|c.9th Century||The Eastern Alans founded the Alan Kingdom in Northern Caucasus.
Guilds began to emerge in Italian cities. Later guilds also appeared in other European countries.
Kufuru, Chief of the Hausas, founded the Kingdom of Daura in northern Nigeria.
|801||Frank conquered Barcelona in northeastern Spain and set up the Spanish Mark.|
|802||Egbert became King of Wessex. During his reign he established his hegemony among the Heptarchy of England.|
|802.10.31||The [Eastern] Roman officials staged a coup and deposed Empress Irene. Isaurian Dynasty collapsed. Nicephorus I succeeded to the throne and established [Eastern] Rome (Nicephorian Dynasty).|
|c.802||Jayavarman II became King of Chenla ruling [Lower] Chenla. He moved the capital to Angkor and established Chenla (Angkor Dynasty).|
|c.803||Godfred, Chief of the Norsemen, unified Denmark and founded the Kingdom of Denmark.|
|809||Prince al-Mamun of Arabia rose against the Caliph al-Amin. On 813.9.26 al-Mamun captured Baghdad and seized the throne. During his regin the power of the Abbasid Dynasty reached its apex.|
|c.809||Aznar I founded the County of Aragon in northeastern Iberia.|
|c.810||Borna, Chief of the Dalmatian Croats, founded the Principality of Dalmatian Croatia.
Inigo Arista, Chief of the Basques, founded the Navarre Regime in northern Iberia.
|812||Boniface I founded the Margravate of Tuscany in northern Italy. Since then there emerged a number of feudal states in Italy, which was then under prolonged political fragmentation.|
|813.7.11||Leo V, ruler of Antolikon under [Eastern] Rome, rose against the Nicephorian Dynasty. Leo V crowned himself and established [Eastern] Rome (Armenian Dynasty).|
|813.9.11||Charles I crowned Louis I (the Pious) as Frankish King and conferred the title of "Roman Emperor" on him.|
|816||Babek, leader of the Khurramite Sect in Azerbaijan, rose against Arabian rule by carrying out terrorist activities (Babek Rebellion). In 837 Arabia suppressed the rebellion.|
|817||Ljudevit Posavski, Chief of the Pannonian Croats, founded the Principality of Pannonian Croatia.
Lothaire I and Ludwig II (the German) were also crowned as Frankish King. A "Triumvirate" situation appeared in Frank.
|819||Muhammad founded the Ziyadid Regime in Zabid in southern Yemen.
Warin founded the Auvergne Regime in southern France.
|c.819||Ahmad I, Governor of Farghana under Arabia, made Transoxania (i.e. the region between Amu Darya and Syrdarya) a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Samanid Regime.|
|c.820s||The Samanids conquered Transoxania and annihilated the city-states of Farghana, Tashkent, Samarkand and Burkhara.|
|820||Death of Sankara, an Indian religious leader. During his lifetime he reformed Brahmanism, which developed into Hinduism.|
|820.12.25||Michael II, an [Eastern] Roman military officer, succeeded to the throne and established [Eastern] Rome (Phrygian Dynasty).|
|c.820||Bjorn founded the Kingdom of Sweden.|
|821||Doma, an [Eastern] Roman military officer, started a revolt. He made himself Emperor and established the Doma Regime. After [Eastern] Rome captured and executed Doma in 823, the revolt was suppressed.|
|c.821||Tahir I, Governor of Khurasan under Arabia, made Khurasan in northeastern Iran a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Tahirid Regime.|
|825||Prince Thamala of Thaton founded the Kingdom of Pegu ([Earlier] Pegu) in Pegu in southern Burma.|
|829||Having conquered the local regimes in southern England, King Egbert of Wessex changed his title to King of England and established the Kingdom of England (Saxon Dynasty).|
|831||Aghlab conquered Sicily.|
|c.831||Nannuka Chandravarman founded the Chandella Regime in Jejakabhukti in north India.|
|832||Nanzhao defeated the Pyu city-states. Since then the Pyu city-states declined and were later conquered by Pagan.|
|c.833||Mojmir I, Chief of the Moravians, founded the Principality of Greater Moravia in Czechoslovakia.
Gerulf I founded the County of Holland in western Netherlands. Since then there emerged a number of feudal states in Netherlands.
|835.11M||Tang Emperor Li Ang conspired with Li Xun and Zheng Zhu, the senior officials, to overthrow the eunuch camp. Chou Shiliang and Yu Hongzhi, leaders of the eunuch camp, held Li Ang under duress and killed Li Xun and Zheng Zhu.|
|840.10M||Taking advantage of an internal strife among the Uygurs, the Kirgizs destroyed Uygur. Thereafter the Uygurs split into several groups, including the West Pamir Uygurs, Qocho Uygurs, Hexi Uygurs and Monan Uygurs. In the same year the Kirgizs founded the Kirgiz Kingdom. Later some Kirgizs migrated to present-day Kyrgyzstan.|
|841||In opposition to the feudalization process, the peasants in Saxony rose against Frankish rule and demanded restoration of the traditional communes. As the rebels called themselves "Stellinga", the rebellion was called Stellinga Uprising by historians. In 843 Frank crushed the uprising.|
|843||The [Eastern] Roman Government compromised with the Church and resumed image worship, thus ending the Iconoclastic Movement.
By signing the Treaty of Verdun, the three Frankish Kings partitioned Frank: Ludwig II ruled [East] Frank; Lothaire I ruled [Middle] Frank and Italy and retained the title of "Roman Emperor"; Charles II ruled [West] Frank. The three Frankish kingdoms later developed into the three kingdoms of Germany, Italy and France.
|c.843||Nomenoe, Chief of the Bretons, founded the Duchy of Brittany in northwestern France.|
|845||Count Rainulfe I of Poitou became Duke of Aquitaine concurrently and founded the Aquitaine Regime in southwestern France.|
|c.845||Borivoj I, leader of the Czech Confederacy, founded the Bohemian Regime (Premyslid Dynasty) in Bohemia.|
|c.845||Tubbat collapsed as a result of internal strife. Thereafter Tibet split into regions ruled by local nobility.|
|848||Kenneth, King of Dalriada and Picatavia, changed his title to King of Scotland (called Kenneth I) and merged the two kingdoms into the Kingdom of Scotland.|
|849||[West] Frank made Fredelon Count of Toulouse and established the County of Toulouse in southwestern France.|
Bilka Kur Qadr Khan, Chief of the West Pamir Uygurs conquered Qarluq and founded the Qarakhanid Regime in present day Xinjiang and Kyrgyzstan.
Tarjuman-ud-Din al-Qasim, leader of the southern branch of the Zaid Sect (an Islamic sect) founded the Rassid Regime in Sada in western Yemen.
|850s||The Paulicians, a herectic Christian sect, occupied eastern Asia Minor and founded the Paulician Regime.|
|850||Ludolf of the Ludolfing House founded the Duchy of Saxony in north Germany. Since then there emerged a number of feudal states in Germany, which was then under prolonged political fragmentation.|
|c.850||Pan Tegin, Chief of the Qocho Uygurs, founded the Kingdom of Qocho Uygur in the territory of the former Qocho Kingdom.
Lalliya Shahi, a senior official of the Turki Shahi Regime, seized the throne and founded the Hindu Shahi Regime.
Rise of the Kingdom of Futa Toro in northern Senegal.
|c. late 9th Century||Rise of the County of Zeeland in southwestern Netherlands.|
|855.9.29||Upon death of King Lothaire I of [Middle] Frank, his kingdom was partitioned by his three sons, who ruled the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Lotharingia and the Kingdom of Provence, respectively.|
|856||[Earlier] Mataram conquered Sailendra. Balaputra, former King of Sailendra, fled to Srivijaya, where he made himself King of Srivijaya and established Srivijaya (Sailendra Dynasty).
Olaf I, leader of the Norweigans invading Ireland, founded the Kingdom of Dublin in eastern Ireland.
|858||Fujiwara Yoshifusa, a Japanese senior official, became Regent. Since then the Fujiwara Clan monopolized the postitions of "Sekkan" (a collective term for two posts: Sessho (Regent) and Kampaku (Chief Advisor)) and held real powers. Beginning of the Period of Sekkan Politics of Japan.|
|860.1M||Nanzhao was renamed Dali Empire.|
|c.860||al-Haitham I founded the Kingdom of Shirvan in the Arran region of Azerbaijan.
The Pechenegs (also called Patzinaks ) formed the Pecheneg Confederacy in the Russian steppe.
Asturias made Rodrigo Count of Castile and founded the Castile Regime in northern Iberia.
|861||Yafur founded the Yafurid Regime in Sana in western Yemen.|
|c.862||Riurik, Chief of the Varangians (i.e. Normans), occupied Novgorod in northwestern Russia and founded the Principality of Novgorod. Later the Varangians assimilated with the Eastern Slavic Peoples in Russia.|
|864||The northern branch of the Islamic Zaid Sect revolted against Arabian rule. They chose Hassan bin Zaid as their Imam and established the Tabaristan Zaid Regime in Tabaristan of Iran.|
|c.864||[West] Frank made Boudewijn I Count of Flanders and founded the County of Flanders in northwestern Belgium.|
|866.5.26||Basil I was crowned as Co-Emperor of [Eastern] Rome and established [Eastern] Rome (Macedonian Dynasty).|
|867||al-Saffar, ruler of Sistan under Arabia, revolted and established the Saffarid Regime in Sistan in southeastern Iran.|
|868.9.15||Ahmad, Governor of Egypt under Arabia, made Egypt a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Tulunid Regime.|
|869||Huetzin, Chief of the Toltecs, founded the Toltec Kingdom in Mexico.|
|869.3||Ali ibn Muhammad al-Barkun, disciple of the Khawarjite Sect, started the Zanj (= black slaves) Rebellion in Basra in southeastern Iraq against Arabian rule. He made himself Caliph and established the Zanj Rebels' Regime. In 883 Arabia crushed the rebellion.|
|870||Aghlab conquered the Maltese Islands. Since then Arabic (which later evolved into Maltese) gradually became the main language of the Maltese People.|
|c.870||A group of Norwegians discovered Iceland.|
|871||Prince Cadell ap Rhodri of Gwynedd founded the Principality of Deheubarth in southern Wales.|
|c.872||Harald I, Count of Westford, unified Norway and founded the Kingdom of Norway.|
|873||[West] Frank gave Spanish Mark to Wifredo and conferred the title of Count of Barcelona on him, thus establishing the County of Barcelona.|
|874||With Wang Xianzhi revolting against Tang Dynasty, the Late Tang Peasant War broke out. In the sixth lunar month of the next year, Huang Chao also revolted and joined forces with Wang Xianzhi.|
|c.875||The Northern clan of Kalachuris founded the Chedi Kalachuri Regime in central India.
King Halfdan I of Dublin occupied York in eastern England and assumed the title of King of York, thus establishing the Kingdom of York.
|876.8.28||King Ludwig II of [East] Frank died. In the same year his three sons partitioned the territory of [East] Frank into the [East] Frankish Kingdom, Kingdom of Saxony and Kingdom of Bavaria.|
|877.2M||Dali was renamed Dafengmin Empire.|
|878.2M||After Wang Xianzhi was killed in a battle, his army was taken over by Huang Chao, who estabished the Qi Regime. In the twelfth lunar month of 880, Huang Chao captured the capital Changan and formally assumed the title of Emperor.|
|879||England and Denmark signed the Peace of Wedmore by which England was divided into two parts using River Thames and River Lea as the border line: the northern part was the Danelaw, which was ruled by the Danes; the southern part was ruled by England.|
|879.10.15||Boso revolted against [West] Frank and founded the Kingdom of Burgundy ([Lower] Burgundy) in eastern France, ruling the southern part of Burgundy.|
|c.879||Ingelger founded the Anjou Regime (Plantagenet Dynasty) in northwestern France. The dynasty was called the "First Anjou Dynasty" by historians.|
|880||Omer ibn Khafsun, a noble of the former Visigothic Kingdom, staged a peasant uprising in the Ronda mountain region in opposition to Cordoba and established the Ronda Rebels' Regime. The uprising was suppressed by Cordoba in c.910.|
|880.9.29||Upon death of King Karlmann of Bavaria, most of his territory was annexed by Saxony and a small portion was inherited by Arnulf, who changed his title to Duke of Bavaria.|
|881||Li Sigong, Chief of the Tanguts, started to rule the Ningxia region of China and founded the Xia Regime ([Western] Xia).|
|882||Duke Oleg of Novgorod conquered Kiev and changed his title to Grand Prince of Kiev, thus changing his regime to the Grand Principality of Kiev.|
|883.7M||Li Keyong, Chief of the Shatuo Turks, started to rule Shanxi region of China and founded the Jin Regime. Since then there emerged 15 separatist regimes in China, collectively called the "Five Dynasties and Ten States": the "Five Dynasties" were [Later] Liang, [Later] Tang, [Later] Jin, [Later] Han and [Later] Zhou, whereas the "Ten States" included Wu, [Southern] Tang, Min, Wuyue, Chu, [Southern] Han and Jingnan in southern China, [Earlier] Shu and [Later] Shu in southwestern China and [Northern] Han in northern China.|
|884||The feudal lords of [West] Frank elected King Karl III (the Fat) of [East] Frank as King of [West] Frank (called Charles). Karl III assumed the title of "Roman Emperor" and reunified most Frankish territories.|
|884.6M||Defeated by Tang Dynasty, Huang Chao committed suicide. The rebels were suppressed and the Late Tang Peasant War came to an end.|
|885||Ashot I, ruler of Armenia under Arabia, declared independence and established the Kingdom of Armenia.|
|886||al-Hassan ibn Bahram al-Jannabi, leader of the Qarmatian Sect (a branch of the Ismaili Sect), revolted against Arabian rule and founded the Qarmatian Republic in Qatar and Bahrain. The republic was under the hereditary rule of the Jannabi Family.|
|887||The Shiah Imam Muhammad al-Muntazar al-Madhi suddenly disappeared. Since then the Shiah Sect did not choose new Imams. But in the subsequent history of the Shiah Sect there occasionally appeared religious leaders who claimed the title of Madhi (= Messiah), i.e. the revival Imam Muhammad al-Muntazar al-Madhi.
The Frankish feudal lords deposed King Karl III of [East] Frank (also King Charles of [West] Frank), marking the permanent split of East and West Frank.
|888||Eudes, Count of Paris, became King of [West] Frank and established [West] Frank (Capetian Dynasty). Thereafter [West] Frank was under the alternate rule of the Capetian Dynasty and Carolingian Dynasty.
Rodolphe I founded [Upper] Burgundy, ruling northern Burgundy.
|889||Liutpold, Governor of Bavaria under [East] Frank, made himself Duke of Bavaria and founded the Duchy of Bavaria as a vassal state of [East] Frank.|
|891||A peasant uprising broke out in Silla. The War of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea broke out. In 897 Kim Kung Ye rose as a prominent leader of the rebels.|
|891.8M||Wang Jian started to rule Sichuan region of China and founded the Shu Regime ([Earlier] Shu). In the ninth lunar month of 907 he formally assumed the title of Empeor. In the first lunar month of 917 he changed the name of his regime to Han Empire ([Shu] Han). In the first luanr month of 918 the name of the regime was changed back to [Earlier] Shu.|
|892||Kyon Hwon rose against Silla and founded the Paekche Regime ([Later] Paekche). Beginning of the Later Three Kingdom Period of Korea.|
|892.6M||Yang Xingmi started to rule Huainan region (i.e. present day Jiangsu Province) of China and founded the Wu Regime.|
|893.5M||Wang Chao started to rule Fujian region of China and founded the Min Regime. In the first lunar month of 933, Wang Yanjun, ruler of Min, formally assumed the title of Emperor.|
|896.4M||Ma Yin started to rule Hunan region of China and established the Chu Regime.|
|896.5M||Qian Liu started to rule Zhejiang region of China and established the Wuyue Regime.|
|896.12M||Liu Yin started to rule Guangdong region of China and established the Yue Regime. In the seventh lunar month of 917, Liu Yan, ruler of Yue, formally assumed the title of Emperor. In the eleventh lunar month of 918 he changed the name of his regime to Han Empire ([Southern] Han).|
|c.896||Arpad, Chief of the Magyar Tribe of the Hungarians, founded the Hungarian Regime.|
|c.898||[West] Frank installed Richard as Duke of Burgundy and founded the Duchy of Burgundy ([Western] Burgundy) to rule western Burgundy.|
|900||Milhail Visevic founded the Principality of Zahumlje in present day Bosnia.|
|c.900||The Kipchaks and Cumans (also called Polovetses) formed the Kipchak-Cuman Confederacy in the area around Kazakh Steppe and Russian Steppe.
Petar, Chief of the Montenegrins, founded the Principality of Dioclea in present-day Montenegro.
Rise of the Kingdom of Adal in northern Somalia.
|Late 9th Century||King Yasovarman I of Chenla reunified Chenla.|
|10th Century||The city of San Marino in northern Italy gained independence and established the San Marino Regime.|
|Early 10th Century||King Gorm I of Denmark occupied Scania in southern Sweden and founded the Kingdom of Scania.|
|901||Kim Kung Ye assumed the title of King and established the Koguryo Regime ([Later] Koguryo), whose name was changed to the Majin Kingdom in 904 and further changed to Taebong Kingdom in 911.|
|902||Zheng Maisi, a senior official of Dafengmin Empire, seized the throne and established the Dachanghe Empire.|
|903.1M||Zhu Quanzhong, a Tang military officer, eliminated the eunuch camp in a coup and seized control of the royal court.|
|905||Gao Jichang started to rule Hubei region of China and founded the Jingnan Regime.
Khuc Thua Du of Giao Chau rose against Tang rule and seized control of Giao Chau. He established the Giao Chau Regime (Khuc Dynasty).
Abul-Haija, Governor of Mosul under Arabia, declared independence and founded the Hamdanid Regime.
The political power of Navarre was transferred from the Basques to Spanish feudal lords.
|906||Konrad I founded the Duchy of Franconia in West Franconia (whereas East Franconia was under the rule of another county).|
|c.906||Hungary annilhilated Greater Moravia and occupied Moravia and Slovakia.|
|907||Berenger founded the Namur Regime in present-day southern Belgium.|
|907.1M||Xu Wen, a senior official of the Wu Regime, seized control of the regime. Thereafter real power of the Wu Regime was held by the Xu Family.|
|907.4M||Having overthrown the Tang Dynasty, Zhu Quanzhong crowned himself and established the Liang Empire ([Later] Liang), which became an opponent state of the Jin Regime in Shanxi region. This year is usually taken to be the beginning of the Period of the "Five Dynasties and Ten States" of China.|
|c.908||Sigehard founded the County of Hainaut in present day southern Belgium.|
|909||Abu Abdullah al-Shii, leader of the Ismaili Sect in Maghrib, started a revolt and overthrew the Rustamid and Aghlabid regimes. In the same year al-Mahdi usurped his power.|
|909.12.21||al-Mahdi assumed the title of Caliph and founded the Fatimid Regime (called the Southern Saracen Empire by Westerners), ruling present-day Tunisia and Algeria.|
|910.12.20||Upon death of King Alfonso III of Asturias, his three sons suceeded as Kings, ruling the Kingdom of Asturias, the Kingdom of Leon and the Kingdom of Galicia, respectively.|
|c.910||Muhammad started to rule Tarom of Gilan, a region in northwestern Iran and founded the Musafir Regime.
Tomislav became Prince of Dalmatian Croatia. During his reign he conquered Pannonia and unified all Croat tribes.
|911||[West] Frank signed the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte will Rollo, Chief of the Normans and gave the northern coastal region to Rollo, who founded the Duchy of Normandy.|
|911.11.8||The [East] Frankish feudal lords elected Duke Konrad I of Franconia as King of Germany and established the Kingdom of Germany.|
|911.11.24||King Ludwig (the Child) of [East] Frank died without a successor. [East] Frank came to an end.|
|914.3||John X became Roman Pope. During John X's reign, Theophylact, a Roman Senator, his wife Theodora and his daughter Marozia (mistress of the former Pope Sergius III) interfered with the affairs of the Papacy, which entered the period of "Pornocracy". In 928.5 Marozia imprisoned John X. Thereafter the Roman Papacy was controlled by Marozia and his son Alberic II. The Pope regained powers in 954.|
|916||Yelu A Baoji, Chief of the Khitans, assumed the title of Emperor and founded the Khitan Empire. During his reign he conquered northeastern China and Mongolia.|
|c.917||Burkhard I founded the Duchy of Swabia in southern Germany.|
|918||Kim Kung Ye, King of Taebong, was overthrown in a coup. Wang Kon was chosen as King and founded the Kingdom of Koryo (Wang Dynasty).|
|922||Thibaut I founded the County of Blois in northwestern France.|
|923||[Southern] Han conquered Giao Chau and overthrew the Khuc Dynasty.
Herbert I, Count of Vermandois, changed his title to Count of Champagne and founded the County of Champagne in northwestern France.
|923.4M||Li Cunxu, ruler of Jin, changed his title to Emperor of Tang and renamed his regime as Tang Empire ([Later] Tang).|
|923.10M||[Later] Tang toppled [Later] Liang.|
|925||King Simeon of Bulgaria changed his title to Emperor (Tsar). Beginning of the First Bulgarian Empire.
The Roman Papacy conferred the title of King of Croatia on Prince Tomislav of Dalmatian Croatia, who established the Kingdom of Croatia.
|c.925||Germany installed Giselbert as Duke of Lorraine and founded the Duchy of Lorraine.|
|926||Boso I founded the County of Provence in southwestern France.|
|c.927||Mardawij founded the Ziyarid Regime in Mazandaran in northern Iran.|
|928||Yang Ganzhen overthrew Dachanghe Empire. Putting Zhao Shanzheng on the throne, he established the Datianxing Empire. In the next year, Yang Ganzheng deposed Zhao Shanzheng and made himself Emperor. He supplanted Datianxing with the Dayining Empire.|
|929||Amir Abd al-Rahman III of Cordoba changed his title to Caliph. There were thus three concurrent Caliphs in the Islamic world.|
|930||The first Althing (Popular Assembly) was convened in Iceland, marking the establishment of the Republic of Iceland.|
|931||Duong Dinh Nghe of Giao Chau rose against [Southern] Han and restored the Giao Chau Regime.|
|932.4M||Meng Zhixiang started to rule Sichuan region of China and founded the Shu Regime ([Later] Shu). In the leap first lunar month of 934 he formally assumed the title of Emperor.|
|c.932||Imad al-Daula, leader of the Buyid Family, founded the Buyid Regime in northern Iran. Later the members of the Buyid Family established secessionist governments and the regime split into the Southern Line and the Northern Line.|
|933||King Hugo of [Lower] Burgundy abdicated and annexed his kingdom with [Upper] Burgundy, thus unifying Upper and Lower Burgundies. The unified regime was called the Second Burgundian Kingdom by historians. With its capital in Arles, the regime was also called the Kingdom of Arles.|
|935.9.2||Muhammad al-Ikhshid, Governor of Egypt under Arabia, made Egypt a de facto hereditary kingdom and founded the Ikhshidid Regime.|
|935.10M||Koryo conquered Silla.|
|936||Koryo conquered [Later] Paekche, thus reunifying Korea and ending the Period of the Later Three Kingdoms.
Germany installed Siegfried as Nord Margrave and founded the Nord Margravate in northeastern Germany.
|936.6||Hugh, leader of the Capetian House, seized control of the [West] Frank royal court. Since then [West] Frank was under the control of the Capetian House.|
|936.8.8||Duke Otto II of Saxony became King Otto I of Germany.|
|936.5M||Shi Jingtang, a military officer of [Later] Tang, revolted and sought help from Khitan. In the eleventh lunar month of the same year, Khitan installed Shi Jingtang as Emperor of Jin and established the Jin Empire ([Later] Jin). [Later] Jin ceded 16 prefectures in Hebei region to Khitan. The coalition army of Khitan and [Later] Jin overthrew [Later] Tang.|
|937||Duan Siping overthrew Dayingning Empire and established the Dali Empire.
An internal strife broke out in Giao Chau in which the ruler Duong Dinh Nghe was killed. In the next year Ngo Quyen seized control of Giao Chau and established Giao Chau (Ngo Dynasty).
|937.10M||Xu Zhigao, de facto ruler of Wu, overthrew Wu Empire and established the Tang Empire ([Southern] Tang).|
|c.940||Mulraja I, Chief of the Solankis, founded the Chaulukya Regime in Anhilavara of Gujarat, India.
Prince Mohamed Nafarko of Kanem founded the Kingdom of Sossebaki in present day southern Niger.
|943.1M||Wang Yanzheng revolted against the Min Empire and established the Yin Empire.|
|945||Buyid seized control of the Arabian royal court and established its hegemony in Iran and Iraq.|
|947.1M||The Khitan army occupied northern China. In the next month Emperor Yelu Degwong of Khitan changed his title to Emperor of Liao and renamed his regime as the Liao Empire. Revolts broke out in various parts of northern China, expelling the Liao army. Liu Gao crowned himself Emperor of [Later] Jin in Shanxi region. In the sixth lunar month of the same year, Liu Gao changed his title to Emperor of Han and established the Han Empire ([Later] Han).|
|948||Hasan I, ruler of Sicily under Fatimid suzerainty, rebelled and founded the Emirate of Sicily.
The Ibo (also called Igbo) People founded the Kingdom of Nri in the southeastern part of present-day Nigeria.
|c. Mid-10th Century||Muhammad, Chief of the Kurds, conquered southeastern Azerbaijan and founded the Rawwadid Regime.
The Swahili people founded a number of Zenj City-states in the coastal region of East Africa.
|950.11M||Guo Wei, a military office of [Later] Han, revolted and seized control of the royal court. In the twelfth lunar month of the same year, he made himself Emperor. In the first lunar month of 961, he changed his title to Emperor of Zhou and established the Zhou Empire ([Later] Zhou). Liu Chong, a royal member of [Later] Han, refused to recognize his legitimacy and crowned himself Emperor in Taiyuan, establishing the [Northern] Han Government.|
|c.950||Emergence of the Bogomil heresy in Bulgaria in opposition to the Bulgarian feudal rule.
The Agaus overthrew Axum.
|951.9M||Contending for the political powers, Ma Xichong and Ma Xi'e, two royal members of the Chu Regime, started a civil war. In the next month [Southern] Tang invaded Chu. With Ma Xichong and Ma Xi'e defeated successively, the Chu Regime collapsed.|
|c.951||Muhammad, Chief of the Kurds, founded the Shaddadid Regime in Arran of Azerbaijan.|
|953||Duke Ludolf of Swabia allied with Duke Konrad of Lorraine in a revolt against King Otto I of Germany. In 954 the Magyars invaded Germany. In 955 the rebels were forced to surrender and join force with Otto I to resist the Magyars. On 8.10 the coalition army of Germany and the feudal lords defeated the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld, thus preventing the further invasion of the Magyars.|
|954.1M||Upon death of Guo Wei, Emperor of [Later] Zhou, Chai Rong succeeded to the throne. During his reign he unified most parts of northern China.|
|c.954||Alp-Tigin, Chief of the Turks, seized control of the Samanid royal court.|
|955||Bohemia took possession of the region of Moravia.
England annexed Northumbria. End of the Period of the Heptarchy.
|c.956||After King Hakon I of Norway was killed in a battle against the Danish invasion of Norway, Norway suffered from political turmoil and repeated Danish and Swedish invasion.|
|957||Ali I, a noble of ash-Shiraz of Persia, purchased the city of Kilwa in the eastern coast of Tanzania. He made himself King (Sultan) and established the Kingdom of Kilwa.|
|c.957||Germany partitioned Hainaut into the County of Mons and the County of Valenciennes.|
|959||Germany installed Egon von Ehrenfried as the Count Palatine of Lorraine and founded the Count Palatinate of Lorraine (renamed Count Palatinate of Rhine in 1156, commonly called the Palatinate) in the region of Rhine.
The Duchy of Lorraine split into two parts: [Lower] Lorraine and [Upper] Lorraine.
|c.961||Ali I, Chief of the Arabs, founded the Mazyadid Regime in Hillah in central Iraq.|
|962||Alp-Tigin, de facto rule of the Samanid Regime, revolted and founded the Ghaznavid Regime in Ghazna in the southern part of Central Asia.
Armenia granted the region of Kars to Mushel, who founded the Kingdom of Kars in western Armenia.
|962.2.2||King Otto I of Germany assumed the title of "Roman Emperor". Some historians use this date as the founding date of the Holy Roman Empire.|
|963||Siegfried founded the Luxemburg Regime in southern Netherlands.|
|c.963||Germany annexed Italy. Thereafter "King of Italy" became a respectful title of the German Kings, but only with titular effect.|
|965||Civil strife broke out in Giao Chau in which 12 warlords occupied different areas of the country (Civil War of the Twelve Warlords).
Rikdag founded the Margravate of Meissen in eastern Germany.
|966||Mieszko I, Chief of the Greater Poland Confederacy, founded the Polish Regime.|
|967||Dinh Bo Linh, a warlord of Giao Chau, toppled the Ngo Dynasty. In the next year he eliminated the "Twelve Warlords" and founded the Dai Co Viet Empire (Dinh Dynasty).
Abu-Muhammad Jafar, leader of the Hashimite Clan, started to rule Mecca and founded the Mecca Regime.
|967.3.23||Aleramo founded the Margravte of Montferrat in northwestern Italy.|
|967.7.6||The Fatimid Regime toppled the Ikhshidid Regime and conquered Egypt.|
|971.11M||Under the pressure of [Northern] Song, [Southern] Tang changed its name to the Kingdom of Jiangnan, which was finally conquered by [Northern] Song in the eleventh lunar month of 975.|
|972||Upon death of Grand Prince Svyatoslav I, a civil war (First Kievan Dynastic War) broke out among his sons. In c.980 Vladimir I put an end to the turmoil and succeeded as Grand Prince.
The Varyags (a branch of the Norsemen) occupied Polotsk in present day northern Belarus and founded the Principality of Polotsk.
[Eastern] Rome defeated the coalition army of Bulgaria and Kiev. The Bulgarian Empire collapsed and eastern Bulgaria was annexed by [Eastern] Rome.
|972.c10||Buluggin, Chief of the Sanhaja Berbers as well as a Fatimid Governor of Tunisia, made Tunisia a de facto hereditary kingdom and founded the Zirid Regime.|
|973||Taila II, a royal member of [Earlier] Chalukya, rose against Rashtrakuta and founded the Kingdom of Chalukya ([Later] Chalukya) in Kalyana in western Deccan of India.|
|973.c6||The Fatimid Regime moved the capital to Cairo. Since then the political centre of the regime moved from Tunisia to Egypt.|
|976||Samuil, a local ruler of [Western] Bulgaria, made himself King and established [Western] Bulgaria.
Germany installed Leopold I and Heinrich I as the Ost Margrave and Duke of Carinthia, respectively, and founded the Ost Margravate (Babenberg Dynasty) and Duchy of Carinthia (commonly called the Duchy of Great Carinthia) in present-day Austria. Since then there emerged a number of feudal states in Austria.
|979||Le Hoan seized control of the Dai Co Viet royal court. In the next year Le Hoan overthew the Dinh Dynasty and established Dai Co Viet (Earlier Le Dynasty).|
|979.5M||[Northern] Song conquered [Northern] Han, thus reunifying China and ending the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten States.|
|980||Prince Gurgen I founded the Kingdom of Lori in Lori of Armenia.|
|981||Eric (the Red) of Norway discovered Greenland.|
|983.6M||Liao Empire reverted to its old name Khitan.|
|985||Otto-Guillaume founded the Free County of Burgundy ([Eastern] Burgundy) (commonly called Franche Comte = Free County) in eastern France.|
|c.987||Kukulcan, Chief of the Itzas (a branch of the Mayas) occupied Chichen Itza and made himself King of Chichen Itza, which then became a power among the Mayan City-states. The Mayans built the city of Mayapan and founded the Kingdom of Mayapan.|
|988||Yaroslav founded the Princiapality of Rostov in western Russia. Svyatopolk I founded the Princiapality of Turov in present day southern Belarus.|
|c.990||Abu Ali, Chief of the Kurds, founded the Marwanid Regime in northern Iraq. Muhammad, Chief of the Arabs, founded the Uqailid Regime in northern Iraq.|
|c.998||Mahmud became Ghaznavid King. During his reign he established his hegemony in Central Asia and eastern Iran and launched a series of invasion into Punjab.|
|c.999||Bagauda, a royal member of Daura, founded the Kingdom of Kano in northern Nigeria.|
|1000||There was a rumour in Europe that the Doomsday was in this year, which led to a widespread panic. The situation was not stabilized until the beginning of the year 1001.
Denmark and Sweden partitioned Norway.
Sancho III became King of Navarre. During his reign he conquered the Christian regimes in Iberia.
Leif Ericsson of Norway reached the northeastern part of the present-day Canada in North America. Thereafter the Norwegians set out for exploration of North America for several times. But they had not established any permanent settlement.
|c.1000||Beta I, Chief of the Kakatiyas, founded the Kingdom of Warangal in Andhra Pradesh of India.
The ancestors of the Romany People (commonly called the Gypsies) and Dom People migrated from north India to West Asia and North Africa. Later some of them further migrated into Europe. These people became a nomadic minority group in West Asia, North Africa and Europe. Those who were distributed in West Asia and North Africa later evolved into the Dom People, while those who were distributed in Europe later evolved into the Romany People.
The region of Friuli under Carinthia was partitioned into two parts: the western part became the County if Friuli while the eastern part became the County of Gorizia. Since then the dependencies of Carinthia seceded from Carinthia, forming a number of feudal states. The original Duchy of Carinthia was only left with the Carinthia region in present-day Austria.
The Yorubas founded the Kingdom of Ife in central-south Nigeria.
Parts of the Inuits (commonly called the Eskimos) migrated and resided on Greenland.
End of the Woodland Period and beginning of the Mississippian Period in the history of North America. Emergence of the Mississippian Culture and chiefdoms in the Mississippi Valley of North America, centred at Cahokia. The founders of the Mississippian Culture were ancestral to the Iroquoian-, Mukogean- and Siouan-speaking tribes.
The Mayans founded the Kingdom of Uxmal in northern Yucatan Peninsula.
Downfall of Tiahuanaco and Huari. A number of city-states, such as Cajamraca, emerged in Peru. The Chimus founded the Kingdom of Chimu in northern Peru.