A Chronology of World Political History
(1 - 500 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
c.1st Millennium Some members of the Tai-Kadai speaking peoples started to migrate from Southern China to Laos, Siam and other places in Indochinese Peninsula.

The Haykid and Artsrun Clans started to rule the Siunia and Vaspurakan regions of Armenia, respectively, and established two regimes.

The Bantu-speaking peoples replaced the Pygmies (a generic term for a number of indigenous ethnic groups in Central Africa) as the dominant ethnic groups in the Congo region.

Pushed by the Bantu-speaking intruders, the Khoisan-speaking peoples were forced to migrate to the southern tip of Africa.

Some Malayo-Polynesian-speaking peoples began to migrate to Madagascar, where they later mixed with the Bantu-speaking peoples from the African Continent and evolved into the Malagasy People.

Emergence of Amazonian chiefdoms, a collective term for the chiefdoms established by a number of ethnic groups (including Tupi-speaking, Arawakan-speaking and Cariban-speaking peoples in the Amazonian region of Brazil.
1st Century Liu Ye founded the Kingdom of Funan in Cambodia.
c.1st Century The Meitei and Tripuri peoples founded the Manipur Kingdom and Tripura Kingdom, respectively in northeastern India.

Rise of Mahayana Buddhism, which denounced the primitive Buddhism as Hinayana Buddhism. The two main branches of Buddhism were thus formed. Later there emerged the two main schools of Mahayana Buddhism: Madhyamaka School and Yogacara School. Spread of Buddhism into China, which culminated in the later emergence of the Chinese Buddhism.

The Gaels founded several local regimes in Ireland, including the Kingdom of Ulster, Kingdom of Leinster, Kingdom of Meath, Kingdom of Munster, Kingdom of Connaught.

Rise of the Kingdom of Teotihuacan in central Mexico.
8.11M Wang Mang, de facto ruler of [Western] Han, deposed Emperor Liu Ying and overthrew [Western] Han.
9 Arminius, Chief of the Cherusci, defeated the Roman army in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. The Romans were forced to stop their plan to conquer the Germanic-speaking peoples.
9.12M Wang Mang crowned himself and established the Xin Empire. He reset the twelfth lunar month as the beginning of the year.
17 Wang Kuang and Wang Feng rose against the Xin Empire and formed the Lulin Army. Later there also appeared the Xinshi Army, Xiajiang Army and Pinglin Army. The four were collectively called the Lulin Four Armies. Since then there were widespread revolts throughout China and the Late Xin Peasant War broke out.
18 Fan Chong rebelled against the Xin Empire and formed the Chimei Army.
23.2M The Lulin Four Armies crowned Liu Xuan, a royal member of the former [Western] Han Dynasty, as Emperor and established the Han Empire (Gengshi Government). In the ninth lunar month of the same year, the Han army captured Changan, the capital. Wang Mang was killed and the Xin Empire collapsed. The Han Empire reset the first lunar month as the beginning of the year.
25.6M Liu Xiu, a general of the Han (Gengshi Government), rebelled and made himself Emperor, whose government was called [Eastern] Han. Fan Chong, leader of the Chimei Army, crowned Liu Panzi as Emperor and established Han (Chimei Government). In the tenth lunar month of the same year, Liu Xuan surrendered to the Chimei Government and the Gengshi Government collapsed.
c.28
Jesus (Christ), a Jewish religious leader, started to preach his gospel in Palestine and founded Christianity.
c.30 Jesus, accused of sedition, was crucifie by Rome. Peter (originally named Simon), an Apostle of Jesus, became leader of Christianity. Peter was later regarded as the first Bishop of Rome.
36.11M [Eastern] Han reunified China.
40.2M Trung Trac and Trung Nhi, two sisters living in Cochin (i.e. modern northern Vietnam), rose against [Eastern] Han and started the Trung Sisters' Revolt. Trung Trac made herself King and established the Trung Sisters' Regime, which was suppressed by [Eastern] Han in 43.
42 Rome annexed Mauritania.
46 Rome conquered the Thracians. The Odrysian Confederacy disintegrated.
48.10M Hun split into two parts - [Southern] Hun and [Northern] Hun.
54.10 Nero became the Roman Princeps and Imperator and started a tyrannical rule in the Empire.
56 Long-time warfare broke out between the Qiang people and the [Eastern] Han Empire, which was called the Qiangic War by some historians.
64 After a great fire in the city of Rome, which was popularly rumoured to have been started by Nero, the Roman Princep. Nero shifted the blame onto the Christians and persecuted them.
66 Outbreak of the First Jewish War when the Jews rose against Rome.
68.6.9 When the Roman praetorian guard rebelled against Nero, the Senate declared Nero a hostis (public enemy). Nero committed suicide and Rome (Julio-Claudian Dynasty) collapsed.
69.7.1 Vespasian, a Roman military officer, was crowned Princeps and Imperator, and established Rome (Flavian Dynasty).
70.9.7 The Roman army suppressed the Jewish revolt. End of the First Jewish War.
c.70 Bhumaka became Western Satrap of Pahlava and started to rule Malwa and Gujarat, where he established a de facto hereditary kingdom called Kshaharata (= Western Satrap) Regime by historians.
c.78 Kanishka I became King of Kushan and established Kushan (Kanishka Dynasty). During his reign Kushan became a regional power in Central Asia and north India.
87 Decebalus, Chief of the Dacians in Romania, unified the various tribes and founded the Kingdom of Dacia.
88.1M Liu Zhao succeeded to the [Eastern] Han throne. But real power was held by Dou Xian, a relative of the dowager empress. Since then, the imperial power declined and real power was held by relatives of the dowager empresses.
91.2M The [Eastern] Han army defeated and destroyed the [Northern] Huns, who fled westwards and later moved gradually to Europe.
92.6M Liu Zhao, united with the eunuch Zheng Zhong, overthrew Dou Xian and regained powers. Since then there was bitter struggle between the dowager empresses' relatives and the eunuch group of [Eastern] Han.
96.9.18 Upon end of Rome (Flavian Dynasty), Nerva was elected Princeps and Imperator by the Senate and established Rome (Antonine Dynasty).
98.1 Trajan became Roman Princeps and Imperator. During his reign he further expanded the territories and Rome reached the apex of its power.
2nd Century Rise of the Kamarupa Regime in Assam region of India.
c.2nd Century The Lazis founded the Kingdom of Lazi (also called the Kingdom of Lazica) in western Georgia (called Colchis in ancient times).
101 Outbreak of the Dacian War when Rome invaded Dacia. After King Decebalus of Dacia died in a battle in 106, Rome annexed Dacia and the war ended.
113 When Parthia placed puppet rulers in Armenia, Rome staged the First Parthian War (also called the First Roman Eastern War or First Roman-Armenian War) against Parthia.
114 Rome annexed Armenia and later Iraq.
c.116 Sanatruk I rose against Rome and restored Armenia.
117 The Romans were forced to retreat from Armenia. End of the First Parthian War.
130s Zhang Ling of [Eastern] Han founded the Wudoumi Taoism, the first Taoist religious sect in China.
132 When Rome attempted to colonize Jerusalem and build a Jupiter Temple at the original site of the Jehovah Temple, Akiba, a Jewish rabbi, and Cocheba staged a revolt against Rome, which led to the Second Jewish War.
135 Rome suppressed the Jewish revolt. The Jews began to scatter worldwide, which was called Diaspora by historians.
156.7M The various tribes of the Xianbeis in Mongolia elected Tanshihuai as their Chief. Tanshihuai unified the tribes and formed the Xianbei Confederacy, which became powerful in Mongolia.
162 Parthia invaded Syria and led to the Second Parthian War (also called the Second Roman Eastern War or Second Roman-Armenian War).
163 Rome annexed Armenia again.
165 Rome annexed part of Iraq. End of the Second Parthian War.
166 Rome reinstated Soyemos, former King of Armenia, and restored Armenia again.
167 According to legend, Phusauti, Chief of the Burmese, founded the Kingdom of Pagan in northern Burma.
169 With part of the Qiang people conquered by [Eastern] Han, the Qiangic War came to an end.
170s Zhang Jiao of [Eastern] Han founded the Taiping Taoism, another sect of the Chinese Taoism.
181 Upon death of Tanshihuai, the Xianbei Confederacy dissolved.
184.2M Zhang Jiao staged the Yellow Turban Rebellion and formed the Yellow Turban Army. In the eleventh lunar month of the same year, the [Eastern] Han Govenment suppressed the rebellion. But [Eastern] Han was then torn by internal strife.
189.8M He Jin, a relative of the [Eastern] Han dowager empress, united with the warlords Yuan Shao and Dong Zhuo in a plot to eliminate the eunuch group. He Jin was killed by the eunuchs when the plot was uncovered. Yuan Shao staged a coup to slaughter the eunuch group. Taking advantage of the turmoil, Dong Zhuo seized supreme powers. Since then the royal court was under the control of warlords and China was torn by a civil war among the warlords. In the fourth lunar month of 192, Dong Zhuo was overthrown by a group of [Eastern] Han senior ministers. But the royal court remained under the control of Dong Zhuo's subordinates.
192.12.31 Upon assassination of Commodus, the Roman Princeps and Imperator, Rome (Antonine Dynasty) collapsed.
c.192 Sri Mara of Cochin rose against [Eastern] Han and founded the Kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
193.6 Severus, a Roman military officer, was made Princeps and Imperator by his legion and established Rome (Severi Dynasty).
195 Sun Ce started to rule Jiangdong Region and established the Wu Regime ([Eastern] Wu). Later, the territories of the regime was extended to southeastern China. In the fourth lunar month of 229, Sun Quan, ruler of [Eastern] Wu, formally assumed the title of Emperor.
196.11M
Cao Cao, a warlord of northern China, seized control of the [Eastern] Han royal court. Since then, [Eastern] Han was controlled by the Cao Family.
197 Rome staged the Third Parthian War and attacked Parthia. It conquered the whole of Iraq in the next year.
c.200 Japan invaded the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and established a colony, which was called the Imna Japanese Prefecture.

Rise of the Kingdom of Moche in the coastal area in northern Peru.
3rd Century The Greater Yuezhis founded the Turki Shahi Regime in west India.

The Berbers founded the Kingdom of Ghana (Berber Dynasty) in West Sudan.
c 3rd Century The Chibchans established a number of chiefdoms including Bacata, Hunza in present day Colombia.
c.1st Half of 3rd Century King Cormac Ulhada of Connaught assumed the title of High King of Tara and founded the Kingdom of Tara. Since then the High Kingship of Tara, occupied alternately by the kings of the Irish local regimes, became the suzerain of the Irish local regimes.
c.205 Fan Shiman, a military officer of Funan, was crowned King by the army. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy and assumed the title of "Great King of Funan".
208.10M When Cao Cao's army invaded southwards, Sun Quan, the [Eastern] Wu ruler, and Liu Bei, a royal member of [Eastern] Han as well as warlord of Jingzhou, united against Cao Cao, and defeated Cao Cao's army in the Battle of Chibi. Thereafter Cao Cao, Sun Quan and Liu Bei became the three major powers in China.
c.208 Papak, local ruler of Persis under Parthia, founded the Kingdom of Persis in the region of Fars.
212 Bassianus (Caracalla), the Roman Princeps and Imperator, promulgated the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Empire.
216.7M When Huchuquan Shanyu, King of [Southern] Hun, visited [Eastern] Han, he was detained by [Eastern] Han. The Huns were divided into five tribes and [Southern] Hun was thus destroyed.
219.7M Liu Bei made himself King and founded the Han Regime ([Shu] Han) (commonly called Shu). In the fourth lunar month of 221 Liu Bei formally assumed the title of Emperor.
220.10M Cao Pi, de facto ruler of [Eastern] Han, overthrew [Eastern] Han, made himself Emperor and founded the Wei Empire ([Cao] Wei). Beginning of the Period of the Three Kingdoms of China.
c.220 Sri Santamula I founded the Ikshvaku Regime in the region of Vengi in east India.
c.224.4.28 King Ardashir I of Persis changed his title to King of Persia and called himself "King of Kings". Persis was thus changed to the Kingdom of Persia (Sassanid Dynasty) (commonly called [New] Persia).
c.228 [New] Persia conquered Parthia.
229 [New] Persia attacked Rome and led to the First Roman-Persian War. In 232 the two powers reached a peace agreement. [New] Persia seized control of Armenia.
235.3 After the Roman Princeps and Imperator Severus Alexander was overthrown by a coup staged by the praetorian guard, Rome (Severi Dynasty) collapsed. Thereafter Rome entered a period of civil strife and frequent military coups, called "The Third Century Crisis" by historians.
241 Upon death of King Ardashir I of [New] Persia, Shapur I succeeded to the throne. [New] Persia invaded Mesopotamia and Syria, which led to the Second Roman-Persian War. The Persians were driven out in 244.
249.1M Sima Yi seized control of the [Cao] Wei government. Thereafter [Cao] Wei was controlled by the Sima Family.
Mid-3rd Century Kushan was torn by internal strife. The Greater Yuezhis founded nine city-states in Central Asia, including the Kingdom of Tashkent, Kingdom of Samarkand, Kingdom of Bukhara, Kingdom of Khwarizm and five less important regimes.
c.250 The Abhiras founded the Traikutaka Regime in the region of Maharasthtra of India.
c.255 Vindhyasakti founded the Vakataka Regime in northern Deccan region of India.
258 [New] Persia staged the Third Roman-Persian War and invaded Mesopotamia and Syria again.

Odenathus, an Arab aristocrat, founded the Kingdom of Palmyra in Syria.
260 King Odenathus of Palmyra defeated [New] Persia. End of the Third Roman-Persian War.

Postumus, a Roman genera;, started to rule Gaul and established the Gallic Empire.
260.6 The Roman legions in various parts of the Empire crowned their own Emperors and there emerged the "Thirty Tyrants".
263.11M [Cao] Wei conquered [Shu] Han.
265.12M Sima Yan, de facto ruler of [Cao] Wei, overthrew [Cao] Wei and established the Jin Empire ([Western] Jin).
268 Upon accession of Princeps and Imperator Claudius II, the political situation of Rome was stabilized. Beginning of the Period of the Illyrian Emperors.
c.270 Outbreak of the Bagaudae (= warriors) Movement, a revolt of the slaves and the poor in Gaul.
271 Rome conquered Palmyra.
273 Mani, a religious leader of [New] Persia, was killed by the ruling class. During his lifetime he founded Manichaesm in [New] Persia.
274 Gaul joined forces with Rome to suppress the Bagaudae Movement. Rome seized the opportunity to reconquer Gaul.
280.3M [Western] Jin conquered [Eastern] Wu and reunified China. End of the Period of the Three Kingdoms of China.
283 In the Fourth Roman-Persian War, Roman Princeps and Imperator Carus invaded [New] Persia and conquered Mesopotamia. In July of the same year, Carus died and the war ended.
284.11.20 Diocletian, a Roman praetorian praefect, was made Emperor by the army. Diocletian abolished the title of Princeps and assumed the title of Emperor (Dominus, meaning monarch).
286 Carausius, a Roman military officer, began to rule Britain and established the Empire of Britain.
286.3.1 Roman Emperor Diocletian elevated the Caesar (i.e. Vice-Emperor) Maximian to the post of Augustus (i.e. Emperor) and divided the Empire into two parts: Diocletian ruled Rome (Eastern Government) while Maximian ruled Rome (Western Government). Two more Caesars were chosen. Diocletian chose Galerius as his Caesar to rule Illyria while Maximian chose Constantius I as his Caesar to rule Gaul. The political system is called the Tetrarchy by historians.
291.6M Jia Nanfeng, Empress of [Western] Jin, seized powers and slaughtered a number of princes of the Sima royal house who contended powers with her, which led to a civil war among the [Western] Jin ruling class, the War of the Eight Princes.
296 [New] Persia staged the Fifth Roman-Persian War and invaded Mesopotamia. In the next year [New] Persia was defeated and was forced to sign a peace agreement with Rome by which it ceded the territory to the west of River Tigris to Rome.
c.300 Hastivarman I founded the Salankayana Regime in Vengi of India.

The Mayans started to found city-states in the lowland areas of Mesoamerica. The more important ones included: Tikal, Uaxactun, Palengue, Calakmul, Copan, etc. These city-states declined in c.900.
c.4th Century Rise of the Kingdom of Kutai in eastern Kalimantan.

Rise of the Kingdom of Taruma in western Java.

Rise of the Kingdom of Mandasor in central India.
301.1M Zhang Gui, Governor of Liangzhou under [Western] Jin, made Liangzhou a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Liang Regime ([Earlier] Liang). Since then the minorities in various parts of China (including the Huns, Xianbei, Qiang, Di and Jie Peoples, collectively called the "Five Barbarians") and the Han People rebelled and established separatist regimes. China entered a period of prolonged political upheaval. During this period ambitious political leaders of the Five Barbarians and the Han People established 16 separatist regimes, the so-called Sixteen States (including: [Earlier] Liang, [Later] Liang, [Southern] Liang, [Northern] Liang and [Western] Liang in northwestern China; [Earlier] Zhao, [Later] Zhao, [Earlier] Yan, [Later] Yan, [Southern] Yan, [Northern] Yan, [Earlier] Qin, [Later] Qin and Xia in northern China; [Cheng] Han in southwestern China).
301.10M Li Te, leader of the Cong people, revolted against [Western] Jin and established the Cheng Regime.
304.10M Liu Yuan, Chief of the Huns, established the Han Regime ([Hun] Han) in northern China.
c.310 Shapur II became King of [New] Persia. During his reign he continued to expand the territories of [New] Persia.
311.3M Upon death of Sima Yue, de facto ruler of [Western] Jin, the War of the Eight Princes came to an end. In the sixth lunar month of the same year, the [Hun] Han army captured Luoyang, the [Western] Jin capital and took Emperor Sima Chi captive.
313 Roman (Western) Emperor Constantine I made an agreement with Roman (Eastern) Emperor Licinius and promulgated the Edict of Milan, which declared equality of all religions and restoration of the properties confiscated from the Christian Church.
c.315 Simhavarman I founded the Kingdom of Pallava in south India.
316.11M When the [Hun] Han army took Sima Ye, another [Western] Jin Emperor, captive, [Western] Jin collapsed.
317.3M Sima Rui, a member of the former [Western] Jin royal house, made himself King of Jin (he changed his title to Emperor in the next year) and established [Eastern] Jin.
319.6M [Hun] Han changed its name to Zhao Empire ([Earlier] Zhao).
319.11M Shi Le, a general of [Earlier] Zhao, made himself King and founded the Zhao Regime ([Later] Zhao).
c.320 Chandra Gupta I founded the Magadha Kingdom (Gupta Dynasty).
324
Constantine I reunited the Roman Empire and established Rome (Constantine Dynasty).
325 The Christian Church summoned the First Ecumenical Council of the Church in Nicaea (commonly called the Council of Nicaea) to settle a controversy between Arianism (led by Arius, a priest of Alexandria; advocating the heterogeneity between Christ and God) and Athanasianism (led by Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria; advocating the homogeneity between Christ and God). The Council recognized the orthodoxy of Athanasianism and declared Arianism as heresy. The Council also granted a privileged status to the Bishops of Alexandria, Antioch and Rome.
c.325 The Nobatians in East Sudan founded the Kingdom of Noba. In the 6th Century, Christianity was spread to East Sudan, whose history then entered the Age of Christian Nubia.
330.5.11 Constantine I moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it as Constantinople.
c.330 Upon death of King Chandra Gupta I of Magadha, Samudra Gupta succeeded to the throne. During his reign he conquered north India and called himself "Universal Monarch".
332 Connaught conquered Ulster. Colla-da-Chrioch, Prince of Meath, founded the Kingdom of Oriel in southern Ireland.
337 [New] Persia persecuted the Christians and started the Sixth Roman-Persian War with Rome. In 363 the two powers concluded a peace agreement by which Rome returned the territories to the west of River Tigris.
337.10M Murong Huang, Chief of the Murong Xianbeis, made himself King of Yan and established the Yan Regime ([Earlier] Yan).
338.4M Cheng Regime changed its name to Han Empire ([Cheng] Han).
338.11M Tuoba Shiyijian, Chief of the Tabgachs, founded the Dai Regime ([Earlier] Dai).
c.340 Mayurasarman rose against Pallava and founded the Kingdom of Kadamba in Mysore of India.

Rise of the Kingdom of Mukurra in East Sudan.
343 Caolbhadh, a royal member of the former Ulster Kingdom, founded the Kingdom of Uldia (commonly called the Kingdom of Ulster) in northern Ireland.
350.1M [Later] Zhao changed its name to Wei Empire.
350.Leap1M Li Min, de facto ruler of Wei, usurped powers and established the Wei Empire ([Ran] Wei).

Fu Hong, Chief of the Lueyang Di People, started to rule the Shaanxi region of China and established the Qin Regime ([Earlier] Qin).
350.3M Shi Zhi, a Prince of [Later] Zhao, crowned himself and restored the [Later] Zhao Regime, which was overthrown again in the next year.
c.350 Kongunivarman Madhava I founded the Western Ganga Regime in Mysore.
2nd Half of 4th Century Kidar Kushana became King of Kushan and established Kushan (Kidar Dynasty). During his reign he recovered the power of the country.
356 Upon extinction of Silla (Pak Dynasty), Kim Nae Mul established Silla (Kim Dynasty).
357.6M Fu Jian became Emperor of [Earlier] Qin. During his reign the power of [Earlier] Qin reached its apex.
363.6.26 Rome (Constantine Dynasty) collapsed.
364.3.28 Roman Empire split into two parts again: Valens ruled Rome (Eastern Government) while Valentinian I ruled Rome (Western Government).
374 Having crossed River Don, the Huns attacked the Ostrogoths. Later they also attacked the other Germanic speaking peoples and Alans (descendants of the Sarmatians) in the region.
376 The Visigoths crossed River Danube and began the Germanic Migration. In the same year the Visigoths, under the oppression of Rome (Eastern Government), revolted and established the Visigoth Regime. Thereafter there emerged a number of "Barbarian" Regimes in West Europe.

The Alans split into two groups: the Western Alans joined the westward migration of the Germanic peoples, while the Eastern Alans stayed on the Russian Steppe and later migrated to Northern Caucasus.
376.12M [Earlier] Qin unified northern China.
378.8.9 Roman (Eastern) Emperor Valens fought against the Visigoths. Fritigern, Chief of the Visigoths, defeated the Romans in the Battle of Adrianople and killed Valens.
380 Imrul-Qais, Chief of the Arab Lakhmid Tribe, founded the Kingdom of Lakhmid in Hira of central Iraq.
c.380 Upon death of King Samudra Gupta of Magadha, Chandra Gupta II succeeded to the throne. During his reign he conquered central India.
383.10M [Earlier] Qin attacked [Eastern] Jin and was defeated in the Battle of Feishui, which marked the decline of [Earlier] Qin. Northern China entered a period of turmoil again.
384.1M Murong Chui, a Prince of the former [Earlier] Yan Regime, made himself King and established [Later] Yan.
384.3M Murong Hong revolted against [Later] Yan and established [Western] Yan.
384.4M Yao Chang, Chief of the Nan'an Qiang People, made himself King and established the Qin Regime ([Later] Qin).
385.9M Qifu Guoren, Chief of the Qifu Xianbeis, started to rule the Gansu region of China and established the Qin Regime ([Western] Qin).

Lu Guang started to rule Liangzhou and established the Liang Regime ([Later] Liang).
386.1M Tuoba Gui, Chief of the Tabgachs, made himself King and established the Dai Kingdom ([Later] Dai).
386.4M Tuoba Gui changed his title to King of Wei (he further changed his title to Emperor in the twelfth lunar month of 398) and established the Wei Regime ([Northern] Wei). Beginning of the Northern and Southern Dynasties of China.
c.387 Rome (Eastern Government) concluded an agreement with [New] Persia by which Armenia was divided into [Eastern] Armenia and [Western] Armenia.
392 Ko Tam Dok became King of Koguryo. During his reign Koguryo expanded southwards.

Roman (Eastern) Emperor Theodosius I declared Christianity to be the national religion.
394.9.6 Roman (Eastern) Emperor Theodosius I reunited the Empire and established Rome (Theodosian Dynasty).
395 Alaric I became Visigothic ruler. During his reign the power of Visigoth reached its apex and invaded East and Central Europe.
395.1.17 Upon death of Theodosius I, the Roman Empire permanently split into the [Eastern] Roman Empire (commonly called the Byzantine Empire) and the [Western] Roman Empire.

Stilicho, the [Western] Roman Magister Militum (supreme military commander) held the real power of the [Western] Roman Empire.
c.395 Magadha annihilated Kshaharata and conquered Malwa and Gujarat.
397.1M Tufa Wugu, Chief of the Tufa Xianbeis, started to rule Hexi region of northwestern China and established the Liang Regime ([Southern] Liang).
397.5M Juqu Nancheng, Chief of the Lushui people, revolted and chose Duan Ye, Governor of Jiankang, as their leader. He established the Liang Regime ([Northern] Liang) in Gansu region.

Murong Xiang, a member of the [Later] Yan royal house, occupied Zhongshan and established Yan (Zhongshan Government).
398.1M Murong De, another member of the [Later] Yan royal house, made himself King and established [Southern] Yan in Shandong region of China.
399.10M Sun En, leader of the [Eastern] Jin Wudoumi Taoism, started a rebellion. Upon defeat and death of Sun En in the third lunar month of 402, Lu Xun took over the leadership. The revolt was finally supressed by the [Eastern] Jin Government in 411.
400.11M Li Gao occupied Shazhou in Gansu and established the Liang Regime ([Western] Liang).
c.400 Uetla, Chief of the Picts, founded the Kingdom of Pictavia in northern Scotland.
5th Century Emergence of various schools of the Chinese Buddhism. The more important schools included: Sanlun School, Faxiang School, Huayan School, Tiantai School, Pure Land School, Lu School, Chan School and Vajrayana School.

The Mons founded the Kingdom of Lawo in modern central Thailand.
402 [Western] Rome moved the capital to Ravenna.
402.1M Kutelburi, Chief of the Juanjuans, established the Juanjuan Kingdom.
402.3M Huan Xuan, an [Eastern] Jin warlord, seized powers. In the twelfth lunar month of the next year, he deposed Emperor Sima Dezong and overthrew [Eastern] Jin. He crowned himself and established the Chu Empire.
405.1M The [Eastern] Jin army defeated the Chu army and placed Sima Dezong on the throne again. [Eastern] Jin was thus restored. In the second lunar month of the same year, [Eastern] Jin annihilated the Chu Empire.
405.4M Liu Yu, another [Eastern] Jin warlord, took control of the royal court.
407.6M Liu Bobo (who was soon renamed Helian Bobo, Chief of the Tiefu Huns, rebelled against [Later] Qin and established the Xia Empire.
407.7M Feng Ba, a senior minister of [Later] Yan, overthrew [Later] Yan, crowned Murong Yun (who was soon renamed Gao Yun) as Emperor and established [Northern] Yan.
409 The Suebis, Vandals and Western Alans crossed the Pyrennes into Spain. The Vandals split into two groups: the Asding Vandals and the Siling Vandals. Hermeric, Chief of the Suebis, founded the Suebi Kingdom in northwestern Spain. The Asding Vandals, Western Alans and Siling Vandals occupied northwestern Spain, mid-south Spain and southern Spain, respectively.
410.8.c14 Alaric I, ruler of Visigoth, captured and sacked Rome.
c.411 Gundicar, Chief of the Burgundians, founded the Burgundian Kingdom (called the First Burgundian Kingdom by historians) in southeastern France.
418 The Visigoths killed Attaces, Chief of the Western Alans. Thereafter the Western Alans subjugated themselves to the Asding Vandals.
419 Theodoric I, ruler of Visigoth, formally assumed the title of King and established the capital at Toulouse. Thereafter the regime was also called the Kingdom of Toulouse.
420 Bahram V became King of [New] Persia.

[New] Persia continued the persecution of the Christians, who turned to [Eastern] Rome for asylum. The First Byzantine-Persian War thus broke out. In 422 [New] Persia was defeated. It concluded a peace agreement with [Eastern] Rome and promised to stop the persecution of the Christians.
420.6M Liu Yu, de facto ruler of [Eastern] Jin, overthrew [Eastern] Jin and established the Song Empire ([Liu] Song).
c.420 The Ephthalites (commonly called the White Huns) invaded Tokharistan and founded the Ephthalite Kingdom.
428 [New] Persia annexed Armenia. Thereafter [New] Persia appointed Marzpans or Princes to rule Armenia.
429 Gaiseric, Chief of the Asding Vandals, led his people into North Africa.
432 Rua, Chief of the Huns, unified the various tribes and founded the Hunnic Kingdom ([Western] Hun) in Pannonia.
c.434
Upon death of Rua, Attila succeeded to the throne. During his reign [Western] Hun reached the apex of its power and became a hegemony in East Europe.
438 Que Shuang founded the Qocho Kingdom in Xinjiang.
439.9M [Northern] Wei annihilated [Northern] Liang and unified northern China. Juqu Wuhui rose against [Northern] Wei.
439.10.19 Gaiseric captured Carthage and founded the Vandal Kingdom.
440.9.29 Leo I became chief of the Roman Holy See. He was later regarded as the first Roman Pope.
442.9M Juqu Wuhui captured Qocho and made himself King of Qocho. He then used Qocho as a base to resist [Northern] Wei.
c.449 Horsa, Chief of the Jutes, founded the Kingdom of Kent in southern England. Since then the Angles, Saxons and Jutes founded seven regimes in various parts of England, the so-called Heptarchy of England (including: Kent, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Northumbria, Mercia and Essex). Beginning of the Period of Heptarchy of England.
c.450 Ceretic, Chief of the Bretons, founded the Kingdom of Strathclyde in southwestern Scotland.

Eogan I, Prince of Tara, founded the Kingdom of Ailech in northern Ireland.
c. Mid-5th Century Commencement of the great migration of the Slavic-speaking Peoples, who spread all over Russia, Poland and other areas in Eastern Europe.
451 The Christian Church summoned the Fourth Ecumenical Council of the Church in Chalcedon (commonly called the Council of Chalcedon). The Council confirmed the orthodoxy of the "Two Physes" theory of Christ and declared Monophysitism as heresy. Since then the oriental monophysite churches were called Non-Chalcedonian Churches (including the Nestorian Church of Persia, the Jacobite Church of Syria, the Armenian Church, the Coptic Church of Egypt and the Ethiopian Church).
454 The Gepids and Ostrogoths joined forces to destroy [Western] Hun.
455.6.2 King Gaiseric of Vandal captured and sacked Rome.
457.c1 End of [Eastern] Rome (Theodosian Dynasty).
457.2.7 Leo I, a Thracian military officer, became [Eastern] Roman Emperor and established [Eastern] Rome (Thracian Dynasty).
460.11M Juanjuan attacked Qocho and overthrew the Juqu rulers of Qocho. Juanjuan crowned Que Bozhou as King of Qocho. The rule of the Que Family in Qocho was restored.
c.460 Hujr Akil al-Murar, Prince of Himyar, founded the Kingdom of Kindah in central Arabia.
c.470s Ephthal overthrew Kushan (Kidar).
475.10.31 Orestes, a [Western] Roman military officer, seized powers.
c.475 Bhatarka founded the Kingdom of Vallabhi (Maitraka Dynasty) in Gujarat.
476.9.4 Odoaker, a [Western] Roman military officer, deposed Emperor Romulus Augustus. Nominally Odoaker recognized Emperor Zeno of [Eastern] Rome as the Emperor of the whole Empire. But in practice he was an indepedent ruler of [Western] Rome. Traditionally this day is regarded as the date of the downfall of the [Western] Roman Empire.
477 Aelle, Chief of the Saxons, founded the Kingdom of Sussex in southern England.
477.7M Xiao Daocheng seized control of the [Liu] Song royal court. In the fourth lunar month of 479, Xiao Daocheng supplanted [Liu] Song with his own Qi Empire ([Southern] Qi).
481 Vahan instigated a revolt of the Iberians and Armenians against [New] Persia. In 483 [New] Persia promulgated the Edict of Toleration, which tolerated the Christian faith and thus pacified the revolt.
c.481 Clovis I, Chief of the Salian Franks, unified the Frankish tribes and founded the Frankish Kingdom (Merovingian Dynasty), which became a hegemony in Gaul.
487 The Gaoche People (formerly called the Dingling People) rebelled against Juanjuan and founded the Gaoche Kingdom in Xinjiang.
491 Mazdak, a Zoroastrian high priest of the [New] Persia, invented new doctrines and founded the Mazdakite Sect, which advocated equal distribution of properties. Mazdak instigated a revolt of the poor and confiscated the properties of the aristocrats (Mazdakite Rebellion. King Kobad I, who intended to make use of the Mazdakites to curtail the power of the aristocrats, was converted to the Mazdakite Sect and supported the rebellion, which was later suppressed by the [New] Persian Government in 529.
493 The Malgal people (also called the Motgit people earlier on) became a strong power in present-day Northeastern China and Eastern Siberia of Russia.
493.3.5 Theodoric, Chief of the Ostrogoths, captured Ravenna and killed Odoaker. Theodoric made himself King and founded the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
c.498 Fergus Mor, Chief of the Gaels in northern Ireland, founded the Kingdom of Dalriada. Initially the Kingdom ruled the Ulster region in Ireland. Later it acquired the western region of Scotland.
Mid-1st Millennium Some members of the Mon-Khmer speaking peoples (called Hundred Pu Peoples at that time) started to migrate from Southwestern China to Vietnam, Cambodia, Siam, Burma and other places in Indochinese Peninsula.
c.500 Naravardhana founded the Kingdom of Thanesar (Pushyabhuti Dynasty) in north India.

Vikramendravarman I founded the Vishnukundin Regime in Vengi.

The Yugras (ancestors of the modern Khanty and Mansi peoples) moved to the Khanty-Mansi region (now under Russia).

Cadwallon Lawhir founded the Principality of Gwynedd in northern Wales.

Decline of the Hopewell Culture in the eastern part of North America.

The Mayans founded the Kingdom of Chichen Itza in northern Yucatan of Mexico.
Late 5th Century Rebellion of the slaves and the poor of [Eastern] Rome (called Scamares Movement by historians). The rebellion later spread to Thrace and Illyria and was finally suppressed by the [Eastern] Roman Government in mid-7th Century.

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