A Chronology of World Political History
(1201 - 1400 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
13th Century The Yakuts started to migrate into the present day Yakut region of Siberia.

The Tepanecs founded the Kingdom of Azcapotzalco in central Mexico.

The Quiches founded the Kingdom of Quiche on the highlands in central-western Guatemala.
c.13th Century The Caribs moved into the Caribbean region and conquered the indigenous Arawaks on some of the islands, resulting in the co-existence of two ethnic groups in the Caribbean region.
1201 The Roman Papacy launched the Fourth Crusade.
1202.11.12 Valdemar II became Danish King. During his reign he participated in the Livonian Crusade, conquered the Baltic region and formed the Second North Sea Hegemonic Empire.
1203 Chenla conquered Champa. When the Chenla army withdrew from Champa in 1220, Jaya Paraamesvaravarman II restored Champa. End of the Chenla-Champa Hundred Years' War.

France began to deprive King John of England of his territories in France (including Poitou, Normandy, Aquitaine, Anjou, Maine and Touraine). In 1206 England was left with the region of Guyenne in southern Aquitaine. Since then Aquitaine was also called the Duchy of Guyenne.
1203.9M Shogen Minamoto Yoriiye of Japan planned to eliminate Hojo Tokimasa, the Regent (Shikken). When his plan was uncovered, he was exiled by Hojo Tokimasa, who then chose Minatomo Sanetomo as the Shogun. Thereafter the Hojo Family exercised hereditary dictatorial rule. Although the position of Shogun was preserved, it had titular effect only.
1204 Diaba Lompo, Chief of the Mossi-Dagombas, founded the Kingdom of Gurma in present day southeastern Burkina Faso. Since then there emerged a number of Mossi-Dagomba regimes in West Sudan.
1204.4.12 The Fourth Crusades captured and sacked Constantinople. Emperor Alexius V fled and [Eastern] Rome (Angelus Dynasty) collapsed. Constantine Lascaris crowned himself and fled to Nicaea in Asia Minor, where he established [Eastern] Rome (Nicaean Government; Lascaris Dynasty) (commonly called the Nicaean Empire). Since then there emerged a number of Anti-Crusade Regimes in Asia Minor and Balkan Peninsula resisting the Crusade invasion. In the same year, Alexius I, an [Eastern] Roman noble, founded the Empire of Trebizon in Trebizond in the northeastern part of Asia Minor. Michael I occupied Epirus and founded the Epirus Regime.
1204.5.9 The Crusaders chose Count Boudewijn IX of Flanders to assume the title of [Eastern] Roman Emperor (called Baudouin I) and established [Eastern] Rome (Latin Government) (commonly called the Latin Empire), which was nominally the suzerain of the Crusader States in the Balkan region, but in pratice it could only control the capital and the neighbouring areas. Since then there emerged a number of Crusader States in the Balkan region.
1204.8.12 Venice took possession of Crete.
1204.9 The Crusaders installed Margrave Bonifacio I of Montferrat as King of Thessalonica (called Boniface) and founded the Kingdom of Thessalonica. In the same year Thessalonica installed Otton as Monarch (Megaskyr) of Athens and established the Athenian Regime (de la Roche Dynasty).
c.1204 The Livonian Brothers of the Sword Order (Livonian Brothers for short) was formed.
1205 The Crusaders installed Guillaume I, a royal member of Champagne, a Prince of Achaea and established the Principality of Achaea.
1206
Temujin (Genghis Khan), Chief of the Borjegin Clan of the Mongols, unified the Mongol tribes. He took the title of Emperor (Great Khan) and founded the Mongol Empire.
1206.4M Han Tuozhou, Chief Minister of [Southern] Song, launched the Kaixi Northern Expedition against the Jin Empire. In the tenth lunar month of the same year, [Southern] Song was defeated. In the third lunar month of 1208, the two countries concluded the Jiading Peace.
1206.6.23 Qutb al-Din Aibak, Governor of India under the Ghurid Regime, declared independence and founded the Delhi Sultanate (Slave Dynasty).
1207 Marco I, leader of the Sanudo Family of Venice, occupied the Cyclades Islands in the southeastern part of Greece and founded the Duchy of Naxos.
1208 Rise of the Albigensian Heresy (split into the Cathars and the Waldensians, led by Peter Waldo) in Albi in southwestern France, centred at Toulouse. The Roman Papacy organised the Albigensian Crusade to suppress the heresy (Albigensian War). In 1213 the Albigensian Crusade suppressed the heresy and slaughtered the heretics.
c.1208 Azzo VI, ruler of Este, changed his title to Seigneur of Ferrara, thus renaming his regime as the Ferrara Regime.
1211 Kuchlug, Chief of the Naiman Tribe of the Mongols, invaded [Western] Liao. After overthrowing the Khitan dynasty, he made himself Emperor of [Western] Liao.
c.1211 [Western] Liao annihilated [Eastern] Qarakhan.
1212.7.16 The coalition army of the Iberian Christian states, under the leadership of King Alfonso VIII of Castile, defeated the Muwahhids in the Battle of las Navas and thus expelled the Muwahhids from Iberia.
1212.12.5 King Friedrich of Sicily became German King (called Friedrich II) concurrently and restored Germany (Hohenstaufen Dynasty). During his reign he attempted to control northern Italy again.
c.1212 Uthman, the [Western] Qarakhanid Emperor, rebelled against Khwarizm and instigated an anti-Khwarizm popular uprising in Samarkand. Samarkand killed Uthman and annhilated the [Western] Qarakhanid Government.
1213 England, Germany (Welf Dynasty) and Flanders formed the Anti-Capetian Alliance in opposition to France and Germany (Hohenstaufen Dynasty). The War of the Anti-Capetian Alliance broke out. On 7.27 of the next year, France and Germany (Hohenstaufen Dynasty) defeated the Anti-Capet Alliance in the Battle of Bouvines and toppled Germany (Welf Dynasty). Flanders then became a French vassal.
1215 The Shan People began to establish a number of states in Burma.

Segarajasekaran I, Chief of the Tamils, founded the Kingdom of Jaffna in northern Ceylon.
1215.6.15 The English local barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, which provided that no freeman shall be arrested and imprisoned or dispossessed by the King; no additional taxes shall be levied without the consent of the Great Council. The Magna Carta became a prototype of the English constitutional system. When John declared the Magna Carta null and void in August of the same year, the local barons rebelled against John and turned to Prince Louis of France, who laid claim to the English throne. The First Barons' War thus broke out. On 1216.10.c18 John died and was succeeded by Henry III on .10.28. On 1217.9.11 Louis and Henry III concluded peace by which Louis relinquished claim to the English throne and ended the war.
1217 The Dai Viet royal court came under control of the Tran Family.

Hakon IV became Norwegian King. In 1240 Hakon IV put an end to the succession disputes and the Norwegian Civil War.

The Roman Papacy conferred the title of King of Serbia on Prince Stefan II of Rascia, which was then renamed as the Kingdom of Serbia.
1218 Mongol Emperor Temujin launched the First Mongol Western Conquest. The Mongols began to expand their territories and later established a transcontinental empire.

The Mongols attacked [Western] Liao. The people of [Western] Liao killed their Emperor Kuchlug and surrendered. [Western] Liao was thus conquered by the Mongols.

The Roman Papacy launched the Fifth Crusade and attacked Egypt. In 1221 the Crusaders were defeated and made an eight years' truce with the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government).
c.1220.12 The Mongols conquered Khwarizm. King Muhammad II of Khwarizm died. His son Mingburnu succeeded to the throne and fled to Iran, where he continued to resist the Mongol invasion.
1221.4M Takanari, former Japanese Emperor, called on the Kanto warriors to rebel against the Hojo Family. On the contrary, the Kanto warriors surrendered to Hojo Yasutoki, who captured Kyoto and exiled three former Emperors Takanari, Tamehito and Morinari. Hojo Yasutoki purged his opponents and controlled most areas of Japan.
1222 The peasants and slaves of Kediri revolted. Rajasa, a local ruler, overthrew Kediri and founded the Singosari Kingdom.

ar-Rahim Badr-ud-Din Lulu, Vizier of the Zangid Regime (Mosul Government), usurped power and founded the Lulu Regime.

Prince Bela of Hungary united with the lesser nobility and forced King Andras II to promulgate the Golden Bull, which exempted the gentry and the clergy from taxation and guaranteed them against arbitrary imprisonment and property confiscation.

The Roman Papacy launched the Prussian Crusade (which was part of the Northern Crusades) against the Old Prussians. From 1226 onwards the Teutonic Order became the main force of the Crusade.
1223 The Mongols invaded southern Caucasus and defeated the coalition army of the Russians and the Kipchak-Cumans. Later the Mongols returned to Mongolia.
1224 Theodore, ruler of Epirus, conquered Thessalonica. In the next year Theodore changed his title to Emperor of Greece and established the Empire of Greece, ruling Thessalonica. Theodore installed Constantine as Despot of Epirus, ruling Epirus.

Xolotl, Chief of the Chichimecs, founded the Kingdom of Tenayuca in Tenayuca in central Mexico.
1225.12M Tran Thu Do, de facto ruler of Dai Viet, overthrew the Later Ly Dynasty. He installed Tran Canh as Emperor and established Dai Viet (Tran Dynasty).
1226 Mongol installed Prince Orda as King (Khan) of the White Horde and founded the Khanate of the White Horde in western Siberia.

The city of Lubeck in northern Germany gained the status of free city and established the Lubeck Regime.

The towns in the Rhenish region (also called Rhineland) in Germany formed the First League of Rhenish Towns. Defeated by Germany in the same year, the League was dissolved.

The cities in Lombardy formed the Second Lombard League in opposition to Germany. In 1237 Germany defeated the League. But with the support of the Roman Papacy, the Second Lombard League continued to resist Germany.
1227 Temujin divided his territories among his sons and grandsons: Tului obtained Mongolia and northern China. Ogadei obtained the area of the Altai Mountains and founded the Ogadei Khanate. Chaghatai obtained Central Asia and founded the Chaghatai Khanate. Batu obtained the lands of the Kipchak-Cumans and western Siberia and founded the Khanate of the Blue Horde (also called the Kipchak Khanate).

King Friedrich II of Germany launched the Sixth Crusade. He soon wthdrew his army on the pretext of ill health and was excommunicated by the Papacy. In 1228 Friedrich II launched the expedition again. The Papacy organised the Papal Crusade to invade Sicily. After Friedrich II concluded peace with the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government) and recovered part of the Holy Land in 1229, he returned westwards to expel the Papal Crusaders.
1227.6M Mongol conquered [Western] Xia.
1227.7M Temujin died. Tului became the Mongol Regent.
1228 The Ahoms, led by their Chief Sukapha, invaded the Assam region in eastern India. They conquered Kamarupa and founded the Kingdom of Ahom.
c.1228 Yahya I, Governor of Gafsa under the Muwahhid Regime, declared independence and founded the Hafsid Regime in Tunisia.
1229.8M Ogadei became Mongol Emperor. The Mongol throne was thus held by the Ogadei Line.
c.1229 Umar I rose against the Ayyubid Regime (Yemeni Government) and founded the Rasulid Regime in Zabid. In the same year Umar I overthrew the Ayyubid Regime (Yemeni Government).
1230 King Fernando III of Castile inherited Leon and amalgamated the two countries into the Kingdom of Castile-Leon. Castile-Leon conquered the island of Mallorca in the Baleares Islands. King Jaime I of Castile-Leon assumed the title of King of Mallorca concurrently and founded the Kingdom of Mallorca.

Mari Dyata I, Prince of the former Malel Kingdom, made himself King in West Sudan and founded the Kingdom of Mali.
1230.4 The Empire of Greece collapsed after Emperor Theodore was captured by Bulgaria. In the same year Manuel made himself Despot of Thessalonica and restored the Thessalonican Regime. In c.1237 Bulgaria allowed Theodore to return to Thessalonica. Theodore deposed Manuel and installed John as Emperor of Thessalonica. Real power was held by Theodore.
1231.8 Khwarizm collapsed after the Mongols defeated Mingburnu, who was killed by the Kurds.
c.1231 Muhammad I began to rule Granada and founded the Kingdom of Granada.
1232 France installed Charles I as Count of Anjou and established Anjou (Angevin Dynasty) (commonly called the "Second Anjou Dynasty").
1233 Tommaso II, a royal member of Savoy, founded the Principality of Piedmont in northwestern Italy.
c.1233 Nedega, Chief of the Mossi-Dagombas, founded the Kingdmo of Mossi in present day eastern Burkina Faso.
1234.1M Mongol conquered the Jin Empire.
c.1234 Germany installed Count Buonconte of Montefeltro as Count of Urbino and founded the Urbino Regime in central-northern Italy.
1235 The Mongol government naturalised a large number of Muslims coming from Central Asia, Iran and Arabia and living in Northern China, who later evolved into the Chinese Hui People (called Huihui at that time).

Otto I founded the Duchy of Brunswick in northwestern Germany.
1235.6M Batu, Khan of the Blue Horde, launched the Second Mongol Western Conquest. In 1237 the Mongols entered southern Russia, where they defeated the Kipchaks and conquered the Russian states. (The Russians called the Mongols Tartars). Later the Mongols invaded Poland, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Bulgaria and Romania, causing great disasters to the local inhabitants. Their conquest was called the "Yellow Peril" by historians.
c.1235 Yaghamrasan, Governor of Tlemcen under the Muwahhid Regime, declared independence and founded the Abd al-Wadid Regime in northwestern Algeria.
1236
Aleksandr became Prince of Novgorod. During his reign he defeated foreign invaders.

The Livonian Brothers dissolved. In the next year the remnant of the Order was incorporated into the Teutonic Order and was renamed the Livonian Order. They began to rule Livonia and formed the Livonian Order Regime.
1237 Prince Robert I of France assumed the title of Count of Artois and founded the County of Artois in northwestern France.
1238 General Sri Indraditya of Chenla started to rule Sukothai in northern Siam and founded the Kingdom of Sukothai.

Mahmud Tarabi of Bukhara rose against Mongol rule. He occupied Bukhara and established the Kingdom of Bukhara. After Mahmud Tarabi died in a battle against the Mongols, his brother succeeded as leader of the rebellion. In the same year the Mongols crushed the rebellion and subjugated Bukhara.
c.1238 Rise of the Muqdisho Regime in present day southern Somalia.
Late 1230s Blue Horde conquered Alan. Thereafter the Eastern Alans gradually evolved into the Ossetians.
1240 Sweden invaded Russia. Prince Aleksandr of Novgorod defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Neva. Since then Aleksandr was nicknamed Nevksy.
c.1240 Mindaugas founded the Lithuanian Regime in the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.

The English Great Council was renamed Parliament.
1241 Blue Horde destroyed the Kipchak-Cuman Confederacy.
1241.11M Emperor Ogadei died. In the second lunar month of the next year, the Mongol army retreated from East Europe.
1242 The Prince of Pereyaslavl started to be elected. Beginning of the Period of the Noble "Republic" of Pereyaslavl.

England invaded France. In the next year France defeated England and occupied Guyenne. In 1259 the two countries signed the Treaty of Paris, by which France returned Guyenne to England while England renounced claims to Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Touraine and Poitou.
1242.4.5 Prince Aleksandr of Novgorod defeated the Teutonic Order on the ice of Lake Peipus (called Chudskoye by Russians) (Battle of the Ice, also called the Battle of Lake Peipus). The Teutonic Order was expelled from Russia.
1246 Yaroslav seceded from Pereyaslavl and founded the Principality of Tver in western Russia.
1247.2.c13 Heinrich III, a royal member of Limburg, became Count of Luxemburg and established Luxemburg (Limburg Dynasty), thus forming the Limburg-Luxemburg House.
1248 Birger, a senior official of Sweden, seized control of the royal court. In 1250 Birger installed Valdemar I as King and established Sweden (Folkung Dynasty). Birger continued to hold real power.

France launched the Seventh Crusade and attacked Egypt. In 1254 the Crusaders retreated because of military failure.
c.1248 Kazimierz I, a royal member of Mazovia, seceded from Mazovia and founded the Duchy of Kujavia in Poland.
c.1249 Sweden launched the Second Swedish Crusade and conquered Finland.
c. Mid-13th Century The Mongols founded the Siberian Khanate (also called the Sibir Khanate) in Siberia.

The Arab Beni Hassan Tribe migrated into present-day Mauritania and Sahara. Conflicts arose between the Beni Hassan Tribe and the indigenous Sanhaja Berbers.
1250 Malietoa I, Chief of the Samoans in Oceania, expellded the intruders from the neighbouring island of Tonga and founded the Kingdom of Samoa.
1250.12.30 Upon death of the German King Friedrich II, the Second Lombard League was dissolved and the War of the Lombard League came to an end.
c.1250 The Khanate of the Blue Horde installed Prince Shaiban as the Shaiban Khan and founded the Shaiban Khanate, ruling the Ural River Valley.
c.1250.7.31 Aibeg, leader of the Mamluk Guards of the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government), made himself Sultan and founded the Mamluk Regime in Egypt. In c.1252 the Mamluk Regime overthrew the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government) and unified Egypt.
2nd Half of 13th Century Azcapotzalco formed the Tepanec Triple Alliance with Culhuacan and Coatlinchan.
1251.6M Mengu became Mongol Emperor. Since then the Mongol throne passed to the Tului Line.
c.1251 Upon death of Prince Heinrich I of Anhalt, his three sons succeeded and split Anhalt into Anhalt[-Aschersleben], Anhalt[-Bernburg] and Anhalt[-Zerbst].
1252 Prince Hulegu of Mongol launched the Third Mongol Western Conquest.
1254 The towns in the Rhineland formed the Second League of Rhenish Towns.
1254.5.21 Upon death of King Konrad IV of Germany, Germany (Hohenstaufen Dynasty) ended. Since then there was no "orthodox" German Kings (but there existed several "unorthodox" Kings), which was called the Period of the Great Interregnum by historians.
1255 Bavaria split into [Lower] Bavaria and [Upper] Bavaria.
1255.12.16 The House of Nassau split into the Walramian Line (ruling Weilburg, Idstein, etc. and inheriting the title of Count of Nassau) and the Ottonian Line (ruling Dillenburg, Siegen, etc., later developing into the Orange Branch). There were further subdivisions of this royal house.
1256.11.19 The Mongols captured Alamut and destroyed the Ismaili Regime. In about this year the Mongols conquered Iran and founded the Il Khanate (commonly called the Ilkhanid Regime). The conquered territories of the Mongols were divided into the Four Mongol Khanates (including Ogadei, Chaghatai, Il and Blue Horde).
c.1256 Karaman founded the Karamanid Regime in southwestern Asia Minor.
1257 Archbishop Konrad of Koln in north Germany and Archbishop Gerhard I of Mainz in south Germany obtained the status of Electors. The Archbishopric of Koln and the Archbishopric of Mainz thus became important German states.

In contention for the hegemony in Eastern Mediterranean region, Venice and Genoa entered into the VenetianˇVGenoese War.
1257.10M Since this year, the Mongols (later renamed Yuan) launched three invasions of Dai Viet. In 1288 Dai Viet expelled the Mongol invaders.
c.1257 Tsuka founded the Kingdom of Ternate on Molucca Islands of present-day Indonesia.
1258 Wang Chol, King of Koryo, overthrew the dictatorship of the Choi Family.

The Il Khanate divided Georgia into [Eastern] Georgia and the Kingdom of Imereti (commonly called [Western] Georgia).

Michael VIII seized control of the [Eastern] Roman royal court. In 1259 Michael VIII crowned himself and established [Eastern] Rome (Palaeologus Dynasty). Although the Emperors of the Lascaris Dynasty still remained on the throne nominally, real power was held by Michael VIII.

Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd of Gwynedd changed his title to Prince of Wales and renamed his country as the Principality of Wales.
1258.2.20 The Ilkhanid army captured Baghdad and overthrew Arabia (Abbasid Dynasty). In the same year the Ilkhanids conquered Iraq.
1258.6 The English Parliament endorsed the Provisions of Oxford, which created a Council of 15 to be the King's advisor. King Henry III was compelled to accept the provisions. The Parliament was thus called the "Crazy Parliament". Thereafter Henry III was engaged in power struggle with the Parliament.
1259.2M Emperor Mengu of Mongol invaded [Southern] Song and was killed in a battle in the seventh lunar month of the same year.
1260 Saxony split into the Saxe-Wittenberg Regime (commonly called Saxony) and the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg.

Mastino I founded the Verona Regime in northern Italy.
1260.3M
Kubilai became Mongol Emperor. In the eleventh lunar month of 1271, he changed his title to Emperor of Yuan and renamed his regime as the Yuan Empire.
1260.10.1 The Il Khanate annhilated the Ayyubid Regime (Aleppo Government). In the same year Sultan Qutuz and General Baibars I of Mamluk defeated the Ilkhanid army in the Battle of Ain Jalut, blocking the further Ilkhanid invasion. The Ilkhanids were forced to retreat eastwards. Mamluk conquered Syria.
1260.10.23 Baibars I overthrew Qutuz and made himself Mamluk Sultan.
1260.12M Mongol appointed Phagpa, leader of the Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism, as the Imperial Preceptor and administrator of Tibet. In 1265 Phagpa returned to Tibet and founded the Sakya Regime.
1261 Greenland became a Norwegian colony.
1261.6.13 The Mamluk Regime installed al-Mustansir, a member of the former Abbasid royal family, as Caliph in Cairo and the nominal religious leader of the Sunni Sect, but without real political power.
1261.7.25 [Eastern] Rome (Nicaean Government) captured Constantinople and overthrew the Latin Government. [Eastern] Rome was thus reunified. On .8.15 Emperor Michael VIII of [Eastern] Rome deposed Emperor John IV of the Lascaris Dynasty, which then collapsed. Michael VIII became sole Emperor.
1262.6 Norway annexed Iceland.
1263 San Marino adopted the political system of parallel rule of two Captains-Regents, which lasted until the present day.
1264 The English anti-royalist forces rose against Henry III. The Second Barons' War broke out. In 1265 Simon de Montfort, leader of the rebels, captured Henry III and forced Henry III to sign the Mise of Lewes, which resumed the Provisions of Oxford. Simon de Montfort convened the Parliament (called de Montfort's Parliament by historians), which then became the prototype of the English Parliament. S. de Montfort became de facto ruler. The royalists rose against S. de Montfort and killed the latter in a battle. In 1267 the anti-royalists concluded peace with Henry III and ended the war.
1265 Heinrich I, a royal member of Brabant, founded the Landgravate of Hesse in southern Germany.
1266.1.6 Count Charles I of Anjou became King of Sicily (called Carlo I) concurrently and established Sicily (Anjou Dynasty).
1267 Wales signed a treaty with England by which Wales recognized England as its suzerain while England recognized the leading role of the Welsh Principality in Wales.
c.1268 Yekuno Amlak, Chief of the Amharas, overthrew Ethiopia (Zagwe Dynasty) and established Ethiopia (Solomonic Dynasty).
1270 The Prince of Novgorod started to be elected by the aristocrats. Beginning of the Period of the Noble "Republic" of Novgorod.

The Roman Papacy launched the Eighth Crusade, which was led by France, Anjou and England and aimed at the Hafsid Regime. In the same year Anjou secured a treaty with favourable clauses with the Hafsid Regime and then retreated.
1271 Prince John I of Epirus made himself Duke of Neopatras and founded the Duchy of Neopatras in Thessaly.
1272.11.20 Edward I became King of England. During his reign he invaded Wales and Scotland.
1273 Ouidiraogo inherited Mossi. Moved the capital to Tenkodogo in southeastern Burkina Faso, he changed the name of his regime to the Kingdom of Tenkodogo.
1273.9.29 The German feudal lords elected Duke Rudolf I as the German King, who established Germany (Habsburg Dynasty), ending the Period of the Great Interregnum. Laying claim to the German throne, Duke Otakar of Austria started a war with the German King Rudolf I. In the next year Rudolf I killed Otakar and overthrew Austria (Babenberg Dynasty). Rudolf I then made himself Duke of Austria concurrently and established Austria (Habsburg Dynasty).
c.1275 Prince Sang Nila Utam of Srivijaya founded the Kingdom of Singapura in Tamasak in the southern tip of Malaya.
1276 Pinamonte founded the Mantua Regime in northern Italy.

Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd of Wales rebelled against England, which then invaded Wales. In 1282 England conquered Deheubarth and Powys. In 1283 England conquered Wales.
1277 Yuan began to invade Pagan in Burma.

Empress Maria of Bulgaria seized power from the ailing Emperor Konstantin Tikh. Ivailo, a Bulgarian peasant, revolted and seized power. In 1278 Ivailo made himself Emperor and established the Rebels' Government.
1278.9.8 Count of Foix (in southern France) and Bishop of Urgel (in northern Iberia) signed the Treaty of Joint Suzerainty, which provided for the joint administration of Andorra by the two countries. The Principality of Andorra was founded and was ruled by two Co-Princes, with the Count of Foix and Bishop of Urgel being the two Co-Princes.
1279.2M Yuan annihilated [Southern] Song and conquered southern China.
1280s Having conquered the Old Prussians and then ended the Prussian Crusade, the Teutonic Order launched attack against Lithuania and began the Lithuanian Crusade, which was part of the Northern Crusades.
1280.7 Ivailo overthrew Bulgaria (Asen Dynasty). In c. July of the same year, the Bulgarian nobles installed Georgi I as Emperor and established Bulgaria (Terter Dynasty). The Bulgarian nobles defeated Ivailo, who fled to the Khanate of the Blue Horde and was killed. The revolt was suppressed.
c.1281 Osman I, Chief of the Turks in Asia Minor (later called the Osmanli Turks or Turkish) rose against the Rum Sultanate and established the Osmanli Regime (commonly called the Ottoman Empire or Turkish Empire).
1282 Prince Nasir al-Din Bughra Khan of Delhi started to rule Bengal and established the Kingdom of Bengal.
1282.3 Using the ring for the vespers as the signal, the populace of Sicily rebelled against King Carlo I (Sicilian Vespers). Aragon-Catalonia occupied Sicily and overthrew Sicily (Anjou Dynasty). Carlo I fled to Naples, where he changed his title to King of Naples and founded the Kingdom of Naples (Anjou Dynasty). On .9.4 of the same year King Pedro III of Aragon-Catalonia became King of Sicily (called Pietro I) concurrently and established Sicily (Barcelona Dynasty).
1283 Daniel, a royal member of Vladimir, was conferred the title of Prince of Moscow, and founded the Principality of Moscow in western Russia.
1285 Umar ibn Dunyahuz founded the Kingdom of Awfat in present day northern Somalia.
1287 Pagan became a vassal state of Yuan. Beginning of the Warring State Period of Burma, during which Burma was torn by internal strife.

Wareru, a military officer of Sukothai, founded the Kingdom of Pegu ([Middle] Pegu) in Pegu.
c.1290s Malik-us-Saleh founded the Kingdom of Pasai (also called the Kingdom of Sumatra) in northern Sumatra.
1290.6.13 Jalal al-Din, Chief of the Khaljis of Delhi, overthrew the Slave Dynasty and established Delhi (Khalji Dynasty).
1290.9.26 King Edward I of England arranged for his son Edward to marry Queen Margaret of Scotland in an attempt to unite the two countries. Margaret died on the way to England. The Scottish throne was left vacant and succession dispute broke out in Scotland.
1291 The Mamluk Regime staged the Egypt-Crusade War. On .5.19 the Mamluks captured Acre and annhilated the Kingdom of Jerusalem, thus eliminating the last stronghold of the Crusaders in Palestine and conquered Palestine. The Crusades came to an end.

The Hospitallers moved to Cyprus.
1291.8.1 The three forest cantons of Schwyz, Nidwalden and Uri in present day Switzerland declared independence from Austria and formed the Everlasting League (also called the League of the Forest Cantons), which was a prototype of the Swiss Confederation. Thereafter othe cantons in Switzerland joined the League successively.
1292 The Yuan army attacked Java. Jayakatwang, Prince of the former Kediri Kingdom, seized the opportunity to overthrow Singosari and restored the Kingdom of Kediri. In the next year the Yuan army attacked Java again. Kertarajasa Jayavardhana, a noble of the former Singosari Kingdom, united with the Yuan army and destroyed Kediri. Kertarajasa Jayavardhana soon expelled the Yuan army and founded the Kingdom of Majapahit.
1292.11.17 England installed John Balliol as King of Scotland. On 1296.7.10 England deposed John Balliol and annexed Scotland.
1293 Sweden launched the Third Swedish Crusade and captured western Karelia from Novgorod.

The Florentine guilds toppled the rule of the nobles and enacted the Ordinance of 1293, which established the oligarchic rule of the major guilds. An Elders' Council (composed of representatives of the major guilds and the medium and lesser guilds) was instituted to exercise supreme powers, with the Gonfalonier of Justice being the chief of state.
1295 Pomerania split into Pomerania[-Stettin] and Pomerania[-Wolgast]. Since then there were further subdivisions of the country.

France and Scotland formed the Auld Alliance against England.

A Parliament composed of representatives of the clergy, nobles and burgesses was summoned (Model Parliament), thus creating the hierarchical monarchical system.
1295.c10 Ghazan became Khan of the Ilkhanid Regime. During his reign he carried out reforms and strengthened the power of his regime.
1296 Mangrai, King of Chiangsen moved the captial to Chiang Mai and renamed his country as the Kingdom of Chiang Mai (also called the Lannathai Kingdom).
1296.10.3 Ala al-Din, a royal member of Delhi, seized the throne. During his reign he conquered most regions of India.
1297 Wallace of Scotland rose against England. The Scottish War of Independence thus broke out. In 1305 Wallace was captured and executed by Wallace. In 1306 Robert I became leader of the rebellion and established Scotland (Bruce Dynasty) on .3.27.
1297.1.8 Rainier I occupied Monaco in southeastern France and founded the Monaco Regime.
1298 Athinhkaya, Yazathinkyan and Thihathu, Pagan military officers of the Shan nationality (collectively called the "Three Shan Brothers") seized power and expelled the Yuan army from Burma in 1303.
c.1298 Quinatzin inherited Tenayuca and moved the capital to Texcoco in central Mexico and renamed the country as the Kingdom of Texcoco.
c.1299 Yaqub I founded the Germiyan Regime in Kutahya in western Asia Minor.
c.1300 Nine tribes on the island of Sulawesi of present day Indonesia united to form the Kingdom of Gowa (also called the Kingdom of Makassar).

Saru Khan rebelled against Germiyan and founded the Sarukhan Regime in Magnesia in western Asia Minor. Menteshe Beg Masud founded the Menteshe Regime in Caria in southwestern Asia Minor. Hamid Beg Ilyas founded the Hamid Regime in southwestern Asia Minor.

The Merinas on Madagascar founded the Kingdom of Merina.
Late 13th Century The Livonian Crusade came to an end. Denmark, Sweden, Teutonic Knights and Livonian Knights conquered the Balto-Finnic Peoples in the Baltic region.
c. late 13th Century Prince Rawa of Tenkodogo founded the Kingdom of Zandana in present day northern Burkina Faso.
14th Century The Komis established the Great Perm Principality in the Komi region (now under Russia).

Beginning of the Renaissance in Western Europe.
c.14th Century A large number of the members of the Arab Shuwa Tribe (also called the Baggara Tribe) migrated into Chad.

The Tepanecs founded the Kingdom of Tlacopan in central Mexico.
1st Half of 14th Century Mamluk destroyed Noba and Dongola, which marked the end of the Age of Christian Nubia in Eastern Sudan. Thereafter a large number of Arabs migrated to Eastern Sudan.
1302 Using the ring for the matin as a sginal, the burghers of Bruges in Flanders rose against France (Matin de Bruges). On .7.11 the rebels defeated the French army in Courtrai (Battle of the Spurs) and expelled the French from northern Flanders.

The first Estates-General was summoned in France, which marked the beginning of the hierarchincal monarchical system.
1303 Dolcino and Margaret, leaders of the heretical Apostle Brethren in northern Italy, instigated a peasant uprising in Piedmont. The Roman Papacy organised a Crusade, which suppressed the uprising in 1307.
1306 The Bohemian nobles rebelled against King Vaclav III. After Vaclav III was assassinated on .8.4, the Premyslid Dynasty collapsed.
1308.11.27 Count Heinrich V of Luxemburg became German King (called Heinrich VII) concurrently and established Germany (Luxemburg Dynasty). Thereafter the power of the Count of Luxemburg increased and inherited a number of countries in Central Europe.
c.1308 France compelled Pope Clement V to move the Holy See to Avignon and establish the Avignon Holy See, which was under French control (called the Avignonese Captivity by historians, also called the "Babylonian Captivity"). Thereafter Rome was controlled by the Colonna Family.
1309 The Teutonic Order established a base in Marienburg, Prussia, thus forming the Teutonic Order Regime.
c.1309 The Chaghaitai Khanate annexed the Ogadei Khanate.
1310 Jan, a royal member of Luxemburg, became King of Bohemia and established Bohemia (Luxemburg Dynasty).
1310.8.15 The Hospitallers occupied Rhodes, which then became their base, thus forming the Hospitallers' Regime.
c.1310 Basarab I declared independence from Hungary and founded the Principality of Wallachia in present day southern Romania.
1311.3.15 The Grand Catalan Company (i.e. [Eastern] Roman mercenaries from Catalonia) occupied Athens and overthrew Athens (de la Roche Dynasty). Since then the Grand Catalan Company expanded their power in Greece and conquered Thebes. In 1312 they made Manfred, prince of Sicily, Duke of Athens and established Athens (Aragonese Dynasty). In 1318 they conquered Neopatras.
1312 King Sawhnit of Pagan moved the capital to Pinya and renamed his regime as the Kingdom of Pinya.
Musa I became King of Mali. During his reign Mali became a powerful state in West Sudan.
1313 Prince Oubri of Tenkodogo made himself King in Wagadugu in present day central Burkina Faso and founded the Kingdom of Wagadugu.
1313.4.20 Mazovia split into the Duchy of Sochaczew, Duchy of Plock and Duchy of Czersk. In 1341 the Duchy of Warsaw split from Czersk.
1314.c2 Muhammad started to rule Fars in Iran and founded the Muzaffarid Regime.
1314.10.19 Duke Friedrich III of Austria was elected to be German King (called Friedrich) concurrently and established Germany (Habsburg Dynasty). On the next day Duke Ludwig IV of [Upper] Bavaria was also elected to be German King (called Ludwig) concurrently and established Germany (Wittelsbach Dynasty). A civil war broke out in Germany. In 1326 Ludwig IV deposed Friedrich.
1315 Sawyun, a Pinya military officer, started to rule Sagaing in northern Burma and founded the Kingdom of Sagaing, thus starting a prolonged war between Pinya and Sagaing.

Prince Edward Bruce of Scotland invaded Ireland. In the next year he crowned himself King of Ireland and founded the Kingdom of Ireland. After Edward Bruce died in a battle in 1318, Ireland reverted to English rule.
1320.1.20 Cracow, Great Poland and Cujavia reunited as the Kingdom of Poland.
1320.c9 Tughluq Shah I, Governor of Punjab under Delhi, revolted. He overthrew the Khalji Dynasty and established Delhi (Tughluq Dynasty).
1321 Rostov split into the Principality of Rostov-Borissoglebsk and Principality of Rostov-Ustretensk.
1323 Bengal split into Satgaon, [East] Bengal and [West] Bengal.

Downfall of Bulgaria (Terter Dynasty) and internal strife. The nobles elected Mikhail Shishman, ruler of Vidin, to be Bulgarian Tsar and established Bulgaria (Shishmanovich Dynasty).
c.1324 Harisimha, local ruler of Tirhut in Nepal, conquered Nepal and founded the Karnataka Regime.
1325 The Sharvashidze Family seized control of Abkhazia and established the Principality of Abkhazia.

Ivan I became Prince of Moscow. During his reign he strengthened the power of Moscow by maintaining good relationship with the Blue Horde and contested for the position of Grand Prince of Vladimir with the Prince of Tver.

The cities in Flanders formed the League of Flemish Cities and rebelled against Count Lodewijk I, who was imprisoned. Lodewijk I was released in the next year.

The Aztecs founded the Kingdom of Aztec in Tenochtitlan in central Mexico.
1326 Queen Isabella of England and her paramour Mortimer led a French army to invade England. On .11.6 they captured King Edward II of England and put England under their control. On .1.24 of the next year Isabella and Mortimer crowned Edward III as King and continued to hold real power. In 1330 Edward III overthrew Isabella and Mortimer in a coup and restored the King's power.
1327 Prince Louis I of France founded the Duchy of Bourbon in central France.
1328 England recognized the independence of Scotland, thus ending the Scottish War of Independence.
1328.2.1 End of France (Capetian Dynasty). On .4.1 Philippe, Count of Anjou and Count of Valois, succeeded to the French throne (called Philippe VI) and established France (Valois Dynasty). King Edward III of England laid claim to the French throne. On receiving a request from Count Lodewijk I of Flanders for help to suppress the League of Flemish Cities, France sent an army to occupy Flanders.
c.1330 [Eastern] Georgia conquered Imereti and reunified Georgia.
1331 22 cities in Swabia formed the First Swabian League.
1331.9.8
Uros IV (commonly called Stefan Dusan) became King of Serbia. During his reign he established his hegemony in Balkan Peninsula and drew up Dusan's Code (Zakonik).
1332.8.2 Holstein conquered Denmark and partitioned its territory.
1332.8.6 England helped Edward Balliol to crown himself in Scotland and restored Scotland (Balliol Dynasty). In December of the same year, Edward Balliol was defeated and expelled. In the next year England invaded Scotland and overthrew the Bruce Dynasty. Edward Balliol regained the throne. In 1341 David II, former King of Scotland, returned to Scotland. He overthrew the Balliol Dynasty and restored the Bruce Dynasty.
1333.Leap2M Takeharu, former Japanese Emperor, declared war against the Hojo Family. In the fifth lunar month of the same year, the Hojos were overthrown and Takeharu was restored to the throne (Kemmu Restoration). Prince Morikuni, the Shogun, abdicated and the Kamakura Shogunate came to an end.
1334 Jalal-ud-Din Ahsan Shah, Governor of Madurai under Delhi, revolted and founded the Kingdom of Madurai in southern India.
1335 Vijayabahu V inherited Ceylon. Moving the capital to Gampola, he renamed his country as the Kingdom of Gampola.

Austria obtained Carniola.
c.1335 The Alakesvara Family founded the Kingdomg of Rayigama in Rayigama of Ceylon.
1336 Harihara I founded the Kingdom of Vijayanagar (Yadava Dynasty) in southern India.
1336.8M Ashikaga Takauji, a Japanese military officer, imprisoned Emperor Takeharu and crowned Toyohito as Emperor. In the twelfth lunar month of the same year, Takeharu fled to Yoshino where he established another court. Japan thus split into two courts: Takeharu governing the Southern Court while Toyohito ruling the Northern Court, whose real power was held by the Ashikaga Family. Beginning of the Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties of Japan.
c.1336 Hasan, Governor of Rum under the Il Khanate and Chief of the Mongol Jalayirid Tribe, made Iraq a de facto hereditary kingdom and founded the Jalayirid Regime.
c.1337 Abdul-Razzaq, leader of the Islamic Sufi Sect in Khurasan, rose against the Il Khanate. The rebels called themselves Sarbadars and established the Khurasan Sarbadar Regime.
1338 Jan van Arteveldt, leader of the middle class of Ghent in Flanders, rose against France and controlled the cities in Flanders. The Flemish allied with England. France attacked Guyenne, which led to the outbreak of the Hunder Years' War. King Edward III of England invaded France. He assumed the title of King of France and established France (Plantagenet Dynasty).
1338.8M Ashikaga Takauji, de facto ruler of Japan (Northern Court), assumed the title of Shogun and established the Muromachi Shogunate.
1341 John V succeeded as [Eastern] Roman Emperor, with Dowager Empress Anna (of Savoy) being the Regent. The [Eastern] Roman aristrocrats chose John VI as another Emperor, thus leading to the Cantacuzene War. The Hesychasts and Anti-Hesychasts of the Greek Orthodox Church started a struggle (Hesychast Controversy).
1342 The Zealots (a branch of the Hesychasts) of Thessalonica rose against John VI and established the Republic of Thessalonica, which was controlled by the urban nobles. In 1345 the Zealots overthrew the urban nobles and seized power.
1345 Taking advantage of the civil disorder of [Eastern] Rome, King Uros IV of Serbia made himself "Emperor of the Serbs and Romans" and attempted to invade [Eastern] Rome.

Brunswick split into several feudal states, with Magnus I ruling the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel.
c.1346 The Chaghatai Khanate came under control of the Barlas Tribe. Thereafter the Chaghatai was torn by political disintegration. In c.1347 the Khanate split into two parts: [Western] Chaghatai was controlled by the Barlas Tribe while [Eastern] Chaghatai was controlled by the Dughlat Tribe.
1347 [Eastern] Roman Emperor Johh VI captured Constantinople and expelled John V, another [Eastern] Roman Emperor. Serbia occupied Macedonia.

A type of bubonic plague (commonly called Black Death) spread into Sicily from Asia and later spread throughout Europe, inflictng death on 24 million people.
1347.5.20 di Rienzo staged the First di Rienzo Rebellion in Rome against the rule of the Colonna Family. He established a Rebels' Government and assumed the title of Tribune. In an attempt to unify Italy, he summoned the Italian National Parliament, but failed due to lack of unanimity among the cities. On .12.15 of the same year the Colonna Family overthrew the Rebels' Government.
1347.8.3 The nobles of Deccan in India installed Bahman Shah as Sultan and founded the Bahmanid Regime in central India.
c.1347.1 Prince Jagatsimha of Karnataka restored the Kingdom of Nepal.
1348 Pskov in northwestern Russia seceded from Novgorod and established the Principality of Pskov, which was an aristocratic oligarchy, commonly called the Pskov "Republic".

[Eastern] Rome installed Prince Manuel as Despot of Morea and founded the Despotate of Morea in Greece.
1349 King Rama Tibodi I of Lawo occupied most territories of Sukothai. In the next year Rama Tibodi I moved the capital to Ayuthia in southern Siam and established the Kingdom of Siam (Ayuthia Dynasty, U Thong Royal Line).

Making use of the Osmanli army, [Eastern] Rome suppressed the Zealot Rebellion.
Mid-14th Century Lithuania conquered Ukraine and Belarus.

The cities in northern Germany formed the Hanseatic League, with Lubeck being the centre of the League.

The Kongolese founded the Kingdom of Kongo in present-day nothern Angola.
c.1350 Mata Selompu Mapololiteng unified seven Bugis tribes on Sulawesi and founded the Kingdom of Bone.

N'Dyadya N'Dyaye, Chief of the Wolofs, founded the Kigndom of Dyolof in present-day Senegal.

Isingoma Mpuga Rukidi founded the Kingdom of Bunyoro in present-day Uganda.

Ndahiro I, Chief of the Tutsis, founded the Kingdom of Ruanda (Tutsi Dynasty) in present-day Rwanda.
1351 Han Shantong, leader of the White Lotus Society of China, plotted to stage a revolt against the Yuan Empire. After he was killed, Liu Futong succeeded as leader. He started the revolt and organised the Eastern Red Turban Army. Peng Yingyu organised the Western Red Turban Army and chose Xu Shouhui as the leader. Outbreak of the Later Yuan Peasant War.

[Eastern] Roman Emperor John V resumed the Cantacuzene War with John VI. In 1354.12 John V captured Constantinople and forced John VI to abdicate.
1351.10M Xu Shouhui proclaimed himself as Emperor and established the Tianwan Empire. In the second lunar month of the next year, Guo Zixing started another revolt. Later the command of his army passed to Zhu Yuanzhang.
c.1351 Majapahit attacked Malayu. King Adityavarman of Malayu moved the capital to Minangkabau and renamed his regime as the Kingdom of Minangkabau.
1353 Chenla helped Prince Fa Ngum of Muong Swa to seize the throne. Fa Ngum changed the royal title to King of Lanchang and founded the Kingdom of Lanchang. During his reign Lanchang became a local power.
1354 Changchub Gyantsen, leader of the Pagtru Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism, founded the Pagmotru Regime in Tibet.
1354.8.1 di Rienzo staged the Second di Rienzo Rebellion and reoccupied Rome. On .10.8 of the same year he was overthrown by the Colonna Family.
1355 Emperor Uros IV attacked Constantinople. Upon death of Uros IV on .12.20 of the same year, the power of Serbia declined. The Cantacuzene War came to an end.
1355.2M Liu Futong installed Han Liner as Song Emperor, claiming that he was a member of the Song royal family, and established the Song Empire.
1355.11.25 Nassau (Walramian Line) split into several feudal states, including Nassau-Weilburg, etc.
1356.9.19 After England captured King Jean II of France, Charles V became Regent of France. In the same year Charles V summoned the Estates-General to raise funds for the war expenses and ransom. Demanding for the power of exercising regular supervision over the Government, the Estates-General was soon dissolved by Charles V, which led to the Paris Insurrection led by Marcel. In February in the next year, Charles V was force to summon the Estates-General again. In March the Estates-General passed the Great Ordinance, which provided for supervision of the national finance by a standing committee.
1356.12.25 Germany promulgated the Golden Bull, which formally established the status of the Seven Electors of Germany: Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, King of Bohemia, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Elector-Archbishop of Koln, Elector-Archbishop of Trier and Elector-Archbishop of Mainz, who had the right to elect the German King. The Golden Bull also confirmed the autonomy of the German feudal lords, thus consolidating the political fragmentation of Germany.
1358.2 A second insurrection broke out in Paris. Charles V fled from Paris and rallied armies to besiege Paris. In August of the same year the nobles of Paris opposed the Estates-General and killed Marcel. Charles V then returned to Paris and suppressed the insurrection.
1358.5 Cale, a French peasant, started the Jacquerie Uprising in opposition to the war taxes. Charles V sought help from Navarre. In the same year, the coalition army of France and Navarre killed Cale and suppressed the uprising.
c.1358 Charles Thopia started to rule Durres and founded the Principality of Albania (commonly called the Principality of Balkan Albania).

Ngola-a-Nzinga, Chief of the Ngolas, founded the Kingdom of Ndongo in present-day southern Angola.
c.1359 Bogdan I, a noble of Moldavia, rebelled against Hungary and founded the Principality of Moldavia in present day northeastern Romania.
1360.Leap5M Chen Youliang, a general of Tianwan, murdered Xu Shouhui and overthrew Tianwan. Chen Youliang made himself Emperor and established the Han Empire.
1360.12 England and France signed the Peace of Bretigny by which France gave up Guyenne, Calais, etc. while the English King relinquished his claim to the French throne and released Jean II, the former French King, to France for restoration.

France installed Louis I as Duke of Anjou and established Anjou (Valois Dynasty) (commonly called the Third Anjou Dynasty).
c.1360 Murad I became Osmanli Sultan. During his reign he invaded [Eastern] Rome and Balkan Peninsula.

Balsa I, ruler of Zeta under Serbia, declared independence and founded the Montenegrin Regime, ruling Montenegro and Shkoder.
1361 Outbreak of the First War of the Hanseatic League between Denmark and the Hanseatic League. In 1362 the Hanseatic League was defeated. In 1363 both parties signed a peace agreement which curtailed the privileges of the Hanseatic League in Denmark.
1363 The Chaghatai Khanate split into two parts again, with [Western] Chaghatai controlled by the Dughlat Tribe, while [Western] Chaghatai was controlled by Husain and Timur of the Barlas Tribe.
c.1363 Prince Dimitri of Moscow became Grand Prince of Vladimir (called Dimitri III) concurrently. Thereafter the position of Grand Prince of Vladimir was monopolized by the Prince of Moscow.
1364 King Narathu of Pinya allied with the Maw Shans to annhilate Sagaing. The Maw Shans soon looted Pinya and captured Narathu, causing great disorder to Pinya. In the same year Thadominbya succeeded to the throne. Moving the capital to Ava, he renamed the country as the Kingdom of Ava.
1364.1M Zhu Yuanzhang, a leader of the Red Turfan Army, assumed the title of King of Wu and established the Wu Kingdom.
1364.9.19 King Jean II of France was defeated and captured by England. In the same year Charles V succeeded to the French throne.
1365 [Eastern] Chaghatai attacked Samarkand, capital of [Western] Chaghatai, Timur and Husain, de facto rulers of [Western] Chaghatai, fled. Maulana-zade, religious leader of Samarkand, in conjunction with the popular leaders Abu Bakar and Hurdak Bukhari, launched the Samarkand Sarbadar Movement and expelled the [Eastern] Chaghatai army. In the next year Husain and Timur returned to Samarkand and killed the rebels' leaders.
1365.7.27 Albrecht III succeeded as Archduke of Austria. He also assumed the title of Duke of Carniola and established the Duchy of Carniola, which covered the central and western parts of present-day Slovenia.
1366.3.29 Enrique II, Count of Trastamara, succeeded as King of Castile-Leon. He was overthrown on .4.3 next year. In 1369 Enrique II returned to the throne and established Castile-Leon (Trastamara Dynasty).
1368 The Danish nobles revolted and exiled King Valdemar IV.

The Second War of the Hanseatic League broke out between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.
1368.1M Zhu Yuanzhang, King of Wu, changed his title to Emperor of Ming and established the Ming Empire.
1368.Leap7M The Ming Empire expelled the Mongols from China Proper. Toghan Temur, the Yuan Emperor, retreated to Mongolia. His Government was then called the [Northern] Yuan Government by historians.
1370
Timur killed Husain and became the sole ruler of [Western] Chaghatai. During his rule he invaded Central Asia, West Asia and northern India and established a hegemonic empire (traditionally this year was assumed to be the founding year of the Timurid Regime).

Reunification of Mazovia. But in 1374 it split into Warsaw, Czersk and Plock again. Later the Duchy of Sochaczew and the Duchy of Belz seceded from Plock and the Duchy of Ciechanov seceded from Czersk.

Valdemar IV, former King of Denmark, was restored to the throne. He signed the Peace of Stralsund with the Hanseatic League by which Denmark recognized the privileges of the Hanseatic League and accepted the League's right to interfere with its royal succession.
c.1370 Faruqi, Governor of Khandesh under Delhi, declared independence and founded the Kingdom of Khandesh in Malwa.
1371.2.22 Upon death of King David II of Scotland, Robert II, the former Steward of the Palace, succeeded to the throne and established Scotland (Stewart Dynasty).
1371.9.27 The Osmanli Turks defeated Serbia in the Battle of Maritsa and captured the region of Macedonia.
1372 Wurttemberg destroyed the First Swabian League.
1373 Bernhard I seceded from Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and established the Duchy of Brunswick-Luneburg.
1376 Ulm and other cities formed the Second Swabian League.
c.1376 Wycliffe, an English priest, published his Civil Dominion, which led to an anti-Papacy movement in England. His followers became the Lollardy Sect.
1377 Iogaila became Grand Duke of Lithuania and established Lithuania (Iogaila Dynasty).
1378 Tokkhtamish, Khan of the White Horde, conquered the Blue Horde. He unified the White and Blue Hordes and established the Khanate of the Golden Horde.
1378.4.8 Prignano succeeded as the Pope and was renamed Urban VI. He moved the Holy See back to Rome and resumed the Roman Holy See. On .9.20 of the same year, some Cardinals elected Robert as the Pope (renamed Clement VII) and set up another Holy See in Avignon in opposition to the Roman Holy See. Beginning of the Period of the Great Schism of the Roman Catholic Church.
1378.6.20 Lando, leader of the Florentine workers, started the "Revolt of the Ciompi". The rebels seized power by overthrowing the oligarchy and established three new guilds. On .8.31 of the same year Lando submitted to the major guilds, which then suppressed the rebels. In 1382 the major guilds got rid of Lando, abrogated the three new guilds and restored the oligarchy.
c.1378 Qara Muhammad, Chief of the Turkmen, founded the Kara Koyunlu (= Black Sheep) Regime in northwestern Iran. In the same year [Western] Chaghatai granted Armenia and part of Iraq to Qara Yuluk Uthman, another Turkmen Chief, who founded the Ak Koyunlu (= White Sheep) Regime.
1379 Archdukes Albrecht III and Leopold III of Austria partitioned Austria into two parts which were under their rule respectively. The Habsburg House of Austria thus split into the Albrecht Line (also called the Austrian Line) and the Leopold Line. After Leopold III was killed in a battle in 1386, his territories was partitioned and the Leopold Line further split into the Styrian Line and the Tyrol Line.
1380 Le Quy Ly seized control of the Dai Viet royal court.
1380.6.21 Venice defeated the Genoese navy. With the two countries signing the Peace of Turin on 1381.8.8, the Venetian-Genoese War came to an end. Venice established its hegemonic status in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
1380.9.8 Prince Dimitri of Moscow defeated the Golden Horde army in the Battle of Kulikovo. He thus established his reputation in Russia and obtained the nickname of Donskoy.
1381 The Second Swabian League and the Second League of Rhenish Towns were amalgamated to form the League of German Free Cities in opposition to the feudal lords. In 1388 Germany united with Wurttemberg and Rhine and defeated the League, which was disbanded in 1389.

Wat Tyler of England united with Ball, leader of the Lollards, and started a peasants' revolt. The rebels succeeded in entering the capital London. But King Richard II killed Wat Tyler and suppressed the revolt.
1382 Chunda Rao, Chief of the Rathors, founded the Kingdom of Marwar in Jodhpur of Rajastan in western India.
1382.Leap2M The Ming Empire reunified China Proper.
1382.3 Tax revolts broke out in Paris and other areas of France. The insurrectionists broke open the arsenals and seized the lead maillots to be used as their weapons. The revolt was thus called the Maillotin Uprising by historians. In November of the same year the Government crushed the revolts.
1384.1.30 [Western] Burgundy started to annex [Eastern] Burgundy and the feudal states in Netherlands. Thereafter its political centre gradually moved from Burgundy Proper to Netherlands.
1385 Outbreak of the Forty Years' War between [Middle] Pegu and Ava.
1386 Grand Duke Iogaila of Lithuania became King of Poland (called Wladislaw II) concurrently and established Poland (Jagiello Dynasty).

Holstein annexed Schleswig. Since then the two areas were collectively called Schleswig-Holstein.
1387 Rise of the Kingdom of Banjarmasin in southeastern Kalimantan.
1387.8.3 Margrethe I became King of Denmark and Regent of Norway.
1388 Yi Song Gye, a Koryo military officer, staged a coup and seized powers. In the seventh lunar month of 1392, Yi Song Gye made himself King. In the first lunar month of 1393, he changed his title to King of Choson and establised the Kingdom of Choson (Yi Dynasty).

Nerio I, a Florentine, joined force with the Navarrese Company and defeated the Grand Catalan Company. He overthrew Athens (Aragonese Dynasty) and established Athens (Acciajuoli Dynasty).
1389 The Swedish nobles invited Denmark to send an army to overthrow their King Albrekt, thus ending Sweden (Folkung Dynasty). Margrethe I, King of Denmark and Regent of Norway, became King of Sweden concurrently and thus became the Chiefs of State of the Scandinavian states.
1389.6.28 The Osmanli army defeated the coalition army of Serbia, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Wallachia and Albania in the Battle of Kosovo. In the same month Murad I, the Osmanli Sultan, was assassinated. Bayezid I succeeded to the throne. During his reign he conquered the Ghazi Regimes in Asia Minor.
1392.Leap10M The Northern Court of Japan conquered the Southern Court.
c.1392 Kanem moved the capital to Bornu in present day eastern Nigeria and was renamed as the Kingdom of Bornu.
1394 Nehare Yen founded the Kingdom of Bamoun in present day western Cameroon.
c.1394 Malik Sarvar, the Delhi Vizier, started to rule Jaunpur and Oudh in the present-day Uttar Pradesh of India and established the Kingdom of Jaunpur.
1396 King Zsigmond of Hungary organised the Anti-Osmanli Crusade and attacked the Osmanli Regime. On .9.25 the Osmanli army defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Nicopolis. Thereafter Hungary was threatened by frequent Osmanli invasion.

The Osmanli Turks conquered Bulgaria.
1397 King Margrethe I of Denmark summoned a conference of nobles at Kalmar and declared the formal establishment of a personal union of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (the Kalmar Union), which was ruled under the common monarch. The Union was dominated by Denmark.
1398
Hus became a professor of the University of Prague in Bohemia and started an anti-Papacy movement (the Hussite Movement), which culminated in the emergence of Hussitism.
1399 Yadu Raya founded the Kingdom of Mysore in Mysore in southern India.

Henry, Duke of Lancaster of England, revolted. After the Plantagenet Dynasty was overthrown on .8.19 of the same year, Henry succeeded to the throne (called Henry IV) and established England (Lancaster Dynasty).
1399.7M Prince Zhu Di of the Ming Dynasty started the Jingnan Revolt. In the sixth lunar month of 1402, Zhu Di captured the capital Nanjing and crowned himself Emperor.
1400 Maghan, Chief of the Fulanis, founded the Kingdom of Massina in present day western Mali. Thereafter the Fulanis (also called the Fourbes) founded a number of regimes in West Sudan.
1400.2M Le Quy Ly, de facto ruler of Dai Viet, overthrew the Tran Dynasty and made himself Emperor. He renamed himself as Ho Quy Ly and established the Dai Ngu Empire (Ho Dynasty).
c.1400 The Khan of Shaiban obtained the original land of the White Horde and was renamed the Uzbek Kingdom.

The Tunjurs in East Sudan overthrew the Daju Regime and founded the Tunjur Regime.

Oranyan, Chief of the Yorubas, founded the Kingdom of Oyo in southwestern Nigeria. Tafarilu founded the Kingdom of Yauri in northern Nigeria.

Kintu, Chief of the Gandas, led his people to migrate to present day southern Uganda and founded the Kingdom of Buganda.

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