A Chronology of World Political History
(1501 - 1600 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
c.16th Century The Kubas founded the Kingdom of Kuba in present-day [East] Congo.

The Tekes founded the Kingdom of Andjiko in present-day [West] Congo.
1st Half of 16th Century Large influx of gold and silver from America to Western Europe led to a prolonged period of inflation which lasted for one and a half centuries. This was the period of Price Revolution. At the same time, the commercial and trade activities of West European countries also experienced large scale of expansion. This was also the period of Commercial Revolution, during which chartered companies were set up to carry out commercial and trade activities and mercantilist policies which put emphasis on state interference were carried out.
Early 16th Century Nanak, an Indian religious leader, founded Sikhism in Punjab. He became the first Guru of Sikhism.
1501 Portuguese colonists began invading present-day Mozambique. In 1569 they established the Mozambique Colony (also called Portuguese East Africa), which subsequently expanded to cover the whole territory of present-day Mozambique.
1502 Mombasa, a city on the southeast coast of present day Kenya, seceded from Kilwa and established the Kingdom of Mombasa.
1502.9 Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine explorer, completed his voyages in Brazil for Portugal and confirmed that the "India" reached by Colombo was in fact a "New Continent". America is thus named after Amerigo.
c.1502.5.11 Ismail I, leader of the Persian Qizilbash Sect (a branch of the Shiah Sect), founded the Kingdom of Persia (Safavid Dynasty).
c.1504 Amara I, Chief of the Fungs, founded the Kingdom of Sennar in the eastern part of East Sudan.
1505 Vira Narasimha, a senior official of Vijayanagar, overthrew the Saluva Dynasty. He made himself King and established Vijayanagar (Tuluva Dynasty).

Moscow destroyed Great Perm. Thereafter, Moscow (and later Russia) conquered the various Volga Finnic Peoples (including the Komis, Udmurts, Maris, Mordvins, etc).
1508 With the consent of the Roman Papacy, King Maximilian I of Germany took the title of "Elected Holy Roman Emperor". Since then the German Kings ceased to be crowned as Emperor in Rome and acquired the title of "Holy Roman Emperor" automatically upon ascension.

Castile-Leon began massive colonization of the Caribbean region. Conflicts with the indigenous peoples (including the Arawaks and Caribs) led to mass deaths of these peoples.
1508.12.10 The Roman Papacy formed the League of Cambrai with Austria, France and Aragon-Catalonia and jointly attacked Venice. The War of the League of Cambrai (part of the Italian Wars) broke out. In 1510 the Roman Papacy turned to ally with Venice against France.
1509.2.2 The Portuguese navy defeated the united fleets of the Arabs and Indians at Diu, thus establishing its hegemony on the Indian Ocean. On 1510.11.25 Portugal occupied Goa, which subsequently developed into the Portuguese India Colony.
1509.4.22 Upon death of King Henry VII of England, Henry VIII succeeded to the throne.
1510 Castile-Leon colonists began to build up colonies in present-day Panama. Subsequently they conquered the entire Panama.
1511 Muhammad I, Chief of the Sads in Morocco, founded the Sadid Regime (commonly called the First Sharifian Dynasty).
1511.6 The Roman Papacy formed the Second Holy League with Venice, Aragon-Catalonia, Austria and England in opposition to France. In 1513 the Second Holy League split. Venice and France allied with each other and defeated the Second Holy League in 1515. In 1516 the belligerents signed the Treaty of Noyon and the Treaty of Brussels, by which France and Venice seized control of northern Italy.
1511.8.10 Portugal conquered Malacca, which became a Portuguese colony on ..24 of the same month. Portugal thus controlled the Strait of Malacca. In the same year, Mahmud Shah I, the former King of Malacca, fled to Johore in the southern part of Malay Peninsula, where he assumed the title of King of Johore and founded the Kingdom of Johore (Malacca Dynasty).
1512 Quli Qutb Shah, a royal member of the former Kara Koyunlu Regime, started to rule Golconda in Deccan and founded the Golconda Sultanate.

In the Diet of Koln, the 240 German states (excluding Bohemia and Prussia) were grouped into ten circles: Austria, Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia, Upper Rhine, Lower Rhine, Burgundy, Westphalia, Upper Saxony and Lower Saxony. Each circle had its own diet.

Aragon-Catalonia annexed most of the territories of Navarre. The ruling class of Navarre retreated to the northern area, which was then called [Lower] Navarre.
1512.4.24 Selim I succeeded as Osmanli Sultan.
1512.9 Giovanni II of the Medici Family seized control of Florence and restored the Medici "Dynasty".
1513 Koli I, Chief of the Denyanke Fulanis, seized control of Futa Toro and established Futa Toro (Denyanke Dynasty).
1514 The Osmanli Turks invaded Persia and led to the Iranian-Turkish War. Thereafter the two countries were engaged in a prolonged war of contention for the areas of Southern Caucasus, Kurdistan and Iraq.
1514.4 The Roman Papacy organised an Anti-Osmanli Crusade in Hungary. In May Dozsa instigated an anti-feudal rebellion among the Crusaders and established the Hungarian Republic. In July the Hungarian Government suppressed the rebellion. The Hungarian Diet was summoned to enact laws that deprived the peasants' personal liberty and right of land.
1514.9.3 Prince Sayyid of [Eastern] Chaghatai began ruling Yarkand in Xinjiang and founded the Yarkand Khanate.
1515.1.1 End of France (Valois-Orleans Dynasty). Francois I succeeded to the throne and established France (Valois-Angouleme Dynasty).
c.1515 The populace of Khwarizm rose against Persian rule. They chose Ilbars I, a chieftain of the Uzbeks, as their King (Khan) and established the Khwarizm Khanate.

Muhammad Kantu, Governor of Kebbi (in present day northwestern Nigeria) under Songhai, declared independence and founded the Kingdom of Kebbi. During his reign Muhammad Kantu defeated Songhai's invasion of the Hausa City-States.

Hassan I founded the Mayotte Sultanate on the Mayotte Island of the Comoros.
1516 Montenegro abolished the position of hereditary Princes and replaced it with elected Prince-Bishops.
1516.1.23
Upon death of Fernando V, Regent of Castile-Leon (who was also King Fernando II of Aragon-Catalonia), Duke Charles II of [Western] Burgundy inherited Castile-Leon and Aragon-Catalonia and became King Carlos I of Spain. He formally annexed the two countries into the Kingdom of Spain (Habsburg Dynasty). At the same time he also inherited Sicily and Naples. In 1519 Carlos I became Archduke Karl I of Austria and King Karl V of Germany, thus ruling Spain, Netherlands, Austria, Sicily, Naples as well as the overseas colonies concurrently. The Spanish Hegemonic-Colonial Empire (commonly called the Empire of Karl V) was thus formed.
1516.8.23 The Osmanli Turks conquered Syria-Palestine. In the same year, the Osmanli Turks installed Fakhr-ud-Din I, leader of the Mani Clan of the Druze Sect, as ruler of Lebanon and established the Lebanese Regime to be an Osmanli vassal.
1517.1.22 The Osmanli Turks captured Cairo, overthrew the Mamluk Regime and conquered Egypt.
1517.1.23 The Osmanli Sultan Selim I displaced the Cairo Caliph al-Mutawakkil III and made himself Caliph. Thereafter the Osmanli Sultans also assumed the title of Caliph and became the worldwide leader of the Sunni Sect.
1517.8 The Osmanli Turks conquered Hejaz, a region in western Arabian Peninsula. Mecca became an Osmanli vassal state.
1517.10.31
Martin Luther, a German theologist, published his Ninety-Five Theses, which criticized the corruption of the Roman Papacy. This marked the beginning of the Reformation.
1519 Mac Dang Dung, a senior official of Dai Viet, seized control of the Dai Viet royal court.

Zwingli, a Swiss priest, started the Reformation in Zurich, where he organised a new church and started a civil war with the Catholic nobles. Since then the Swiss cantons were divided into the Protestant cantons and the Catholic cantons.

Magellan, a Spanish explorer, started his global voyage. On 1521.4.27 Magellan was killed by the natives on the Philippines. His fleet continued the journey under the leadership of his subordinate del Cano. In 1522 the fleet returned to Spain and completed the journey around the world. This voyage confirmed that the Earth is of global shape and started the history of the exploration of the Pacific islands by Westerners. In 1565 Spain began to build up colonies in the Asia-Pacific Region.

The Spanish colonists conquered Aztec in Mexico and imprisoned King Montezuma II. Spain annihilated Aztec on 1521.8.
Late 1510s Dariya Khan Lohani, Chief of the Lohani Afghans in Bihar in eastern India, rebelled against Delhi Sultanate and founded the Bihar Regime.
1520 Smallpox was spread to the Aztecs through the Spanish colonists. Later smallpox spread throughout the American Continent and caused large number of deaths.
1520.6 Outbreak of the Uprising of the Castilian Comuneros in Spain. On .7.29 of the same year, the comuneros formed the Santa Hunta, centred at Avila. de Padilla was chosen as the Commander-in-Chief of the rebels. After de Padilla was taken captive in the next year, his wife Pacheco succeeded as leader. On .10.25 the Spanish Government suppressed the uprising. Since then the Spanish cities were deprived of self-rule and the absolute monarchical system was established.
1520.9.22
Upon death of the Osmanli Sultan Selim I, Suleyman II succeeded to the throne. During his reign the power of the regime rose to its apex.
1520.11.4 King Christian II of Denmark invaded Sweden. Having defeated the Sture Family, he crowned himself King of Sweden. On ..8 of the same month, he slaugtered the Swedish nationalist leaders in Stockholm (the Massacre of Stockholm) and restored Danish rule over Sweden.
c.1520 Rise of the Kingdom of Madura on the Madura Island of Indonesia.
1521 Prince Mayadunne of Kotte started to rule Sitawake and founded the Kingdom of Sitawake. In the same year the Kingdom of Rayigama also seceded from Kotte.

Vasa, a Swedish noble, rose against Danish rule, thus starting the Swedish War of Liberation.

The Osmanli Turks conquered Cyrenaica in eastern Libya. Later they also conquered Tripolitania in northwestern Libya and Fezzan in southwestern Libya.
1521.5 The Council of Worms in Germany promulgated the Edict of Worms, which declared Martin Luther a heresy. Martin Luther was granted asylum by Saxony. Thereafter a new Christian faith, Lutheranism began to take shape in some of the German states. The German feudal lords split into the Catholic Faction and the Lutheran Faction.
1521.8.31 Spain established the New Spain Colony in Mexico. Later, the territory of this colony extended to present-day Guatemala, Honduras (divided into the two provinces of Comayagua and Tegucigalpa), el Salvador (formerly known as San Salvador), Nicaragua (divided into the two provinces of Leon and Granada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic (formerly known as Santo Domingo), Puerto Rico, southern USA, etc. On 1535.5.11 New Spain became a viceroyalty.
c.1521.4.21 King Carlos I of Spain as well as Archduke Karl I of Austria passed his Austrian throne to Ferdinand I. The House of Habsburg thus split into the Spanish Habsburg Branch and the Austrian Habsburg Branch.
1522 France invaded Italy. The First Habsburg-Valois War (part of the Italian Wars) broke out. On 1525.2.24 Spain defeated France in the Battle of Pavia in which King Francois I of France was taken captive. On 1526.1.14 France signed the Treaty of Madrid by which it promised to give up Flanders, Artois and Burgundy. Francois I was then released.

Sickingen and Hutten, two German knights, started a rebellion (the Knights' War), which failed in the next year.

Birni Besse, Chief of the Kengas, founded the Kingdom of Bagirmi in present day western Chad.

Spain conquered present-day Nicaragua.
1522.12.24 The Osmanli Turks expellded the Hospitallers from Rhodes.
1523.4.20 In a coup staged by the Danish nobles, King Christian II was overthrown. Frederik I was chosen to be the new King. In 1531 Christian II attempted to return to the throne. But he failed and was taken captive.
1523.6.7 Vasa, leader of the Swedish rebels, captured Stockholm and declared the independence of Sweden from Denmark. Vasa made himself King of Sweden (called Gustav I) and established Sweden (Vasa Dynasty).
1524 The peasants in Swabian and Franconia of Germany started an uprising and the German Peasants' War broke out. In March of the next year, the rebellious peasants in Swabia put forth the Twelve Articles. The rebellious peasants in Franconia put forth the Heilbronn Agenda in May.

Spain conquered present-day Guatemala, Honduras and el Salvador.
1525 Ahmad Gran, an Imam of Adal, rose against Adal and founded the Amirate of Harar in eastern Ethiopia.
1525.2 Munzer, leader of the Anabaptists in Saxony and Thuringia, started a rebellion. On .3.17 of the same year, a rebellion broke out in Muhlhausen, where an Eternal Council was set up with Munzer chosen as the Chairman. In May the coalition army of the German feudal lords captured and killed Munzer and suppressed the rebellion, thus ending German Peasants' War.
1525.4.8 After Albrecht, Prince-Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, was converted to Lutheranism, he changed his title to Duke of Prussia and founded the Prussian Regime.
1526 General Sunan Gunung-Jati of Demak founded the Kingdom of Bantam in western Java.

Babur, a Prince of the former Timurid Regime, intruded into northern India and defeated Delhi Sultanate in the First Battle of Panipat. On .4.21 of the same year he overthrew Delhi Sultanate. On .5.27 he assumed the title of Emperor and founded the Moghul Empire.

The German Lutheran feudal lords and cities formed the League of Torgau. On 1531.2.6 it was reorganised into the Schmalkaldic League.
1526.5.22 France formed the League of Cognac with the Roman Papacy, Venice and Florence in opposition to Spain. On .7.24 of the same year Spain invaded Italy. The Second Habsburg-Valois War (also called the War of the League of Cognac, part of the Italian Wars) broke out. On 1529.8.3 France and Spain signed the Treaty of Cambrai (commonly called the Paix des Dames) by which France and Venice gave up parts of their territories in Italy. In December the Sforza Family restored their rule in Milan.
1526.8.29 In the First Battle of Mohacs, the Osmanli Turks killed King Lajos II of Hungary as well as King Ludvik of Bohemia.
1526.10.23 Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria became King of Bohemia concurrently. Since then Bohemia became an Austrian dependency.
1527 Amir Barid Shah, de facto ruler of the Bahmanid Regime, made himself Sultan and founded the Bidar Sultanate. The Five Deccan Sultanates (including Bidar, Berar, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda) were all established in the Deccan Region of India.

Spain conquered present-day Venezuela.
1527.5.17 A rebellion broke out in Florence. The Medici "Dynasty" was overthrown. The rebels set up a Rebellious Government. In 1529 Karduchi was elected as the Gonfalonier of Justice. When Spain captured Florence in c.1531, Alessandro, the former ruler of Florence, restored the Medici "Dynasty".
1527.6M Mac Dang Dung, de facto ruler of Dai Viet, overthrew the Later Le Dynasty. He crowned himself Emperor and established Dai Viet (Mac Dynasty).
c.1527.9.2 The nobles in eastern Hungary chose Janos Zapolya, Governor of Transylvania, as King and established Hungary (Transylvanian Government), which was an Osmanli vassal.
c.1527.10.28 The nobles in western Hungary elected Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Hungary to rule the western part of Hungary. Hungary thus split into two parts.
1528 Prince Muzaffar I of Johore started to rule Perak in the northwestern part of Malay Peninsula and founded the Sultanate of Perak.
1529 Shir Shah, Chief of the Suri Afghans in eastern India, seized control of Bihar. In 1534 he made himself King of Bihar.

The Council of Speyer in Germany reiterated the prohibition of Lutheranism. The Lutheran feudal lords protested against this resolution. Such is the origin of the term Protestantism.

Outbreak of the First War of Kappel between the Swiss Catholic cantons and Zurich.

Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Saragossa by which they established the demarcation line of their respective spheres of interest in Asia. Spain and Portugal thus completed the division of their spheres of interest in the whole world.
1530 Spain granted the Malta Islands to the Hospitallers. On .10.26 of the same year the Hospitallers occupied Malta and reestablished their regime. (Since then they were also called the Sovereign and Military Order of the Knights of Malta.)

Portugal formed the Brazil Colony.
1530.12.28 Upon death of the Moghal Emperor Babur, Humayun succeeded to the throne.
1531 Upon death of King Minkyinyo of Toungoo, Tabinshwehti succeeded to the throne. During his reign he started to adopt an expansionary policy.

Outbreak of the Second War of Kappel between Zurich and the Catholic cantons. On .10.11 of the same year Zwingli, leader of the Zurich Protestants, was killed in the Battle of Kappel.
c.1531 Tsoede, Chief of the Igala, founded the Kingdom of Nupe in central Nigeria.
1532 Spain conquered present-day Ecuador (called Quito at that time).
1533 King Henry VIII of England quarrelled with Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, over his marrage problem and was excommunicated by the Roman Papacy. In the next year England passed the Act of Supremacy granting the title of Supreme Head of the Church of England to Henry VIII. Since then the English Church broke with the Roman Catholic Church and developed into the Anglican Church (Anglicanism, also called the Episcopal Church) under the King.

The Spanish colonists conquered most territories of Inca. On 1535.1.18 Spain established the New Castile Colony in Peru.
1533.1M Nguyen Kim and Trinh Kiem, senior officials of Dai Viet, installed Le Ninh, a royal member of the Later Le Dynasty, as Emperor and restored the Later Le Dynasty, ruling southern Vietnam. Real power was held by Nguyen Kim. Since then Dai Viet split into the Mac Dynasty (commonly called the Northern Dynasty) in the north and the Later Le Dynasty (commonly called the Southern Dynasty) in the south. Beginning of the Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties of Vietnam.
1533.4.10 After the death of King Frederick I of Denmark, a succession war broke out in Denmark (the Counts' War). In c.1536.4 Christian III restored order and succeeded to the throne.
1533.12.3 Ivan IV became Prince of Moscow. During the initial period of his reign, real power was held by Dowager Princess Yelena.
1534 Loyola, a Spanish noble, founded the Jesuit Order to carry out Counter-Reformation activities.
1534.2 Bockelsohn, leader of the Anabaptists in Munster of Germany, staged a rebellion and seized power. He established the Munster Commune and practised egalitarianism. On .6.25 of the next year the rebellion was crushed by the Bishop of Munster.
1535 Spain conquered present-day Paraguay.
1535.10.24 Duke Francesco Maria of Milan died. In his will, he bequeathed his country to Spain. Since then the position of Duke of Milan was occupied by the Spanish Kings.
1536 King Manqo II of Inca rose against the Spanish colonists but failed. Since then the Inca Government retreated to the mountain areas of Vilcabamba, where they continued to resist the Spanish invasion.
1536.4 France invaded Italy again. The Third Habsburg-Valois War (part of the Italian Wars) broke out. On 1538.6.18, France and Spain concluded the Truce of Nice for ten years.
1538 The Shuisky Family, a Boyar (= nobility) family of Moscow, staged a coup and seized power. Since then Moscow was under the control of the three Boyar families (Shuisky, Belsky and Glinsky) successively.

Outbreak of the Third Venetian-Turkish War between Venice and the Osmanli Turks. The Roman Papacy formed the Third Holy League with Venice and Spain. Later disagreement between Spain and Venice led to the withdrawal of Venice from the League in 1540 and the war was thus ended.
1539 Toungoo annihilated [Middle] Pegu. In 1546 King Tabinshwehti of Toungoo renamed his country as Kingdom of Burma (Toungoo Dynasty) and set Pegu as its capital.

King Shir Shah of Bihar conquered Bengal. He changed his title to Sultan of Bengal and annexed Bihar into Bengal.
1540s The Austronesian-speaking peoples in Taiwan formed the Middag Confederacy.
1540 War broke out between Johore and Aceh, who contended for the hegemony on Malay Peninsula. Later Portuguese Malacca was also involved.

Spain conquered present-day Costa Rica.
1540.5.17 Sultan Shir Shah of Bengal overthrew the Moghul Empire. In the same year, Shir Shah assumed the title of Sultan of Delhi and restored the Delhi Sultanate.
c.1540 Yadega inherited Zandana and renamed the country as the Kingdom of Yatenga.
1541 The Osmanli Turks invaded Hungary and annexed the central region of Hungary. They installed King Ioan Sigismund Zapolyai of Hungary as Prince of Transylvania and founded the Principality of Transylvania, ruling the eastern part of Hungary. Hungary was thus divided into three parts: the eastern part ruled by Transylvania, the western part ruled by Austria and the central part annexed by the Osmanli Turks. In 1547 the Osmanli Turks signed the Five Years' Truce with Hungary, by which the Osmanli Turks occupied the most territories of Hungary while Hungary retained a small portion of its territories and had to pay tribute to the Osmanli Turks.

Calvin, leader of the Swiss Reformation, seized power in Geneva, where he carried out Reformation and established a theocray. A new Christian faith, Calvinism (also called the Reformed Churches), thus emerged. The three main Protestant denominations (Lutheranism, Anglicanism and Calvinism) were formed. Subsequently there emerged other Protestant denominations. The more important ones included: Congregationalism, Baptist Churches, Wesleyanism (also called Methodism), Quakerism, Pentecostalism, Pietism and Restorationism.
1541.6 King Henry VIII of England assumed the title of King of Ireland concurrently and founded the Kingdom of Ireland.
1542 Outbreak of the Fourth Habsburg-Valois War between France and Spain. The War was mainly fought in the Netherlands. On 1544.9.18 the two countries signed the Treaty of Crespy by which they abandoned some of their dependencies.
1542.11.20 Spain reorganised its colony New Castile as the Peru Viceroyalty. Later the territory of this colony was extended to present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador (formerly known as Quito), Bolivia (formerly known as Upper Peru), Paraguay, Argentina and Chile.
c.1542 The Aravidu Family seized control of the Vijayanagar royal court.
1543 Batu Mongke, the Mongol Khan, died. Since then the Mongol Khanate gradually split into Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia and Western Mongolia (also called Oirat Mongolia or Olot Mongolia), among which Western Mongolia was also divided into the four tribes of Zungaria, Qosot, Torghut and Dorbod (later replaced by the Khoyid Tribe).

Copernicus, the Polish astronomer, published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium and proposed his heliocentric theory. This marked the beginning of the Scientific Revolution, in which the religious superstition of the Middle Ages was gradually replaced by the scientific mind.
1544 Ki Geding Ing Sura, Chief of the Demaks, founded the Palembang Sultanate in southeastern Sumatra.

Holstein split into the Duchy of Holstein-Segeburg and the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp.
1545 Trinh Kiem, senior official of Dai Viet (Later Le Dynasty), seized power. Since then the Later Le Dynasty was controlled by the Trinh Family.

The Papal States isolated Parma and Piacenza from its territories and founded the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (Farnese Dynasty).

The Council of Trent summoned by the Papacy decided to reform the Church and assigned the Jesuit Order to undertake the Counter-Reformation.
1546 King Karl V of Germany attacked the Lutheran feudal lords (the First Schmalkaldic War). The war ended when Karl V defeated the coalition army of the Lutheran on 1547.4.24. In 1548 the Catholic and Lutheran feudal lords signed the Interim of Augsburg, which restored the status of Catholicism.
1547.1.16 Ivan IV, Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir, changed his title to Emperor of Russia and established the Russian Empire (Riurikid Dynasty). On .6.26 of the same year Ivan IV assumed power.
1547.5.19 Saxe-Wittenberg was reunified. The Albertine Branch obtained the title of Elector in place of the Ernestine Branch. Subsequently the original territories of the Ernestine Branch split into a number of feudal states and developed into the petty states such as Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Eisenach, etc.
1548 King Karl V of Germany incorporated the 17 provinces in the region of Netherlands (including the whole area of present day Netherlands, Belgium and Luxmbourg as well as parts of France and Germany) into the Burgundian Circle under Germany.
1549 Kett, an English peasant in Norfolk, started a rebellion, which was soon suppressed by the English Government.

Detye Fu-N'diogu and Amari, Chiefs of the Wolofs, seceded from Dyolof and founded the Kingdom of Kayor in present day western Senegal.

The Spanish colonists invaded the district of the Araucanians in southern Chile. In 1553 the Araucanians rose against Spanish invasion. Although the resistance was crushed by the Spanish in 1558, the Araucanians did not stop their struggle against Spanish rule thereafter.
1549.7.17 Present-day Colombia became a Spanish colony named Santa Fe de Bogota.
1549.7M Wang Zhi and Xu Hai of the Ming Empire allied with the Japanese pirates and looted the coastal areas of China. In 1564, Qi Jiguang, a Ming general, defeated the Japanese pirates and their allies.
Mid-16th Century Calvinism spread to France, where its followers were called the Huguenots and the French Reformation started. The French nobles split into the Catholics (led by the Guise Family) and the Huguenots (led by the Bourbon Family).

Karonga, Chief of the Maravis, founded the Kingdom of Maravi in present-day Malawi.

Some Mapuche migrated from Araucania to the neighbouring region of Patagonia and assimilated the local Tehuelches.
1550s The first joint-stock companies in modern world appeared in England.
1550
After King Tabinshwehti of Burma was assassinated, Burma was torn by internal strife. Smim Sawhtut rose against Burma and restored [Middle] Pegu. In the next year Smim Htaw killed Smim Sawhtut and made himself King of [Middle] Pegu. After Bayin Naung succeeded as King of Burma, he killed Smim Htaw and annihilated [Middle] Pegu again.
c.1550 King Sunan Gunung-Jati of Bantam moved to Cirebon, where he made himself Sultan of Cirebon and founded the Cirebon Sultanate.

Ayekeraa and Yao Awirri, Chiefs of the Akans, founded the Kingdom of Agona in present-day southern Ghana.

Niokhor, Chief of the Serers, founded the Kingdom of Baol in present-day western Senegal.

Mbuyu, Chief of the Barotses (a branch of the Lundas), founded the Barotse Kingdom in present-day Zambia.
1552 A coalition army of the German Lutheran feudal lords and certain Catholic feudal lords defeated King Karl V of Germany (the Second Schmalkaldic War. On 1555.9.25 Karl V and the feudal lords signed the Religious Peace of Augsburg which confirmed freedom of religion.
1552.10.2 Russia eliminated Kazan. In 1556 Russia also eliminated Astrakhan. Since then Russia carried out large-scale territorial expansion and later became a transcontinental empire.
1553 The English explorers Willoughby and Chancellor attempted to open up the "Northeast Passage" to East Asia, but failed.
1553.7.19 Mary I became Queen of England. In the same year Mary I married Prince Felipe of Spain and was converted to Catholicism. Starting from 1555, Mary I persecuted the Protestants. Hence the nickname "Bloody Mary".
c.1554 The Osmanli Turks destroyed Abd al-Wadid and conquered Algeria.
1555 Upon conquest of Ava by Burma, the most territories of Burma was unified, thus ending the Period of Warring States of Burma.
1555.7.23 Humayun, the former Moghul Emperor, annhilated the Delhi Sultanate and restored the Moghul Empire.
1556 Allied with the Roman Papacy, France invaded Italy and led to the Fifth Habsburg-Valois War. In 1557 France was defeated. On 1559.4.3 France and Spain signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis by which France gave up the territories it occupied in Italy. The treaty eventually ended the Italian Wars.
1556.1.16 Spanish King Carlos I (as well as German King Karl V) gave up his Spanish throne to his son Felipe, who became King Felipe II of Spain, during whose reign he waged a series of foreign wars.
1556.2.14
Upon death of the Moghul Emperor Humayun, Akbar I succeeded to the throne. In November of the same year, he defeated the Afghans in the Second Battle of Panipat and conquered northern India. Thereafter he adopted an expansionary policy and unified most territories of India.
1556.9.1 German King Karl V gave up his German throne to Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria. The territories of Karl V were divided between the Habsburg Branches of Austria and Spain, with the former obtaining Austria, Bohemia and Hungary while the latter obtaining Spain, Naples, Sicily, the Burgundian Circle (i.e. the region of Netherlands) and the American colonies.
1557 Portugal occupied Macau in southern China.

Burma conquered the Shan states.

Outbreak of the Livonian War among Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark as a result of their contention for Livonia. Russia invaded Livonia.
1558.11.17
Upon death of Queen Mary I of England, Elizabeth I succeeded to the throne. During her reign England began to grow into a power.
1559 Dravya, Chief of the Gurkhas, founded the Gurkha Kingdom in Nepal.
1559.9.18 Present-day Bolivia became a Spanish colony named Charcas (commonly known as Upper Peru).
1560s Calvinism spread into England, where it became Puritanism. Later the Puritans started the Puritan Movement to oppose the Anglican Church and absolute monarch.
c.1560 Abdullah II, a Uzbek Prince, seized power. He installed Iskandar as Khan and renamed the regime as the Burkhara Khanate (Shaibanid Dynasty).

Otumfo Asare inherited Twifo-Heman and renamed the regime as the Kingdom of Akwamu.
1561.11.28 Russia destroyed the Livonian Order Regime, whose territory was then divided. The northern part was annexed by Sweden and Lithuania while the southern part was under Polish control. Poland installed Kettler, the Grand Master, as Duke of Kurland and founded the Duchy of Kurland, ruling the southern part. On .3.5 of the next year, the Grand Duke of Lithuania assumed the title of Prince of Livonia and founded the Livonian Regime. The Livonian War continued.
1562 The Huguenots of France started a rebellion. The Religious War (also called the Huguenot War) broke out.
1563 Outbreak of the Northern Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden, which were in contention for the Scandinavian hegemony. In 1570 the two countries concluded the war by signing the Treaty of Stettin.
1563.12 After Siam refused Burma's request for contributing white elephants, Burma launched an attack against Siam. After Burma captured Ayuthia, Siam became a Burmese vassal.
1564.7.25 Upon death of Archduke Ferdinand I, his three sons succeeded to the throne simultaneously. The Austrian Habsburgs thus split into the Austrian Branch, the Tyrol Branch and the Styrian Branch.
1565 The Tsang Family of Posterior Tibet overthrew the Rimpung Family and became de facto rulers of the Pagmotru Regime.

Spain invaded the Philippines and destroyed Cebu.
1565.4.27 Spain founded the Colony of the Philippines Islands (also called the Spanish East Indies). The territories of this colony was later expanded to cover the whole Philipines, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands.
1566 The Protestant nobles of the Netherlands formed the League of Nobles (commonly called the Gueux = Beggars) in opposition to the oppressive rule of Spain. On .8.11 of the same year, the Gueux staged the Dutch Iconoclastic Movement against Spain. In the next year the movement was crushed by Spain.
1567 Presbyterianism (i.e. Calvinism spread to Scotland) was established as the national religion of Scotland.
1567.3.31 Hesse split into Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt.
1568 Adi Wijaya, local ruler of Pajang under Demak, rebelled and founded the Pajang Sultanate.

Count Willem I of Nassau-Orange started the anti-Spanish revolution. The Dutch Revolution (also called the Eighty Years' War) broke out. Later revolution spread to the northern provinces of the Netherlands.
1568.9M Oda Nobunaga, a Japanese warlord, seized control of the Shogunate. Since then the Shogun became a figurehead.
1569 Spain started the Moro War and invaded the southern parts of the Philippines. (The Spaniards called called the Filipino Muslims Moros.)
1569.7.1 The Polish and Lithuanian nobles drew up the Union of Lublin on the Lublin Diet by which the two countries formed a real union - the Polish-Lithuanian and established the common diet. Poland thus controlled Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus and became a local power in East Europe.
1569.8.21 The Roman Papacy installed Duke Cosimo I of Florence as Grand Duke of Tuscany and founded the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Medici Dynasty).
1570 After Venice refused the Osmanli Regime's request for ceding Cyprus, the Osmanli Regime declared war on Venice (the Fourth Venetian-Turkish War).

Sweden joined the Livonian War against Russia (the Russian Twenty-five Years' War).
1570.5.1 Spain established the Captaincy-General of Guatemala, which governed present-day Guatemala, Honduras, el Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
c.1570 Tirumala, de facto ruler of Vijayanagar, overthrew the Tuluva Dynasty. He made himself King and established Vijayanagar (Aravidu Dynasty).

Twum, Chief of the Ashantis (a branch of the Akans) founded the Kingdom of Kumasi in present day central Ghana.
1571 Spain destroyed Luzon. Later Spain conquered the northern and central parts of the Philippines.
1571.8.15 The Osmanli Turks conquered Cyprus. Sicne then, large influx of Turkish into Cyprus resulted in the emergence of a Turkish community in Cyprus. In the same year the Roman Papacy formed the Fourth Holy League against the Osmanli Turks. On .10.7 the Fourth Holy League defeated the Osmanli navy in the Battle of Lepanto.
1572 Zhang Juzheng became the Chief Minister of the Ming Empire. During his tenure he carried out reforms to revive the strength of the Empire, but failed.

Thupa Amaru I, the Inca King, rose against the Spanish colonists. He failed and his Kingdom was annihilated by the Spaniards.
1572.8.14 Upon death of King Sigismund II of Poland, a war of succession broke out. On .5.16 of the next year, Henri was elected as the Polish King (called Henryk).
1572.8.24 When the French Huguenots gathered in Paris to attend the wedding of King Henri III of [Lower] Navarre and Princess Margaret of France on Saint Bartholomew's Day, Duke Henri I of Guise, leader of the Catholic nobles, massacred the Huguenots (Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day).
1573.3 Venice concluded peace with the Osmanli Turks and gave up Cyprus.
1573.7M Oda Nobunaga, de facto ruler of Japan, overthrew the Muromachi Shogunate, thus ending the Warring State Period of Japan. Oda Nobunaga based his Government in Azuchi. Beginning of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period.
1574 King Henryk of Poland promulgated the Pacta Conventa, which recognized the privileges of the nobility. Thereafter the Polish Kings (as well as the Grand Dukes of Lithuania) were elected by the nobility, who also held the real power. Beginning of the Period of the Noble "Republic" of Poland.
1574.5.30 King Henryk of Poland became King of France (called Henri III) concurrently.
c.1574 The Osmanli Turks destroyed Hafs and conquered Tunisia.

The Osmanli army in Algeria overthrew Muhammad III, the Sadid Sultan, who fled to Portugal. In c.1575 Abd al-Malik I succeeded to the throne.
1575 Portuguese colonists began invading present-day Angola. In 1589 they established the Portuguese West Africa Colony, which subsequently expanded to cover the whole territory of present-day Angola.
c.1575 The Huguenots formed the Confederation of Milhaud (commonly called the Huguenot Confederation) in southwestern France and became a semi-independent entity.
1576 The 17 provinces of the Netherlands convened a meeting in Ghent and signed the Pacification of Ghent, by which they vowed to unite and struggle for indepedence.

The belligerents in the French civil war signed the Peace of Chastenoy with favourable conditions to the Huguenots. Dissatisfied with the arrangement, Duke Henri I of Guise formed the Catholic League (commonly called the Holy League) in opposition to the Huguenots. Being the leader of the League, King Henri III prohibited Protestantism throughout the country.

Frobisher, an English explorer, started his expeditions to the northern coast and Arctic Archipelago of present-day Canada. Frobisher's expeditions formed the basis of England's territorial claims to these areas later.
1578 King Sebastian of Portugal, accompanied by Muhammad III, former Sadid Sultan, invaded the Sadid Regime. In the Battle of the Three Kings fought between Portugal and Abd al-Malik I, the Sadid Sultan, on .8.4, the three Kings were all killed. The Portuguese army was expelled from Morocco.
1578.1.3 France established the New France Colony in present day Cananda. Since then France established a number of colonies in the northern part of North America, including Quebec, Montreal, Arcadia, Louisiana, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Islands, etc. France began to build up colonies in the world. The French Colonial Empire began to evolve.
c.1578 Zazzau moved the capital to Zaria in northern Nigeria and was thus renamed the Kingdom of Zaria (Hausa Dynasty).
1579.1.6 The provinces in southwestern Netherlands withdrew from the Revolution and formed the Union of Arras in an attempt to oppose the northern provinces by uniting with Spain.
1579.1.23 The seven northern Netherlands provinces (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Groningen, Friesland, Overyssel, Flanders and Brabant) declared independence from Spain and formed the Union of Utrecht. Willem I became Stadholder of Holland. Later Flanders and Brabant were defeated by Spain and were compelled to withdraw from the Union.
1580 The Japanese Government suppressed the rebellion of the Ikko Sect.
1580.1.31 When King Henri of Portugal died without an heir, King Felipe II of Spain became King of Portugal concurrently, thus bringing Portugal under Spanish control. Since then the power of Portugal declined.
c.1580 Haholo, leader of the Allada refugees, founded the Kingdom of Whydah in present day southern Benin.
1581 King Johan III of Sweden assumed the title of Grand Duke of Finland and founded the Finnish Regime.
1581.7.26 The provinces of the Union of Utrecht united to form the Republic of the Dutch United Provinces ([Northern] Netherlands, commonly called the Dutch Republic). The Republic was a confederation under which the provinces retained their independent status. Willem I, Stadholder of Holland, became the Stadholder of the Netherlands. Thereafter the House of Orange became hereditary rulers of the Netherlands and Netherlands (Orange "Dynasty") was thus formed. The southern Netherlands provinces remained under Spanish rule and were called the Spanish Netherlands.
1582
Oda Nobunaga, de facto ruler of Japan, was assassinated by his general Akechi Mitsuhide in Honnoji. Hashiba Hideyoshi, a warlord, killed Akechi Mitsuhide and contended for power with the Oda Clan. In the seventh lunar month of 1585, Hashiba Hideyoshi seized control of the imperial court. In the eleventh lunar month of 1586 he was renamed Toyotomi Hideyoshi by the Emperor. In 1590 Toyotomi Hideyoshi reunified Japan.

Senapati, local ruler of Kota Gede under Pajang, declared independence and founded the Mataram Sultanate ([Later] Mataram).

Fezzan in southwestern Libya seceded from the Osmanli Regime and founded the Fezzan Sultanate.
1582.1 Russia signed a truce with Poland. In August of the next year, Russia also signed a truce with Sweden. Russia gave up the Livonian territories it occupied, thus ending the Livonian War.
1582.3.1 Roman Pope Gregory XIII promulgated the new calendar (Gregorian Calendar) which took effect on .10.15 of the same year. Thereafter the Gregorian Calendar (commonly called the "New Style") gradually replaced the Julian Calendar (commonly called the "Old Style") and became the common calendar of the whole world.
1583.8.5 England established the Newfoundland Colony in present day Canada. England began to build up colonies in North America. The English Colonial Empire (the "Period of the First Empire") began to evolve.
1585 The Religious War restarted among King Henri III of France, King Henri III of [Lower] Navarre and Duke Henri I of Guise (the War of the Three Henries). The Catholics formed a new Catholic League (commonly called the Paris League).

Kongolo, Chief of the Lubas, founded the Kingdom of Luba in present day [East] Congo.
1587 Godunov, a Russian senior official, seized control of the royal court.

Cape Verde Islands became a Portuguese colony, whose territory was later expanded to cover present-day Guinea-Bissau.
c.1587.12.2 Abbas I succeeded as King of Persia. During his reign Persia became a power in West Asia.
1588.5 The Catholic League of France revolted in Paris and expelled King Henri III. They formed the Committee of Sixteen (headed by Henri I) to rule Paris. On .12.23 Henri III caused Henri I to be murdered.
1588.7.31 England defeated the Spanish fleet Armada. Since then Spain lost its naval supremacy.
1589 The French Catholics chose Duke Charles of Mayenne as their leader and deserted Henri III, who then sought refuge from the Huguenots.
1589.8.2 King Henri III of France was assassinated. France (Valois-Angouleme Dynasty) ended. The Huguenots chose King Henri III of [Lower] Navarre (also Count of Foix) to succeed as King of France (called Henri IV) and established France (Bourbon Dynasty). The Catholics denied recognition of Henri IV. [Lower] Navarre and Foix were annexed into France. The title of secular Co-Prince of Andorra was transferred to the head of state of France.
1590 Naresuen became King of Siam. During his reign Siam resumed independence.

War restarted between Russia and Sweden. In 1595 the two countries signed the Treaty of Teusina, which ended the Russian Twenty-Five Years' War.
1592 A peasants' uprising broke out in France. Since the rebels called the nobles and officials as "croquant" (= rodents), the uprising was called the Croquant Uprising by historians. In 1598 the uprising was suppressed.
1592.1M The army of Dai Viet (Later Le Dynasty) captured Tonkin and recovered most of the lost territories. Since then the Mac Dynasty was left with the area of Cao Bang, thus ending the Period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties of Vietnam.
1592.4M Japan invaded Choson. The latter sought help from the Ming Empire. In the tenth lunar month of the same year, the Ming Empire sent an army to Choson to resist the Japanese invasion.
c.1592 al-Qasim I, leader of the Zaid Sect, rebelled against Osmanli rule and founded the Qasim Regime in Sana.
1593 Portugal conquered Mombasa. Later the suzerainty of Mombasa was transferred to Oman.
1593.9 Mihai I became Prince of Wallachia. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy and succeeded in unifiying Romania for a short period.
1594.3 King Henri IV of France obtained universal recognition by the whole country, thus reunifying the country and ended the Religious War.
1595.9.21 The Spanish colonists intruded into the Puebloan region in the western part of North America and established the New Mexico Colony.
1596 The Finnish peasants rebelled against Swedish rule (the Cudgel War). The rebellion was suppressed in the next year.
1598 Hajji Muhammad I, former Khan of Khwarizm, assumed the tile of Khan of Khiva and founded the Khiva Khanate (Arab-Shah Dynasty). In a civil strife in the Uzbek Khanate, Baqi Muhammad, a royal member of the former Astrakhan Khanate, overthrew the Shaibanid Dynasty and established Uzbek (Jani Dynasty).

The Dutch colonists established the Dutch Gold Coast Colony in present-day Ghana. The Netherlands began to build up colonies. The French Colonial Empire began to evolve.

The Mapuche and Tehuelches in Araucania and Patagonia resisted the invasion of the Spanish colonists and thus remained independent for a prolonged period.
1598.1.7 End of Russia (Riurikid Dynasty). Godunov, de facto ruler of Russia, made himself Tsar and established Russia (Godunov Dynasty).
1598.4.13 France promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which established the dominant status of Catholicism in France and gave the Huguenots equal political rights with the Catholics.
1598.8M Upon death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, de facto ruler of Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu, a feudal lord, seized power. He ordered the Japanese army to retreat from Choson and ended the Japanese invasion of Korea.
1598.9.2 Russia annihilated the Siberian Khanate and started its conquest of Siberia.
c.1598 King Dharmapala of Kotte died. In his will, he bequeathed his country to Portugal. The coastal areas of Ceylon became a Portuguese colony. But Udarata continued to resist Portuguese invasion.
1600 A prolonged war between Poland and Sweden broke out (the Polish War).
1600.11M Nguyen Hoang, local ruler of Quang Nam and Hue under Dai Viet, declared independence and founded the Quang Nam Kingdom in present day central Vietnam. His dynasty was called the Old Nguyen Dynasty by historians. Vietnam was thus divided into the Later Le Dynasty in the north (under control of the Trinh Family) and Quang Nam in the south.
c.1600 The Darods founded the Majerteyn Sultanate in present day central Somalia.

Muhammad I, Chief of the Musaba-at Clan, founded the Kordofan Sultanate in the central part of East Sudan.

Agbu Kenjo, Chief of the Jukuns, founded the Kingdom of Kororofa in southeastern Nigeria.

Barama-Ngolo, Chief of the Bambaras, rebelled against Mali and founded the Kingdom of Segu in present day central Mali. Since then the Bambaras founded a number of regimes in West Sudan.

Prince Do-Aklin of Allada moved the capital to Abomey in present day southern Benin and founded the Kingdom of Abomey.

Loango seceded from Kongo and established the Kingdom of Loango.
Late 16th Century The Don Cossacks in the River Don region of Russia became an autonomous region.

A number of princely states began to appear in present-day Mauritania. These princely states were conquered by France in early 20th Century.

Wahunsunacock, Chief of the Werowocomoco tribe, united several Algonquian tribes and formed the Powhatan Confederacy in the eastern part of present-day USA.

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