party staged the "July 25th Coup" to overthrow Mussolini. Italy surrendered on .9.8.
1943.7.27 End of the one-party rule of the Sanmarinese Fascist Party.
1943.8 Japan ceded parts of Malaya and Burma to Thailand.
1943.8.1 Japan declared the independence of Burma and established the Republic of Burma, which was a Japanese puppet state.
1943.8.29 Germany dissolved the Danish Government and took over direct administration of Denmark. On .9.16 of the same year, the resistance groups of Denmark formed the Freedom Council and started the resistance movement.
1943.9.8 Germany occupied Albania. On ..9 of the same month Germany overthrew the Italian rule in Albania. On ..14 a Puppet Government was set up.

Germany took over the Italian occupation zone in Greece.
1943.9.9 Germany occupied the northern and central parts of Italy. The Anti-Fascist United Freedom Front was thus reorganised as the Committee of National Liberation and started the resistance movement. On ..15 Germany directed Mussolini to establish the Republican Fascist Party and Italy (Salo Government) in Salo, which was a German puppet government.

Germany seized Monaco from Italy.
1943.9.10 Germany occupied Montenegro.
1943.10.13 The Central Government of Italy joined the Allied Powers and declared war on Germany.
1943.10.14 Japan established the Second Republic of the Philippines as its puppet regime.
1943.10.21 Japan induced Bose, head of the Indian National Army, to establish the Free India Government-in-Exile in Singapore and launched an attack against India.
1943.11.5 Japan convened the Greater East Asia Conference with the heads of the client states and puppet governments and declared the formation of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included Japan and the occupied territories.
1943.11.22 USA, Britain and China held the Cairo Conference. On ..26 of the same month they issued the Cairo Declaration, which declared that Japan shall return all the Chinese territories it occupied to China and grant independence to Korea. The three powers also requested for the unconditional surrender of Japan.
1943.12 Japan nominally handed the administration of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Free India.

Establishment of the Slovak National Council, which started the resistance movement in Slovakia.

Britain reoccupied British Solomon Islands.
1943.12.4 The Yugoslav Communist Party reestablished the Yugoslav Regime.
1944 The Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Government jointly launched the Cooperative Wheat Research and Production Program, which greatly increased the wheat yield in Mexico. Later the Programme was extended to other countries to help solve the food problem. The development was called the Green Revolution by historians.
1944.1.1 Syria declared independence from France, but remained under French control. It was not until 1946.4.17 when France recognized the independence of Syria.
1944.1.4 A splinter group of the Sanmarinese Fascist Party formed the Republican Fascist Party. On .4.4 of the same year they re-established one-party rule.
1944.3 Outbreak of the Second National Uprising of el Salvador against President Martinez. On .5.9 of the same year Martinez was forced to resign.
1944.3.10 The Greek Communist Party established the Political Committee of National Liberation as a governing agency. On .9.2 of the same year the Greek Communists submitted to the authority of the Government-in-Exile.
1944.3.22 Germany occupied Hungary. In May of the same year, the anti-Fascist groups in Hungary formed the Hungarian Front and started the resistance movement.
1944.3.26 The USSR armies entered Romania. On .8.23 of the same year, the Romanian army staged the "August 23rd Coup" and overthrew the Prime Minister Antonescu.
1944.5 The USSR armies entered Finland. On .9.19 of the same year Finland signed an armistice with USSR and withdrew from the Axis Powers.
1944.5.26 The Albanian Communist Party established the Anti-fascist Council of National Liberation as a government agency. On .11.29 of the same year the Communist Party expelled the German armies.
1944.6 Widespread anti-governmental campaigns broke out in Guatemala against President Ubico. On .7.4 of the same year, Ubico was forced to step down and was replaced by a Military Government which continued the dictatorial rule. In October the Guatemalan populace revolted and overthrew the Military Government (October Revolution of Guatemala) On .3.15 of the next year, the Revolutionary Action Party came to power and carried out democratic reforms.
1944.6.3 The French Committee of National Liberation was reorganised as the Provisional Government. On ..6 of the same month, the Allies launched the Normandy Campaign and landed on Normandy successfully. On .8.19 the Communist Party launched the Anti-Fascist Uprising in Paris. On ..25 the Allies captured Paris. On .9.7 the Vichy Government collapsed.
1944.7
Juan Peron, an Argentine military officer, seized power. During his rule he carried out nationalist policies, which came to be known as Peronism (also called Justicalism).
1944.7.1 The Allies held the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (commonly called the Bretton Woods Conference), which resolved to establish a global monetary system based on US dollars (commonly called the Bretton Woods System). On .12.27 of the next year, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD; commonly called the World Bank) were created.
1944.7.20 Stauffenberg, a German military officer, staged a coup in an attempt to overthrow Hitler, but failed ("July 20th Incident").
1944.7.22 USSR induced the Polish Workers' Party to establish the Second Polish Republic.
1944.8 Australia reoccupied New Guinea.
1944.8.1 Free Thai came to power in Thailand.

Bor, a Polish military officer, launched the Anti-Fascist Uprising in Warsaw, which was crushed by Germany on .10.2.
1944.8.10 Germany occupied San Marino, but was expelled by the Allies on .9.21 in the same year.
1944.8.21 USA, Britain and USSR held the Dumbarton Oaks Conference to discuss the issue of the post-war new global organisation. On .10.9 of the same year, it was decided that a United Nations shall be established after the war. The Conference laid down a number of principles concerning the organisation of the United Nations.
1944.8.29 The Slovak National Council launched the Slovak National Uprising against German rule. In October ofthe same year Germany crushed the uprising.
1944.9.3 Monaco regined independence.
1944.9.5 USSR declared war on Bulgaria. On ..9 of the same month the Bulgarian leftists launched the "September 9th Uprising" and established a Government of the Fatherland Front.
1944.9.8 The Kingdom of Belgium was restored.
1944.9.9 Germany occupied Vardar Macedonia.
1944.9.23 The Grand Duchy Luxembourg was restored.
1944.10 The Chinese Nationalist Government displaced Sheng Shicai, warlord of Xinjiang, and took over control of Xinjiang.
1944.10.6 The USSR armies entered Czechoslovakia.
1944.10.13 The Allies captured Athens and toppled the Greek Puppet Government. On the same day the Greek Government-in-Exile returned to the country and established a Regency.
1944.10.20 The USA armies entered the Philippines. The Filipino Government-in-Exile returned to the country and reestablished the Government of the Commonwealth.

The coalition army of USSR and Yugoslavia captured Belgrade and overthrew the Serbian Regime.
1944.11 Alikhan Tore, leader of the Uygurs in Xinjiang, China, started a revolt, which spread to the three regions of Ili, Tarbagtai and Altai Mountain (the Revolution of the Three Regions). On ..12 of the same month, he established the East Turkestan Republic.
1944.11.3 Germany induced the Hungarian Arrow Cross Party to overthrew Hungary (Regency). On ..4 of the same month Germany installed Szalasi, Prime Minister of Hungary and head of the Arrow Cross Party as National Leader and established Hungary (Puppet Government).
1944.11.16 The Republican Fascist Party of San Marino was outlawed and San Marino reverted to the multi-party system.
1944.11.19 Kosovo was re-incorporated into Yugoslavia. Vardar Macedonia was re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.
1944.12.2 The Hungarian Front was expanded as the National Liberation Front. On ..21 of the same month they formed Hungary (Resistance Government).
1944.12.7 Nations in the world signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which included provisions pertaining to issues such as airspace, civil aviation, etc. When the Convention took effect on 1947.4.4, the International Civil Aviation Organization was established.
1944.12.18 Montenegro was re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.
1945.1.17 The coalition armies of USSR and Poland captured Warsaw. On .6.28 of the same year the Workers' Party formed a coalition government with the Government-in-Exile.
1945.2.4 USA, Britain and USSR held the Yalta Conference in the Crimean Peninsula to discuss the post-war territorial arrangements and the organisational principles of the United Nations. The Yalta System thus emerged. On ..11 of the same month, the three powers secretly signed the Yalta Agreement, which confirmed the Soviet interests in Mongolia and northeastern China.
1945.2.13 The USSR armies entered Hungary. On .3.28 the USSR armies and Hungary (Resistance Government) jointly overthrew the Puppet Government. On .4.3 the German armies were expelled.
1945.3.9 Japan staged the "March 9th Coup" and seized the French Indochina.
1945.3.11 Japan directed Dai Nam to declare independence from France. But Dai Nam in fact came under Japanese control. On .6.12 of the same year Dai Nam was renamed the Viet Nam Empire.

Romania recovered northern Transylvania from Hungary.
1945.3.13 The Kingdom of the Netherlands was restored.
1945.3.18 Japan directed Cambodia to declare independence from France and controlled Cambodia.
1945.3.22 Seven Arab states signed the Pact of the League of Arab States and formed the League of Arab States (LAS).
1945.4 USA, Britain, France and USSR occupied Austria in different zones. On ..27 of the same month the Republic of Austria was reestablished.
1945.4.3 The Czechoslovak Communist Party formed a coalition government with the Government-in-Exile and established the Second Czechoslovak Republic.
1945.4.4 The coalition armies of USSR and Czechoslovakia annihilated Slovakia. Slovakia was re-incorporated into Czechoslovakia.
1945.4.8 Japan directed Luang Prabang Lanchang to declared independence from France and controlled Luang Prabang Lanchang.
1945.4.25 50 countries held the San Francisco Conference to discuss the organisation of the United Nations. On .6.26 of the same year the Charter of the United Nations was signed.
1945.4.28 The Italian Committee of National Liberation overthrew the Salo Government and executed Mussolini.
1945.4.30 The USSR armies captured Berlin. Hitler committed suicide. On .5.1 of the same year, Donitz succeeded as the German Fuhrer. On ..8 Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. On ..23 the Allies arrested Donitz, which marked the end of the Third Reich of Germany. On .6.5 Britain, France, USA and USSR set up the Allied Control Commission and occupied Germany and Berlin in different zones.
1945.5.3 The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League of Burma united with the British army and overthrew the Puppet Government. Britain regained control of Burma.
1945.5.5 The Anti-Fascist Uprising in Prague broke out in Czech. On ..9 of the same month the coalition armies captured of USSR and Czechoslovakia Prague. The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia collapsed.

The German armies in Denmark surrendered to the Allies. Denmark regained independence.
1945.5.6 Yugoslavia annihilated Croatia. The present-day Croatia and Bosnia were re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.
1945.5.9 Yugoslavia reoccupied Slovenia.

The German armies in Norway surrendered. Norway (Puppet Government) collapsed and Norway (Oldenburg Dynasty) was restored.
1945.6.7 USSR requested Turkey to amend the Montreux Convention and laid claims to parts of the territories of Turkey, which led to the Turkish Crisis.
1945.7 Brunei reverted to the status of a British protectorate.
1945.6.29 Carpathian-Ukraine was ceded to USSR rule and was later put under adminsitration by Ukraine.
1945.7.17 USA, Britain and USSR held the Potsdam Conference to discuss the post-war arrangements in Europe.
1945.8.2 USA, Britain and USSR concluded the Potsdam Agreement, which finalized the post-war political arrangements in Europe. Western Ukraine and Western Belarus were confirmed to be under USSR rule. Poland was given some parts of eastern Germany.
1945.8.6 The USA air forces dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima of Japan. On ..9 of the same month another atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The atomic bombs caused great casualties in Japan.
1945.8.8 USSR declared war on Japan. Subsequently USSR dispatched troops to occupy southern Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, northeastern China and north Korea.
1945.8.14 China and USSR signed the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, by which China recognized the independence of Mongolia and granted certain concessions in northeastern China to USSR.
1945.8.15 Japan declared unconditional surrender to the Allies.

Britain reoccupied Hong Kong.

Thailand regained independence from Japanese control. On ..16 of the same year Thailand declared withdrawal from the Axis Powers. Subsequently Thailand returned the Malayan and Burmese territories obtained during the War to Britain.
1945.8.16 China (Puppet Government) collapsed. On ..18 of the same month the Manchurian Empire collapsed and Manchuria was reincorporated into China.
1945.8.17 With the collapse of the Second Republic of the Philippines, USA reoccupied the Philippines.
Sukarno launched the August Revolution of Indonesia on Java. declared the independence of the Dutch East Indies from the Netherlands and established the Republic of Indonesia.
1945.8.18 Free India collapsed. On .10.6 of the same year Britain reoccupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
1945.8.19
The Indochinese Communist Party led by Ho Chi Minh launched the August Revolution of Vietnam. On ..25 of the same month the Communisty Party deposed Emperor Nguyen Vinh Thuy and established the [North] Viet Nam Regime, which was under one-party rule of the Communist Party. On ..30 [North] Viet Nam declared independence from France. Decolonization Movements emerged in the dependencies of the Western powers.
1945.8.23 The Issara National Independence Movement launched the August Revolution of Laos in Luang Prabang Lanchang. On .9.15 of the same year, the Issara National Independence Movement caused King Sisavang Vong to declare the unification of Laos and united Luang Prabang and Champassak as the Kingdom of Laos (Independent Provisional Government). On .10.12 the Issara National Independence Movement launched the "October 12th Uprising" and declared independence of Laos from France. On ..20 they deposed Sisavang Vong.
1945.8.26 USSR occupied North Korea.
1945.9.2 Japan signed the Terms for Surrender, which marked the formal end of the Second World War. Beginning of military control of USA in Japan.
1945.9.6 A Korean nationalist group established the Korean People's Republic in south Korea. On ..9 of the same month the USA troops occupied south Korea and carried out military rule. On .12.15 the Korean People's Republic was dissolved.
1945.9.8 Thailand was renamed the Kingdom of Siam.
1945.9.9 The Chinese armies entered the northern part of Vietnam. On ..12 of the same month the British armies entered the southern part of Vietnam. On ..21 Britain helped the French armies enter the southern part. Subsequently France reoccupied the southern part of Vietnam and the rest of Indochina.
1945.9.10 The Allies occupied North Borneo. On .11 of the same month the Allies occupied Sarawak.
1945.9.12 Britain reoccupied Malaya.

Britain reoccupied the Straits Settlements.
1945.9.13 Australia reoccupied Nauru.
1945.9.16 Faroe Islands reverted to Danish rule.
1945.9.29 The Allies occupied certain regions of Dutch East Indies.
1945.10.16 Cambodia reverted to the status of a French protectorate.
1945.10.19 The Venezuelan Democratic Action launched the October Revolution of Venezuela and seized power. During their rule they carried out nationalist policies.
1945.10.24 The United Nations (UN) came into existence. A Security Council was established under the United Nations, with China, USSR, France, Britain and USA being the permanent members. The United Nations established the Trusteeship System to replace the Mandate System of the League of Nations. Thereafter a number of mandates became trusted territories.
1945.10.25 China resumed sovereignty of Taiwan from Japan.
1945.10.29 The First Anti-Vargas Coup broke out in Brazil. President Vargas was overthrown. On .1.31 of the next year, Dutra succeeded as President and established the Second Republic of Brazil.
1945.11.20 The Nurnberg International Military Tribunal began the trial of the German war criminals. On .5.3 of the next year, the Fast East International Military Tribunal also began the trial of the Japanese war criminals.
1945.12 The Allies resolved to set up the Far Eastern Commission as a decision-making body for the Allied control of Japan. The Allied Control Commission for Japan was set up as an advisory and supervisory body.
1945.11.29 A federation composed of six constituent republics, namely Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, (i.e. Vardar Macedonia) and Bosnia, was established in Yugoslavia. But real power was held by the Federal Government controlled by the Communist Party. One-party rule was established in the whole country. Tito started his prolonged rule in Yugoslavia.
1945.12.10 USSR induced the Azerbaijani Democratic Party to establish the Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan in southern Azerbaijan under Iranian rule. On .1.22 of the next year, USSR induced the Kurdistan Democratic Party to establish the Republic of Kurdistan in Mahabad of eastern Kurdistan, thus leading to the Iranian Crisis. On .12.11 Iran resumed control of southern Azerbaijan. On ..15 Iran resumed control of eastern Kurdistan.
1946.1.7 France signed an agreement with Cambodia and granted internal autonomy to Cambodia.
1946.1.11 The monarchical system of Albania was formally abrogated and replaced by the one-party rule of the Communist Party. Hoxha started his prolonged rule in Albania. During his rule he adopted an isolationist policy.
1946.2.1 Establishment of the Second Hungarian Republic.
1946.2.8 The Communist Party of North Korea led by Kim Il Song established the North Korean Regime in the northern part of Korea.
1946.2.18 Opposing the racial discrimination of the British military officers, the navy in Bombay of India launched the Bombay Navy Uprising, which was crushed by the Government on ..23 of the same month.
1946.3 The Chinese armies retreated from the northern part and France occupied parts of the territories. On .6.1 of the same year France established the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina in the southern part in opposition to [North] Viet Nam.
1946.3.2 Britain and USSR withdrew their armies from Iran.
1946.3.5 In a speech presented in USA, former British Prime Minister Churchill pointed out that the Communist countries were under an "Iron Curtain" and called on the Western countries to prepare for war. This marked the beginning of the Cold War between the Western Bloc and the Communist Bloc.
1946.4.1 Britain united Federated Malay States, Unfederated Malay States, Malacca and Penang as the Malay Union, while Singapore became a separate crown colony. On 1948.2.1 the Union was reorganised as the Federation of Malaya.
1946.4.14 Sarawak was restored. On .7.1 of the same year Britain abrogated the Sarawak Kingdom and made it a crown colony.
1946.4.18 The International Court of Justice was set up in Hague. The League of Nations formally ceased to exist. Its assets, properties and responsibilities were transferred to the United Nations.
1946.4.23 Laos reverted to the status of a French protectorate.
1946.6 Outbreak of the Second Nationalist-Communist Civil War between China (Nationalist Government) and the Communists.
1946.6.16 East Turkestan was reincorporated into China. Representatives of East Turkestan and the Chinese Central Government formed a Coalition Government of Xinjiang.
1946.6.17 Transjordan gained independence from Britain, but remained under British control.
1946.6.18 The monarchical system of Italy was abrogated and the Italian Republic was established. Thereafter the Christian Democratic Party dominated the political scene by forming coalition governments with other political parties.
1946.7.1 The Netherlands regained control of certain regions of Dutch East Indies.
1946.7.4 The Philippines gained independence from USA and established the Third Republic of the Philippines.
1946.7.11 North Borneo became a British crown colony.
1946.7.20 Spain united Ifni (belonging to present-day Morocco), Rio de Oro and Seguia el-Hamra (both belonging to present-day Sahara) as Spanish West Africa.
1946.7.29 28 countries held the Paris Peace Conference to discuss the peace treaties with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Finland and Bulgaria.
1946.8 USA and Britain declared support of Turkey in resistance to USSR. On ..22 Turkey rejected the territorial claims of USSR. Since then Turkey adopted a pro-Western policy.
1946.8.7 Ospina, leader of the Colombian Conservative Party, succeeded as President and carried out oppressive rule (la Violencia). Later the Liberal Party and the Communist Party revolted successively in opposition to the Government of the Conservative Party.
1946.8.27 France signed an agreement with Laos and granted internal autonomy to Laos.
1946.9.15 The monarchical system of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Empire was abrogated and replaced by the one-party rule of the Workers' Party.
1946.9.28 Georgios II, former King of Greece, returned to his country and restored Greece (Danish Dynasty). On .10.26 of the same year the Communist Party launched an uprising in the northern mountainous areas, which marked the beginning of the Greek Civil War.
1946.10.13 A plebiscite held in France ratified the new Constitution, which established the Fourth French Republic. The French Union was also established to replace the French Colonial Empire.
1946.11 Siam and France signed an agreement by which Siam returned the Laotian and Cambodian territories obtained during the War to France.
1946.12.8 New Guinea became an Australian trust territory.
1946.12.11 Tanganyika became a British trust territory.

South Africa rejected a change of Southwest Africa's status to trust territory and announced that Southwest Africa continued to be its mandate.
1946.12.13 French Cameroons and British Cameroons became French and British trust territories, respectively.

French Togo and British Togoland became French and British trust territories, respectively.

Ruanda-Urundi became a Belgian trust territory.
1946.12.19 France launched an offensive against [North] Viet Nam. The First Indochina War (also called the First Vietnam War) broke out.
1946.12.24 The Netherlands installed a number of puppet native states in East Indies (including: State of Great East, East Indonesia, Pasundan, East Sumatra, Madura, South Sumatra, East Java, etc.) in opposition to the Republic of Indonesia.
1947 China eventually abolished all privileges enjoyed by the Western powers in China and freed itself from the status of semi-colony.

Britain established the Kingdom of Tiv in eastern Nigeria as a princely state under Nigeria. Later ethnic conflicts arose between the Tiv People and the neighbouring Jukun People.
1947.1.1 USA and Britain united their administrative zones in West Germany as the Bizone. In March next year the Bizone was further united with the French Zone as the Trizone.
1947.1.25 Western Samoa became a New Zealand trust territory.
1947.2.5 Bierut, leader of the Polish Workers' Party, became the President. On ..7 of the same month, Cyrankiewicz, leader of the Socialist Party, became the Premier. The leftists thus controlled the Polish Government.
1947.2.6 Australia, New Zealand and a number of Western states possessing colonies or trust territories in south Pacific signed the Canberra Agreement and established the South Pacific Commission (SPC).
1947.2.10 The Allies signed the Peace of Paris with Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland and Italy. The current borderlines of Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria were confirmed. Finland leased Porkkala to USSR. Italy ceded parts of its territories to France, Yugoslavia and Greece and was deprived of its colonies.
1947.2.15 Italy ceded Libya to the Allies (Libya came under United Nations administration on 1949.12.10). In practice Libya Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were administered by Britain while Fezzan was administered by France.
1947.3.25 The Netherlands and Indonesia concluded the Linggadjati Agreement (also called the Cirebon Agreement), by which the Netherlands recognized that Java, Sumatra and Madura shall be governed by the Republic of Indonesia, which shall form a federation with the native states created by the Netherlands. On .7.20 of the same year, the Netherlands violated the Agreement by launching the First Police Action against the Republic of Indonesia. On .8.4 the two parties ceased fire.
1947.5 A constitution was granted in Cambodia, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.
1947.5.3 The new Japanese Constitution took effect. Under the new Constitution, Japan adopted a parliamentary cabinet system and abandoned the right of possessing armed forces and participating in military actions overseas.
1947.5.11 A constitution was promulgated in Laos, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.
1947.6 Britain proposed the Mountbatten's Plan, which partitioned India into the two dominions of India and Pakistan based on religions.
1947.6.5 Marshall, Secretary of State of USA, proposed the European Recovery Programme (commonly called the Marshall Plan). The Programme was implemented on .4.3 of the next year.
1947.7.18 Northern Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands and Marshall Islands became a USA trust territory called the American Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
1947.7.19 Aung San, leader of the Burmese independence movement, was assassinated. The incident was called the 1947 Assassination by historians.
1947.7.28 A plebiscite held in Spain ratified the Bill of Succession, which restored the monarchy. The throne was temporarily held vacant and Franco continued to be the Head of State.
1947.8.14 The western part of India (called Western Pakistan) and eastern Bengal (called Eastern Pakistan) gained independence from Britain and became the Dominion of Pakistan.
1947.8.15 India gained independence and became the Dominion of India.
1947.9.15 A Free Territory of Triest located at the border between Italy and present-day Slovenia was set up. The territory was composed of Zones A and B, with Zone A administered by Britain and USA and Zone B administered by Yugoslavia.
1947.10.5 Nine Communist and Workers' Parties united to form the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM).
1947.10.20 23 countries signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), by which they undertook to mutually reduce the tariffs and promote free trade. When the Agreement came into effect on .1.1 of the next year, a mechanism for international trade negotiation was formally inaugurated.
1947.10.27 King Hari Singh of Jammu proclaimed the incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir into India, which aroused discontent among the Muslims in the country. India and Pakistan dispatched troops to support the King and the Muslims, respectively. The First Indo-Pakistani War (also called the Kashmir War) broke out. On 1949.1.1 both parties ceased fire. Thereafter India and Pakistan occupied Jammu and Kashmir in different zones.
1947.11.1 Nauru became a trust territory of Britain, Australia and New Zealand, but in fact continued to be administered by Australia on behalf of the other two countries.
1947.11.8 Luang Pibul, a Siamese military officer, overthrew the Free Thai Government and established a military dictatorship.
1947.11.29 The United Nations passed the Partition Plan for Palestine, which provided for the establishment of a Jewish state and a Palestinian state in Palestine.
1947.12.17 Saarland of Germany became an autonomous region, with its security and foreign affairs being taken up by France. Saarland thus became a de facto sphere of interest of France.
1947.12.24 The Greek Communists established Greece (Provisional Democratic Government).
1947.12.30 The monarchical system was abrogated in Romania. In February next year, the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party were amalgamated into the Workers' Party and carried out one-party rule.
1948.1.4 Burma gained independence from Britain and established the Burmese Regime.
1948.2.4 Ceylon gained independence from Britain and became the Dominion of Ceylon, which adopted the parliamentary cabinet system.
1948.2.20 When the rightist cabinet members of Czechoslovakia tried to cause a cabinet crisis, their attempt was defeated by the Communist Party. On ..25 of the same month the Communist Party purged the rightist members inside the cabinet (February Incident). On .6.14 President Benes was forced to resign and the Communist party seized control of the whole government and started its one-party rule. This marked the end of the Second Czechoslovak Republic.
1948.3.12 Figueres, leader of a Costa Rican militia, rose against the Government of the National Republican Party (the Costa Rican Civil War). On .4.24 the militia captured San Jose, the capital of Costa Rica. On .5.8 the Government of the National Republican Party stepped down and Figueres became the junta president.
1948.3.17 Five West European countries signed the Brussels Treaty. On .8.25 of the same year, the Brussels Treaty Organisation was formally established.
1948.3.30 Faroe Islands became a self-governing country of Denmark.
1948.4.6 Finland and USSR signed the Finno-Soviet Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance by which Finland was obliged not to join any anti-Soviet alliance. Thereafter Finland adopted a neutral diplomatic policy that avoided antagonizing USSR.
1948.4.16 A number of European countries formed the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).
1948.4.28 By an amendment to the constiution, Luxembourg gave up the status of a perpetual neutral state.
1948.4.30 The American countries held the Ninth Pan-American Conference and resolved that the Union of American Republics be reorganised as the Organisation of American States (OAS).
1948.5.14 Britain ended its mandate for Palestine. The Jews in Palestine established the State of Israel.
1948.5.15 The Arab states dispatched troops to Palestine and entered into the First Arab-Israeli War (also called the First Middle East War or the Palestinian War). During the war Transjordan acquired the West Bank of River Jordan. The war ended in 1949.7.
1948.6 The United Nations despatched military observers to monitor the execution of the armistice in Middle East. This marked the beginning of the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions.
1948.6.24 The first World Health Assembly was convened in Geneva. The World Health Organisation was established to improve the hygienic and health conditions of the world.

USSR imposed a blockade of all traffice between West Germany and West Berlin (the First Berlin Crisis). Thereafter USA and Britain organised a large-scale air lift to West Berlin to circumvent the blockade, which was not lifted by USSR until .5.12 of the next year.
1948.6.28 The Communist Information Bureau expelled Yugoslavia from membership (the Soviet-Yugoslav Conflict). Yugoslavia broke off relation with USSR and withdrew from the Communist Bloc thereafter.
1948.8.15 USA ended the military rule of the southern part of Korea and established the Republic of Korea ([South] Korea), which was under the dictatorial rule of Syngman Rhee.
1948.9.9 The Democratic People's Republic of Korea ([North] Korea) was established in the northern part of Korea, which was under the one-party rule of the Workers Party and the prolonged rule of Kim Il Song.
1948.9.18 Muso, leader of the Indonesian Communist Party, staged a coup in Madioen on Java and seized power of the municipal government (Madioen Incident). On ..30 of the same month the Communists were suppressed by the Indonesian Government.
1948.9.20 The Netherlands renamed Dutch East Indies as Indonesia.

The Netherlands renamed Curacao and Dependencies as Netherlands Antilles.

The Netherlands renamed Dutch Guiana as Suriname.
1948.10.29 Odria, a Peruvian military officer, seized power in a coup.
1948.11.24 Jimenez, a Venezuelan military officer, staged a coup and toppled the Democratic Action Government. He seized power and carried out dictatorial rule.
1948.12.9 The Party of the Hungarian Workers began to gain ground in the political struggle and compelled the Independent Party of Smallholders, the ruling party, to purge the rightists within the party. A coalition government composed of the Independent Party of Smallholders and the Party of the Hungarian Workers was formed, with the latter holding real power.
1948.12.14 Osorio, a Salvadorian military officer, seized power in a coup. In 1950 Osorio created the Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification and carried out "Military Reformist" policies.
1948.12.18 The Netherlands launched the Second Police Action and attacked the Republic of Indonesia again. On .5.7 of the next year, both parties ceased fire.
1948.12.20 The Workers' Party and the Socialist Party of Poland were amalgamated into the United Workers' Party, which carried out one-party rule. This marked the end of the Second Polish Republic.
1949 The Karen National Union mobilized the Karen People in Burma to revolt against the Burmese Government, which marked the beginning of the Burmese Civil War. Later other ethnic minorities in Burma (such as the Kachin People, Shan People, etc.) also joined the revolt.
1949.1.25 USSR and the East European countries formally established the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) in Moscow.
1949.2.1 The Malayan Communist Party organised the Malayan National Liberation Army and rose against the British colonial rule. The warfare was not ended until 1960.
1949.3.30 A series of military coups occurred in Syria since this day. On .12.19 of the same year, military officer ash-Shishakli eventually came to power.
1949.3.31 Newfoundland ended its colonial status and was incorporated into Canada.
1949.4 South Africa unilaterally declared annexation of South West Africa.
1949.4.3 Transjordan declared annexation of the East Bank and West Bank of River Jordan and was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
1949.4.4 The Western allies signed the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington and formed a military alliance. On .8.24 of the same year the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO; commonly called the Atlantic Alliance) was formally established.
1949.4.18 Ireland officially ceased to be a British dominion. The Republic of Ireland was established.
1949.4.23 The Chinese Communists captured Nanjing and overthrew the Nationalist Government. On .10.1 of the same year, the Communists established the People's Republic of China, which was under the one-party rule of the Communist Party and the prolonged rule of Mao Zedong.
1949.5.5 The European countries established the Council of Europe.
1949.5.23 The Federal Republic of Germany ([West] Germany) was established in the Trizone of Germany. On .10.7 of the same yaer, USSR established the German Democratic Republic ([East] Germany) in the Soviet Zone, which was under the one-party rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Germany thus split into two separate regimes.
1949.6.1 The Sanusi Order established the Emirate of Cyrenaica in Cyrenaica of Libya.
1949.6.14 France reorganised Cochichina as an associated state of France - the Vietnamese Regime ([South] Viet Nam), which was nominally independent but in fact remained under French control. France installed the former Emperor Nguyen Vinh Thuy as the Chief of State.
1949.7.1 Australia united Papua and Guniea as one unit called Papua and New Guinea, which was renamed Papua New Guinea on 1971.7.1.
1949.7.19 France and Laos signed a treaty by which Laos nominally gained independence an associated state of France.
1949.7.20 Siam was once again renamed Thailand.
1949.8.8 India and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Friendship, by which Bhutan became an Indian client state whose foreign affairs were to be guided by India.
1949.8.20 Rakosi, General Secretary of the Party of the Hungarian Workers, succeeded as Premier and established one-party rule in the country. The Second Hungarian Republic came to an end.
1949.8.23 The Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia held the Hague Round Table Conference. On .11.2 of the same year the two countries signed the Hague Round Table Conference Agreement, which reiterated the terms of the Linggadjati Agreement.
1949.8.28 The Greek Royal Government army expelled the Communist Party from the country. The Provisional Democratic Government collapsed. On .10.16 of the same year, the Communists ceased their struggle and the Greek Civil War came to an end.
1949.11.8 France signed a treaty with Cambodia by which Cambodia became an associated state of France.

Ulate succeeded as President of Costa Rica. Thereafter the political situation of Costa Rica was stabilized.
1949.12.8 The Chinese Nationalist Party retreated to Taiwan, where they established China (Taiwan Government) and carried out one-party rule as well as a prolonged martial rule.
1949.12.10 The United Nations passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
1949.12.27 The Republic of Indonesia and the native states united to form the Republic of the United States of Indonesia, which adopted a federal system. The Republic of the United States of Indonesia and the Netherlands formed the Netherlands-Indonesian Union.
Mid-20th Century Beginning of the Third Industrial Revolution. This period saw the rapid development of the nuclear technology, information technology, aeronautical technology and biological technology.

Drastic growth of world population began. This phenomenon of population explosion led to the problem of global shortage of resources and energy sources.
1950 The Indonesian Unification Movement emerged in Indonesia. The various native states were annexed into the Republic of Indonesia. On .8.17 of the same year the Unification Movement was completed and Indonesia abrogated the federal system and the Republic of the United States of Indonesia.
1950.1.26 India ended its dominion status and established the Republic of India.
1950.3.18 The Chinese Communist Party started to carry out radical reforms in the country and launched a series of political campaigns.
1950.4 The Khmer Issarak launched an anti-French rebellion in Cambodia and established the Khmer Regime (commonly called the Resistance Provisional Government of Khmer).
1950.4.1 Italian Somalia became an Italian trust territory.
1950.4.27 South Africa announced the Group Areas Bill, which assigned separate residential areas for different races and started the implementation of the Apartheid Policy.
1950.5 Schuman, Foreign Minister of France, proposed the establishement of an international organisation to integrate the coal and steel production of France and [West] Germany. His proposal came to be known as the "Schuman Plan" and was the prototype of the post-war European organisations for economic co-operation. On .4.18 of the next year, the European Coal and Steel Community was formally founded.
1950.6.25 [North] Korea invaded [South] Korea. The Korean War broke out. On .7.3 of the same year, the UN armies commanded by USA entered the Korean Peninsula in support of [South] Korea. On .10.25 China dispatched troops to support [North] Korea.
1950.6.26 Yugoslavia carried out economic reforms and established a system of workers' self-management.
1950.8.13 The Laotian leftist groups formed the Issara Front (commonly known as Pathet Lao) in Xam Nua in opposition to France and the Royal Government. On ..15 they established Laos (Resistance Government) and the First Laotian Civil War broke out.
1950.11.7 King Tribhuvana of Nepal united with the Napalese Congress Party in an attempt to overthrow the Rana Family in power, but failed. The Napalese Congress Party revolted against the Rana Family. On .2.18 of the next year, Tribhuvana promulgated the Provisional Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government, which marked the end of the rule of the Rana Family and the restoration to power of the King.
1950.12.5 India and Sikkim signed a peace treaty whereby Sikkim became an Indian client state.

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