|c.6th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Alwah in East Sudan.
The Berbers founded the Kingdom of Awdaghost in West Sudan.
|501.12M||Xiao Yan became de factor ruler of [Southern] Qi. In the fourth lunar month of the next year, Xiao Yan overthrew [Southern] Qi and established the Liang Empire ([Southern] Liang).|
|502||Due to disputes over the charges of border defence between [Eastern] Rome and [New] Persia, the Second Byzantine-Persian War broke out. In 505 the two countries concluded peace.|
|507||Under attack by the Franks, the Visigoths migrated to Spain. Since then the Visigoths based their political power in Spain and made Toledo their new capital.|
|511.11||Upon death of the Frankish King Clovis I, the Frankish territory was divided among his four sons, who partitioned the Frankish Kingdom into four small kingdoms: Metz, Soissons, Paris and Orleans.|
|518.7.1||End of [Eastern] Rome (Thracian Dynasty). Justinus I succeeded to the throne and established [Eastern] Rome (Justin Dynasty).|
|c.519||Cerdic, Chief of the Saxons, founded the Kigndom of Wessex in southwestern England.|
|523.4M||Revolts broke out in six prefectures of [Northern] Wei. The rebels chose Poliuhan Baling as their leader. Outbreak of the [Northern] Wei Peasant War (consisting of four groups of rebels in the Six Prefecture, Hebei, Guanlong and Shandong regions). In 525 Poliuhan Baling was defeated and his remnants were exiled to Hebei. In the eighth lunar month of 525, Du Luozhou led one group of exiles to start revolt again. In the first lunar month of 526, another group of exiles revolted under the leadership of Xianyu Xiuli.|
|524||The Third Byzantine-Persian War (also called the First Justinian-Persian War) broke out as a result of conflicts on the border between [New] Persia and [Eastern] Rome. In 531 [Eastern] Rome was defeated and the two countries signed the Endless Peace.|
|524.4M||Helian En from Guanlong district of China rebelled against [Northern] Wei and chose Hu Chen as leader of the rebels. In the ninth month of 526, Hu Chen was killed by Poliuhan Baling and his position was succeeded by Moqi Chounu. In the fourth lunar month of 530, [Northern] Wei killed Moqi Chounu and suppressed the rebellion in Guanlong district.|
|c.525||Wehha, Chief of the Angles, founded the Kingdom of East Anglia in eastern England.|
|526.8M||Xianyu Xiuli, leader of the Six Prefecture Rebellion, was killed. Ge Rong succeeded as leader of the rebels. In the second lunar month of 528 Ge Rong killed Du Luozhou and merged the latter's army to his own. In the ninth lunar month, the [Northern] Wei army captured and executed Ge Rong and finally suppressed the Six Prefecture Rebellion.|
|528.4M||Erzhu Rong, a military officer of [Northern] Wei, seized control of the [Northern] Wei royal court. Thereafter real power was held by the Erzhu Family.|
|528.6M||Xing Gao rose against [Northern] Wei in Shandong region of China. In the fourth lunar month of 529 [Northern] Wei captured and executed Xing Gao and suppressed the Shandong Rebellion.|
|c.529||al-Harith, Chief of the Arabs, founded the Kingdom of Ghassani in southern Syria. The regime was engaged in a long term war with Lakhmid.|
|531.6M||Gao Huan, a military officer of [Northern] Wei, rose against the Erzhu Family. In the tenth lunar month of the same year, he seized control of the [Northern] Wei royal court. In the fourth lunar month of 532 he exterminated the powers of the Erzhu Family.|
|531.9.13||Upon death of King Kobad I of [New] Persia, Khusrau I succeeded to the throne. During his reign he carried out reforms and restored the power of his country.|
|532||The lower class members of the Blue and Green Factions in Constantinople (originally rival factions of the Circus, later developing into political factions) started an insurrection. Since the insurrectionists used "Nika" as their slogan (which meant "victory"), the event was called Nika Insurrection. [Eastern] Rome suppressed the insurrection.|
|534.3||[Eastern] Rome destroyed Vandal and recovered the Maghrib region.|
|534.10M||Gao Huan crowned Yuan Shanjian as Wei Emperor and moved the capital to Ye. Called [Eastern] Wei by historians, this government was in practice controlled by the Gao Family.|
|534.Leap12M||Yuwen Tai, a [Northern] Wei military officer, overthrew [Northern] Wei.|
|535||General Belisarius of [Eastern] Rome staged the Gothic War and attacked Italy. He conquered Sicily and southern Italy.|
|535.1M||Yuwen Tai crowned Yuan Baoju as Wei Emperor and set Changan as the capital. Called [Western] Wei by historians, this government was in practice controlled by the Yuwen Family. [Northern] Wei thus split into [Eastern] Wei and [Western] Wei.|
|c.¬ù535||Pulakesin I founded the Kingdom of Chalukya ([Early] Chalukya) in Badami, situated in the western part of Deccan.|
|540||Murong Kualu, Chief of the Tuyuhun Tribe (a branch of the Murong Xianbeis), made himself King Khan) and founded the Tuyuhun Kingdom.
[New] Persia supported a rebellion in Laz against [Eastern] Rome and led to the Fourth Byzantine-Persian War (also called the Second Justinian-Persian War). The war was ended in 557 and the two countries concluded peace in 562, whereby Laz reverted to [Eastern] Rome.
|541||Euraric became Ostrogothic King. When he negotiated peace with [Eastern] Rome, he was deposed by his subordinates.Totila then succeeded to the throne and adopted an anti-Byzantine policy.|
|544.1M||Ly Bon and Trieu Quang Phuc of Giao Chau (present day Vietname) rose against [Southern] Liang (Ly Bon Rebellion) Ly Bon made himself Emperor and established the Van Xuan Regime (Earlier Ly Dynasty).|
|c.547||Ida, Chief of the Angles, founded the Kingdom of Bernicia in northern England.|
|548.3M||Emperor Ly Bon was killed and the Van Xuan Regime collapsed. Ly Thien Bo succeeded as leader of the rebellion.|
|548.8M||Hou Jing, a military officer of [Southern] Liang, revolted (Hou Jing Rebellion). In the eleventh lunar month of the same year, Hou Jing seized control of the [Southern] Liang royal court.|
|c. Mid-6th Century||Isanavarman, Chief of the Maukharis, made himself King in northern India and established the Maukhari Regime.|
|550||Having defeated the [Southern] Liang army, Trieu Quang Phuc made himself King and established the Trieu Regime. Ly Thien Bo also made himself King and restored the Van Xuan Regime.|
|550.5M||Gao Yang, de facto ruler of [Eastern] Wei, overthrew [Eastern] Wei and founded Qi Empire ([Northern] Qi).|
|550.6M||[Western] Wei occupied Yizhou of [Southern] Liang. Xiao Cha surrendered to [Western] Wei and was made King of Liang by [Western] Wei, thus establishing the [Later] Liang government in opposition to the [Southern] Liang government.|
|c.550||Prince Bhavavarman I of Funan revolted and founded the Kingdom of Chenla in northern Funan.|
|551.11M||Hou Jing, de facto ruler of [Southern] Liang, made himself Emperor and founded the Han Empire. In the third lunar month of the next year, Hou Jing was killed and the rebellion was suppressed.|
|552.1M||Having defeated Juanjuan, Bumyn Il-Khan, Chief of the Turks (called Gokturks by the Westerners), made himself King (Khan) and founded the Kingdom of Turk. The Turks became a strong power in Mongolia, Siberia and Central Asia.|
|553||[Eastern] Rome destroyed Ostrogoth and recovered Italy. End of the Gothic War.|
|555||Turk destroyed Juanjuan.|
|555.2M||Wang Sengbian, a military officer of [Southern] Liang, seized powers. He lost powers in the ninth lunar month of the same year.|
|555.10M||Chen Baxian, another military officer of [Southern] Liang, seized powers. In the tenth lunar month of 557, Chen Baxian overthrew [Southern] Liang and established the Chen Empire.|
|c.555||Garibald I, Chief of the Bavariis, founded the Duchy of Bavaria in southeastern Germany.|
|556.12M||Yuwen Hu, de facto ruler of [Western] Wei, overthrew [Western] Wei. In the next month Yuwen Hu crowned Yuwen Jue as Emperor and established the Zhou Empire ([Northern] Zhou).|
|558.12.23||King Clotaire I of Soisson reunited Frank and assumed the title of Frankish King.|
|c.560||Aelle, Chief of the Angles, founded the Kingdom of Deira in northern England.|
|561.c11||Upon death of Clotaire I, the Frankish territory was divided among his four sons and Frank was once again partitioned into four kingdoms: Metz, Soisson, Paris and Orleans and Burgundy.|
|562||Silla destroyed the Imna Japanese Prefecture.
[New] Persia and [Eastern] Rome concluded a 50-years' peace: [Eastern] Rome retained the Lazica region but had to pay tributes to [New] Persia; [New] Persia guaranteed the religious freedom of its Christian subjects.
|c.567||Turk and [New] Persia joined forces to attack the Ephthalites and destroyed their Kingdom. The two countries then partitioned the terrirtories of the Ephthalites, setting Amu Darya as their border line. Turk became a regional power in Central Asia.|
|568||The Avars (descendants of the Juanjuans) founded the Avar Kingdom in Pannonia.
The Lombards, under the leadership of Alboin, invaded Italy and occupied northern Italy, where Alboin founded the Lombard Kingdom.
|570||Farwald I, Chief of the Lombards, founded the Duchy of Spoleto in central Italy.|
|571||Zottone, Chief of the Lombards, founded the Duchy of Benevento in southern Italy.|
|572||[Eastern] Rome supported an anti-Persian revolt in Armenia and led to the Fifth Byzantine-Perisan War.|
|574||After Klef, the Lombard King, was assassinated, the Lombard Kingdom collapsed. Subsequently there emerged 36 local rulers among the Lombards.|
|575.12||Metz was renamed Kingdom of Austrasia.|
|578.9.26||Tiberius II, a Thracian military officer, succeeded as [Eastern] Roman Emperor and restored [Eastern] Rome (Thracian Dynasty).|
|580.5M||Yang Jian seized control of the [Northern] Zhou royal court.|
|580.7M||[Northern] Zhou conquered [Northern] Qi and reunified northern China.|
|c.580||[New] Persia annexed Iberia. Prince Adarnase I of Iberia founded the Kakheti Regime in eastern Georgia.|
|581.2M||Yang Jian overthrew [Northern] Zhou and established the Sui Empire. During his reign the power of the Empire reached its apex.|
|583||Due to internal strife, the Kingdom of Turk split into [Eastern] Turk and [Western] Turk.|
|584||Kurt, Chief of the Bulgars, made himself King (Khan) and founded the Bulgar Kingdom in the Russian steppe.
The Lombards restored the Lombard Kingdom.
|584.9||Soisson was renamed Kingdom of Neustria.|
|c.585||Creoda, Chief of the Angles, founded the Kingdom of Mercia in central England.|
|587||The Soga Clan seized control of the Japanese imperial court.|
|588||Guaram I founded the Kartli Regime in southwestern Georgia.|
|589.1M||Sui conquered Chen, thus reunified China and put an end to the Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties.|
|590||King Hormazd IV of [New] Persia was killed in an internal strife. Khusrau II succeeded to the throne. Bahran VI, a military officer revolted and overthrew Khusrau II, who then fled to [Eastern] Rome. Eastern Rome sent an army to help Khusrau II defeat Bahran VI and restore his throne. End of the Fifth Byzantine-Persian War.|
|590.9.3||Gregory I became the Roman Pope. During his reign he expanded the spiritual and secular powers of the Pope.|
|593||Prince Shotoku of Japan was designated as the Crown Prince and Regent. During his regency, he carried out political reforms.|
|c.600||Sasanka, Chief of the Gaudas, revolted against Magadha and founded the Kingdom of Gauda in Bengal.
Soebert, Chief of the Saxons, founded the Kingdom of Essex in southeastern England.
Rise of the Kingdom of Tiahuanaco and the Kingdom of Huari in Peru.
|c.7th Century||A large number of Arabs, Persians, etc. migrated to the Swahili Coast (including present-day Kenya, Tanzania, Comoros). They mixed with the indigenous Bantu-speaking peoples and gradually evolved into the Swahili People.|
|Early 7th Century||The Chauhans founded the Chauhan Regime in the Rajastan region in west India. Since then there emerged several Hindu regimes in Rajastan, collectively called the Rajput Regimes, which later became an important power in resisting the Islamic invasion into west India.|
|c. Early 7th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Keling in central Java and the Kingdom of Malayu in Sumatra.|
|602||Phocas, a military officer of the Danube legion of [Eastern] Rome, rebelled and attacked Constantinople. After the burghers of Constantinople overthrew Emperor Mauricius on 11.22, Phocas succeeded to the throne on 11.23.|
|602.12M||Sui destroyed Van Xuan and suppressed the Ly Bon Rebellion. The northern part of Vietnam reverted to Chinese rule.|
|603||The Sixth Byzantine-Persian War broke out when [Eastern] Rome and [New] Persia contended for the control of West Asia.|
|604.7M||Yang Guang, Crown Prince of Sui, murdered Emepror Yang Jian. He seized the throne and started his tyrannical rule, leading to the rapid decline of the Sui Empire.|
|c.606||Harshavardhana succeeded to the throne of Thanesar. Moved the capital to Kanyakubja, he renamed his country as Kingdom of Kanyakubja. During his reign Harshavardhana established his hegemony in north India.|
|610||The African legion of [Eastern] Rome revolted and attacked Constantinople. In 10.3 an insurrection broke out in Constantinople in which Emperor Phocas was killed and the Thracian Dynasty overthrown. Heraclius was crowned Emperor and established [Eastern] Rome (Heraclian Dynasty).|
|c.610||Chalukya made Kubja Vishnuvardhana I ruler of Vengi and established the Eastern Chalukya Regime.|
|611||Zhai Rang rose against Sui and formed the Wagang Army. Thereafter revolts broke out all over China and the Late Sui Peasant War broke out.|
|613||King Chlothar II of Neustria reunified Frank.|
|617.1M||Dou Jiande, a Sui rebellion leader, founded the Xia Regime.|
|617.2M||Succeeded as leader of the Wagang Army, Li Mi assumed the title of Duke of Wei and founded the Wei Duchy.|
|617.5M||Li Yuan, a Sui warlord, revolted. In the 11th lunar month of the same year, he crowned Prince Yang You as puppet Emperor. Subsequently, two warlords, Yuwen Huaji and Wang Shichong also crowned Sui Princes as puppet Emperors.|
|c.617||Songtsen Gampo, Chief of the Yarlun Tribe of the Tubbats in Tibet, unified Tibet and founded the Kingdom of Tubbat.|
|618.5M||Li Yuan made himself Emperor and established the Tang Empire.|
|618.9M||Yuwen Hauji made himself Emperor and established the Xu Empire.|
|619.4M||Wang Shichong made himself Emperor and established the Zheng Empire.|
|619.9M||Du Fuwei, a rebellion leader in the Jiangnan region, accepted the title of King of Wu from Tang and established the Wu Regime.|
|622.7.16||The upper class of Mecca oppressed Islam. According to legend, Muhammad led his disciples to flee to Medina on this day (the exact date should be 7.2). Such an event was called Hijrah by Muslims. In the same year Muhammad established the Arabian Regime, a theocracy in Medina. The regime was called the Saracen Empire by Westerners. Beginning of the "Orthodoxy" Period of Islam.|
|c.623||Samo, Chief of the Bohemians and Moravians, united the various Western Slavic peoples and founded the Samo Regime in Czechoslovakia.|
|627||Tang Empire implemented the earliest Civil Service Examination system in the world. Thereafter the scholar-gentry class of China replaced the noble families as the main force of the civil service.
[Eastern] Rome invaded [New] Persia. On 2.25 of the next year, Gurdanaspa, the Persian commander, staged a coup and deposed King Khusrau II. Kobad II succeeded to the throne and negotiated peace with [Eastern] Rome. End of the Sixth Byzantine-Persian War.
|c.627||Prajnaditya founded the Kingdom of Kashmir in the Kashmir region of India.|
|628.4M||Tang Empire defeated the rebels and warlords in China and reunified China.|
|628.12M||The Xueyantuo Tribe revolted against [Eastern] Turk and founded the Xueyantuo Kingdom.|
|629||Frank made Caribert II King of Aquitaine and founded the Kingdom of Aquitaine in southwestern France.|
|630.3M||Tang destroyed [Eastern] Turk. Tang established its hegemony in East Asia. The various states in present day Central Asia and Xinjiang recognized Li Shimin as the "Heavenly Khan".|
|c.631||Dantivarman I founded the Rashtrakuta Regime in the Maharashtra region of central India.|
|632.6.7||Upon death of Muhammad, Abu-Bakr succeeded as leader of Islam and assumed the title of Caliph (which meaned successor and became the title of subsequent supreme leader of Islam).|
|634.8.23||Upon death of Abu-Bakr, Umar succeeded as Caliph. In the same year Arabia began large-scale expansion and later grew into a transcontinental empire.|
|636||Arabia conquered Syria-Palestine.|
|638||Owing to internal strife, [Western] Turk split into the Southern Horde and Northern Horde Governments.
Arabia conquered Iraq.
|639||From this year onwards, the local Frankish Kings became titular monarchs and real powers were held by the Mayors of the Palace. Such a period was called the Period of the "Lazy Kings".|
|639.1||The Frankish Kingdom was partitioned for the third time. This time it split into the Kingdom of Austrasia and the Kingdom of Neustria and Burgundy (renamed as Kingdom of Neustria in 657).|
|642||Yon Kae So Mun became de facto ruler of Koguryo. Thereafter real power of Koguryo was held by the Yon Kae Family.
Arabia conquered most territories of [New] Persia. King Yezdegerd III of [New] Persia fled to the remote border.
Arabia conquered Egypt.
|c.642||Bulgar was disrupted by the attacks of Avar and the Khazars. The Bulgars then split into several groups. One group migrated to River Volga and developed into the Volga Bulgarians.
A group of Bulgars, led by Asparukh, migrated to Bulgaria and merged with the Southern Slavic peoples. They later developed into the Confederacy of Seven Slavic Tribes and were called the Slav-Bulgarians.
|644.11.6||Umar, the Arabian Caliph, was assassinated. He was succeeded by Uthman of the Umayyad Clan. Being an unjust and corrupt ruler, Uthman was hated by his people.|
|645.6M||Prince Nakano Oe staged the Taika Coup d'etat and overthrew the Soga Clan. Ame Yorodsu Toyohi succeeded to the throne and designated Nakano Oe as the Crown Prince and Regent. In the next year, Nakano Oe promulgated Edict of Reform and carried out reforms (Taika Reform).|
|647||The Arabs launched their conquest campaigns against the region of North African west of Egypt. In 709 the whole region, which was called Maghrib by the Arabs and composed of the modern Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, was finally conquered.|
|c.647||Internal strife broke out in Kanyakubja and Arjuna succeeded to the throne.|
|648||Tang allied with Tubbat and Nepal to annihilate Kanyakubja.|
|c. Mid-7th Century||Rise of Vajrayana Buddhism in India. Beginning of the "Period of Vajrayana Buddhism" of Indian Buddhism. Later Vajrayana Buddhism spread to China Proper, Tibet and Japan, where it developed into the Vajrayana School, Tibetan Buddhism and Shingon School, respectively.
Arabia conquered the Persian Gulf Region.
|c.650||Rise of the Kingdom of Sailendra in Java and the Kingdom of Srivijaya in Sumatra.
Irbis, Chief of the Khazars, founded the Khazar Kingdom in the Russian Steppe.
|651.9||King Yezdegerd III of [New] Persia was killed. [New] Persia (Sassanid Dynasty) finally came to an end and the Arabs completed their conquest of Iran.|
|655||King Oswiu of Bernicia annexed Deira and changed his title to King of Northumbria. Bernicia and Deira were thus amalgamated into the Kingdom of Northumbria.|
|656.6.16||Osman, the Arabian Caliph, was assassinated. Ali succeeded as Caliph. In the same year, Islamic elders Talha, Zobayr and Aishah rose against Ali and led to the First Muslim Civil War. Ali defeated the rebels in the Battle of the Camel.|
|657.7||Muawiya I of the Arab Umayyad Clan rose against Ali. when Ali reached a compromise with Muawiya I, part of Ali's supporters deserted Ali and formed the Khawarjite Sect.|
|657.12M||Tang conquered [Western] Turk.|
|658||Upon death of Samo, Prince of Samo, the Principality disintegrated and the Western Slavic Peoples split again.
The Slovenes founded the Principality of Carantania.
|c.660s||The Volga Bulgars founded the Great Bulgarian Kingdom.|
|661.1.24||Upon death of Ali, the Arabian Caliph, al-Hasan succeeded as Caliph. In about July of the same year, Muawiya I crowned himself Caliph and moved the capital to Damascus, thus establishing Arabia (Umayyad Dynasty). Muawiya I attacked al-Hasan and forced the latter to abdicate. End of the "Orthodoxy" Period of Arabia. Islam formally split into two sects: the Sunni Sect (recognizing Caliph Muawiya I as their leader) and the Shiah Sect (recognizing Imam al-Hasan as their leader and Ali as the first Imam).|
|663||Tang attacked Paekche. Japan sent an army to aid Paekche but was defeated by Tang. Tang annihilated Paekche. Japanese influence was thus expelled from Korea.|
|c.665||Bau founded the Bawand Regime in the region of Tabaristan (i.e. present day Mazandaran) in northern Iran.|
|670||Tang conquered Koguryo. End of the Period of the Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea.|
|672.2M||Tubbat attacked Tuyuhun. Murong Nuohebo, King of Tuyuhun, led his people to submit to the rule of Tang. The territory of Tuyuhun was thus annexed by Tubbat.|
|c.675||Mukurra was renamed Kingdom of Dongola.|
|676.2M||The Tang army withdrew from Korea. Silla annexed the original territories of Koguryo and Paekche and unified Korean Peninsula.|
|680||Arabia conquered Albania and renamed northern Azerbaijan as Arran.|
|680.c4||Upon death of Muawiya I, the Arabian Caliph, Yazid I succeeded to the throne. In the same year al-Husayn, the Shiah Imam, revolted in contention for the throne. The Second Muslim Civil War broke out. Killed in the Battle of Kerbela, al-Husayn was recognized as martyr of the Shiah Sect.|
|681||Asparukh, Chief of the Confederacy of the Seven Slavic Tribes, defeated [Eastern] Rome. [Eastern] Rome concluded peace with Asparukh and recognized their independence. Asparukh made himself King (Khan) and established the Kingdom of Bulgaria.|
|682||Kutlug Ilteres, a leader of the Turks, revolted against Tang and established [Later] Turk.|
|687||Pepin II of the Carolingian House became Mayor of the Palace of both Austrasia and Neustria. Holding real power of the whole Frankish territories, Pepin II started to annihilate the feudal lords in various parts of the country. Since then the position of Mayor of the Palace was monopolized by the Carolingian House.|
|690||The Songhais founded the Kingdom of Songhai in West Sudan.|
|690.9M||Wu Zhao overthrew Tang Dynasty and established the Zhou Empire ([Wu] Zhou).|
|c.690||Yasovarman occupied Kanyakubja and restored the Kingdom of Kanyakubja. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy.|
|c.691||Clovis III reunited Frank.|
|695||Leontius, Governor of Greece under [Eastern] Rome, instigated a revolt of the priests and people and overthrew the Heraclian Dynasty.|
|698||Tae Choyong, Chief of the Malgal People, founded the Chin Kingdom in northeastern China.|
|c.698||The Laotians founded the Kingdom of Xiang Khuang in northern Laos.|
|699||Ugil, Chief of the Turgish Tribe of the Turks, controlled all the [Western] Turk tribes and established the Turgish Regime.|
|c.8th Century||The Hausas founded the Kingdom of Gobir in northern Nigeria. Thereafter the Hausas founded seven city-states in Nigeria (collectively called Hausa Bakwai = Orthodox Hausa City-States): Gobir, Daura, Kano, Rano, Katsina, Zaria and Biram. Later there emerged seven more city-states (collectively called Bemza Bakwai = Unorthodox City-States): Zamfara, Yauri, Nupe, Kororofa, Oyo, Kebbi and Gwari.
Lawalo, Chief of the Keita Tribe of the Mandings in West Sudan, founded the Kingdom of Malel in Kangaba in present day Mali.
|Early 8th Century||Emergence of the Sufi Sect of Islam.|
|705.1M||Five senior officials of [Wu] Zhou, headed by Zhang Jianzhi, staged a coup and forced Emperor Wu Zhao to pass the throne to Li Xian. In the next month Li Xian resumed the title of Tang Emperor and restored the Tang Empire. Li Xian's wife, Empress Wei, started to interfere with the state affairs.|
|710s||Emergence of the ancient Japanese classics Kojiki and Nihonshoki and Shintoism.|
|710||Japan's capital was moved to Heijo (also called Nara). Beginning of the Nara Period of Japan.|
|710.6M||Empress Wei and Li Guoer (Princess Anle) poisoned Li Xian and Li Chongmao on the throne, with real powers held by themselves. After Li Longji staged a coup and killed Empress Wei and Li Guoer, Li Dan succeeded to the throne.|
|711||The Arabian army invaded the Sind region in west India and brought Islam into India.
The coalition army of the Arabs and Berbers crossed the Strait of Gibralta and invaded the Iberian Peninsula. In July they defeated Visigoth and conquered the most part of Spain. The remnants of Visigoth retreated to Narbonne.
|712||Muhammad al-Baqir succeeded as Shiah Imam. A section of the Shiahs installed Zaid as another Imam and thus formed the Zaid Sect (also called the Followers of the Five). Later the Zaid Sect split into the northern and southern branches, who were based in Iran and Yemen, respectively.|
|712.8M||Li Dan passed the throne to Li Longji, during whose reign the power of the Tang Empire reached its apex.|
|713.2M||Tang conferred the title of King of Parhae on Tae Choyong, the King of Chin. The Chin Kingdom was thus renamed Parhae Kingdom.|
|c.713||Chenla split into [Upper] Chenla and [Lower] Chenla.|
|714||Upon death of Pepin II, Charles (Martel) succeeded as the Frankish Major of the Palace and held real powers. During his tenure, Charles implemented the Fief System. Later fiefs became hereditary territories of the nobles.|
|715||Frank once again split into Neustria and Austrasia, with the latter ruled by the Carolingian House.|
|717.3.25||Leo III, an [Eastern] Roman military officer, seized the throne and established [Eastern] Rome (Isaurian Dynasty).|
|718||The Arabian army attacked the Asturias mountain area and was defeated by Pelayo, a Visigothic aristocrat. Pelayo founded the Kingdom of Asturias. Since then there emerged a number of Christian regimes in the Iberian Peninsula. In opposition to the Islamic invaders, these Christian regimes started the Reconquista Movement to recover the territories occupied by the Muslims.|
|719||Charles (Martel) conquered Neustria and reunified Frank.|
|c.720||Arabia conquered Narbonne and annihilated Visigoth.|
|725||The city of Venice in northern Italy gained independence and formed the Venetian Regime. Since then there emerged a number of city republics in Italy.|
|726||Emperor Leo III of [Eastern] Rome promulgated an edict against image worship and instigated a popular anti-Church movement ([Eastern] Roman Iconoclastic Movement).|
|c.730||Khommana I, Chief of the Guhilas, founded the Kingdom of Mewar in Rajastan region in west India.|
|732||In the Battle of Tours, Charles (Martel), the Frankish Major of the Palace, defeated the Arabian army who invaded southern Gaul, thus preventing further Arab intrusion into Europe.|
|c.732||Ratu Sanjaya succeeded as ruler of Keling. He moved the capital to Mataram and renamed the country as Kingdom of Mataram ([Earlier] Mataram).|
|c.737||Khun Lo, Chief of the Laotians, founded the Kingdom of Muong Swa.|
|738.9M||Pi Luoge, Chief of the Nanzhao Tribes in Yunnan, China, unified the Six Zhao Tribes and founded the Nanzhao Kingdom.|
|741.10.22||Upon death of Charles (Martel), his two sons Carloman and Pepin III (the Short) succeeded as Mayor of the Palace and partitioned the Frankish territories.|
|744.5M||Tang destroyed the Turkgish Kingdom.|
|744.8M||Etimish, Chief of the Uygurs, rebelled against [Later] Turk and founded the Uygur Kingdom.|
|745||The Kimeks (a Turkic tribe) formed the Kimek Kingdom on the Kazakh Steppe.|
|745.1M||Uygur destroyed [Later] Turk and annexed its territories. Uygur supplanted [Later] Turk as a new power in Mongolia.|
|747||Abu Muslim revolted against Arabia in Khurasan, Iran. Abul-Abbas of the Abbasid Clan also revolted.
Pepin III became the sole Mayor of the Palace and held supreme power of Frank.
|749.11.6||Abul-Abbas made himself Caliph and established Arabia (Abbasid Dynasty) (commonly called the Eastern Saracen Empire by Westerners). On 8.25 in the next year, the Abbasid Dynasty subjugated the Umayyad Dynasty.|
|c.750||Gopala I founded the Pala Regime in Bengal.
Nagabhata I, Chief of the Gurjaras, occupied Kanyakubja and founded the Gurjara-Pratihara Regime.
Majan Dyabe Sisse, Chief of the Soninkes, overthrew Ghana (Berber Dynasty) and established Ghana (Sisse Dynasty).
The Berber ruling class fled to Futa in central Senegal. Their leader, Dyeogo, established the Kingdom of Takrur.
Native peoples in present-day southwest USA (collectively called the Puebloan Peoples, including Uto-Aztecan-speaking, Kiowa-Tanoan-speaking peoples) started to form villages and created the Puebloan Culture.
|2nd Half of 8th Century||The Norsemen (also called the Vikings) started to invade various parts of Europe.
Feudalism and Serfdom were basically established in Western Europe during this period.
|751.4M||The coalition army of Arabia and Tashkent defeated the Tang army in the Battle of Talas. Tang influence was thus expelled from the Western Regions (present day Xinjiang and eastern part of Central Asia).|
|c.751||Pepin III overthrew Frank (Merovingian Dynasty). End of the Period of the Lazy Kings. On 10.31 Pepin III crowned himself Frankish King and established Frank (Carolingian Dynasty).|
|c.754||The Ibadi Sect (a branch of the Khawarjite Sect) founded the Imamite of Oman in Oman.|
|755.11M||An Lushan, a Tang military officer, started the An-Shi Rebellion. In the first lunar month of the next year, An Lushan assumed the title of Emperor of Yan and established the Yan Regime.|
|756||Frankish King Pepin III attacked Lombard and occupied part of the territories. Pepin III donated the regions of Ravenna and Pentapolis to the Roman Pope Stephen II (Donation of Pepin). The Roman Pope started to become a secular ruler and this marked the beginning of the Roman Papal States.
Abd al-Rahman I, a royal member of the former Umayyad Dynasty, assumed the title of King (Amir) in Cordoba, Spain and established the Cordoba Regime (Later Umayyad Dynasty) (called the Western Saracen Empire by the Westerners). A number of secessionist regimes started in emerge in various parts of the Arabian Hegemonic Empire, which entered a period of political turmoil.
|759.1M||Shi Siming, a general of the Yan Regime, revolted and assumed the title of King of Yan. In the third lunar month of the same year, Shi Siming overthrew the rule of the An Family and took over the leadership of the rebels. In the first lunar month of 763, Tang suppressed the rebellion.|
|762||Arabia constructed the city of Baghdad, which was then set as the new capital.|
|762.4M||Li Fuguo, a Tang eunuch, crowned Li Yu as Emperor and held real powers. Thereafter the Tang Empire fell under control of the eunuchs for several times and a number of Tang Emperors were crowned or deposed by eunuchs.|
|765||Upon death of Shiah Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, the Shiah Sect split into two groups. One group recognized Musa al-Kazim as their Imam and was called the Followers of the Twelve (this group later became the orthodox Shiah group and thus inherited the name of Shiah Sect). Another group recognized Ismail as their Imam and was called the Followers of the Seven (also called the Ismaili Sect).|
|766||The Qarluqs (a Turkic tribe) conquered the Turgish and formed the Qarluq Kingdom in Northwestern China.|
|c.767||Levan I founded the Kingdom of Abkhazia in northwestern Georgia.|
|768.9.24||Upon death of the Frankish King Pepin III, his two sons Carloman and Charles I ascended to the throne simultaneously and partitioned the Frankish territories.|
|772||Frankish King Charles I attacked the Saxons and started the Saxon War. In 804 he conquered the Saxons.|
|c.773||The Thais founded the Kingdom of Chiangsen in northwestern Thailand.|
|774||The Vajrayana Buddhism of India spread to Tubbat, where it developed into the Tibetan Buddhism (commonly called Lamaism). Later it split into various schools (the main schools being the Nyingma School, Kadam School, Kagyu School and Sakya School).|
|774.6||Frankish King Charles I destroyed Lombard. In the next month Charles I assumed the title of King of Italy and established the Kingdom of Italy.|
|776||Hashim ibn Hakim, leader of the Khurramite Sect in Central Asia (a herectic sect melding the doctrines of Islam and Zoroastrianism), rose against Arabian rule and started the al-Muqana (= the Masked) Rebellion, which was suppressed by Arabia in 783.|
|c.777||Abd al-Rahman, Governor of Kairouan under Arabia, revolted against Arabia and founded the Rustam Regime in Tahart in northwestern Algeria.|
|778||Abbon founded the County of Poitou in western France. Since then there emerged a number of feudal states in France.|
|780||Kim Chi Chong, a senior official of Silla, overthrew the Kim Dynasty (Kim Chi Chong Rebellion). Kim Yang Sung killed Kim Chi Chong and established Silla (Later Kim Dynasty).|
|c.780||Viseslav, Chief of the Serbians, founded the Principality of Rascia.|
|781||Frankish King Charles I made his three sons Kings of Italy, Neustria and Aquitaine.|
|782.11M||The military govenors of the four prefectures of Lulong, Chengde, Weibo and Ziqing under Tang Dynasty formed an alliance and rose in rebellion. Since then the military govenors ruling various parts of the Empire became semi-independent rulers.|
|c.784||Dougou, Chief of the Dougouwas, founded the Kingdom of Kanem in western Chad.|
|788||Mahataing founded the Kingdom of Arakan in western Burma.|
|789.2.5||Idris I, ruler of Morocco under Arabia, revolted and founded the Idrisid Regime.|
|794||Japan's capital was moved to Heian (also called Kyoto). Beginning of the Heian Period of Japan.|
|800.7.9||Ibrahim I, Governor of Ifriqiya under Arabia, revolted and founded the Aghlabid Regime in Tunisia.|
|800.12.25||Charles I was conferred the title of "Roman Emperor" in Rome. Some historians use this day as the foundation date of the Holy Roman Empire.|
|c.800||Upendra founded the Paramara Regime in the Malwa region of India.
The Caras founded the Kingdom of Quito in present day Ecuador.