|Mid-1st Millennium||The Celtic Peoples spread from Central Europe to present day Germany, France, Low Countries and British Isles, where they became the Gauls, Galatians, Bretons, Scots, Welsh and Gaels.|
|1st Half of 5th Century||Chetaka became ruler of Vajji. During his tenure he formed the League of East Indian City-States with Malla, Kasi and Kosala in opposition to Magadha.|
|c.500||The Nabateans founded the Kingdom of Nabatea in northwestern Arabia.|
|c.499||When Aristagoras, Tyrant of Miletus, revolted against Persia, the Ionian city-states declared independence from Persia. The Persian Wars (also called the Greco-Persian Wars) broke out.|
|497||Si Goujian, Chief of the Yue Tribes in eastern China, founded the Yue Kingdom.|
|494||Oppressed by the patricians, the Roman plebeians, in the First Secession, seceded to Mount Aventine (commonly called Sacred Mount) and left Rome defenceless. The patricians could not but yield to the demands of the plebeians and created the institutions of Tribunes, Aediles and Concilium Plebis to protect the rights of the plebeians. The long term struggle between the plebeians and patricians began.|
|c.493||Ajatasatru murdered King Bimbisara of Magadha and crowned himself. During his reign he conquered Kosala.|
|490.9.12||Defeated by Athens in the Battle of Marathon, the Persians were forced to retreat from Greece.|
|483||The Veii War broke out between Rome and the Etruscan city-state of Veii, the two contestants for the Italian hegemony.|
|c.483||Vijaya, Chief of the Sinhalese who migrated from north India to the island of Ceylon, founded the Kingdom of Ceylon.|
|482||The Princes of [Eastern] Zhou convened a general conference in Huangchi and formed the Huangchi Alliance. Jin and Wu contended for the overlordship. As a result, King Wu Fucha became the overlord of the Princes. In the same year Yue took the opportunity to invade Wu and defeated the Wu army. Wu was forced to negotiate peace with Yue and lost its overlordship.|
|481||In a conference held in Corinth, the Greek city-states formed the First Hellenic League against Persia and decided that Sparta shall lead the coalition army.|
|481.6M||Tian Heng, a senior official of Qi Principality, usurped the power of the Prince of Qi. Since then, the political powers of Qi was held by the Tian Clan.|
|480.8||In a second expedition to Greece, the Persian army defeated the Spartans in the Battle of Thermopylae.|
|480.9.20||Athens defeated the Persian navy in the Battle of Salamis.|
|c.480||Archaeanax, Archon of Panticapaeum, made himself King and founded the Kingdom of Bosporus.|
Spart defeated the Persians in the Battle of Plataea. The Greek states attacked Thebes for supporting Persia. The Boeotian League was disbanded and a democratic government was set up in Thebes. In the same year Sparta withdrew from the First Hellenic League, which then dissolved.
|478||Athens formed the Delian League (also called First Athenian Naval League) with the Aegean and Ionian city-states in opposition to Persia, with the Synedrion (General Assembly) and treasury of the League situated on the island of Delos. The Athenian representative Aristides was made Chairman of the Synedrion. Athens thus established its hegemony in the Aegean region.|
|476||End of the Spring and Autumn Period and beginning of the Period of Warring States of China.|
|474||In an attempt to occupy the city state of Cumae in Magna Graecia, the Etruscan League was defeated by Cumae.|
|473.11M||Yue conquered Wu. Later King Si Goujian of Yue convened a general conference with the other Zhou Princes in Xuzhou and formed the Xuzhou Alliance. Xi Goujian assumed the title of Hegemon.|
|471||The Greek city-state of Tegea deserted Sparta and formed the First Anti-Spartan Alliance with Argos, culminating in the Tegean War (also called Arcadian War) which broke out in 470. The Arcadian city-states joined the First Anti-Spartan Alliance, which was defeated by Sparta in c.469.
After the Second Secession, the Roman plebeians forced the patricians to recognize the Tribune as the chairman of the Concilium Plebis.
|c.471||Death of Li Er, a great thinker of Chu Kingdom. During his lifetime he founded Taoism, a Chinese school of thought. Later some people deified the principle of Taosim and made it a religion.|
|468||Magadha defeated Vajji. The League of East Indian City-States was disbanded.|
|464||In the event of an earthquake in Spart, the Helots staged a revolt and the Third Messenian War broke out. After a failed attempt to attack Sparta, the Helots retreated to Mount Ithome, which was captured by the Spartans in 461. The Helots were then allowed to move to Naupactus.|
|462||The Athenian commons exiled Cimon, the Chief of State. Ephialtes, leader of the commons, then became the ruler of Athens and curbed the powers of the Areopagus. In the same year Athens allied with Megara, and Argos and Thessaly as well later, thus threatening the status of the Peloponnesian League.|
|460||Outbreak of the First Peloponnesian War between the Peloponnesian League and Athens.|
|c.460||The Thracians formed the Odrysian Confederacy in present day Bulgaria.|
|458||Threatened by the powers of the "Four Clans" (Zhi Clan, Wei Clan, Han Clan and Zhao Clan), Ji Zao, Prince of Jin, attempted to stage a coup against the "Four Clans", but was himself expelled by the latter. Zhi Ying, Chief of Zhi Clan, made Ji Jiao Prince of Jin and assumed supreme powers of Jin.|
|453||Zhao Clan, Wei Clan and Han Clan (collectively called the Three Jin Clans) united to overthrow Zhi Ying and held powers collectively.|
|451||Upon request of the enactment of codes by the Roman plebeians, ten Decemvirs, chaired by Appius Claudius the patrician, were chosen to publish 10 tables of law. In the next year another ten Decemvirs were chosen to publish two more tables, collectively called the Twelve Tables with the 10 tables published in the previous year. Appius Claudius' illegal extension of the tenure of the Decemvirs led to the Third Secession of the plebeians in 449, after which the Decemvirs were forced to step down.|
|450||In the Peace of Callias signed between Persia and the Greek city-states, Persia recognized the independence of the Ionian states, thus ending the Persian Wars.|
|449||The Sacred War broke out in a contest between Spart and Phocis for the control of Delphi. Despite the victory of Sparta, Phocis captured Delphi later with the help of Athens.|
|447||The aristocrats of the Boeotian states toppled their democratic governments and restored the oligarchy. The Boeotian League was reestablished.|
|445||Athens and Spart concluded the Thirty Years' Peace in which Athens abandoned its hegemony on the land while Sparta recognized Athens' hegemony on the sea. Megara returned to the Peloponnesian League. End of the Peloponnesian War.|
|443||Perikles was elected the Chief Strategos of Athens and assumed highest powers of Athens. During his rule the slave-owner democratic system of Athens underwent greatest development and Athens became a strong power.|
|c.433||In the Second Buddhist Council, Buddhism split into two Nikaya schools: Sthaviravadin and Mahasanghaka Schools. Thereafter, there appeared a number of Nikaya Buddhist schools. Beginning of the Period of Nikaya Buddhism.|
|c.432||Olynthus, a city-state on the Chalcidian Peninsula in northeastern Greece, gained independence from Athens and formed the Chalcidian League with other Chalcidian states.|
|431.5||Outbreak of the Second Peloponnesian War (also called the Great Peloponnesian War) between Athens and Sparta, the two contestants for Greek hegemony. The first stage of the war was also called the Archidamian War.|
|c.430||After the overthrow of Magadha (Haryanka Dynasty) by a popular revolt, Sisunaga, a Magadha official, established Magadha (Sisunaga Dynasty).|
|421||Athens and Sparta concluded the Peace of Nicias whereby the two powers agreed on a 50-year truce. Discontented with the Peace, Argos, Corinth , Mantinea, Elis and the Chalcidian League formed the Argive League.|
|420||Athens formed the Quadruple Alliance with Argos, Mantinea and Elis. Mantinea and Elis entered war with Sparta. In 418 Sparta invaded Argos. The allies led by Athens supported Argos but were defeated by Sparta in the Battle of Mantinea. Argos was forced to ally with Sparta. The Argive League and the Quadruple Alliance were thus dissolved.|
|415||Athens sent an expedition to conquer Sicily, which was met by Syracuse's resistance. When Spart sent an army to support Syracuse, the Decelean War (also called the Ionian War, which was the second stage of the Second Peloponnesian War) between Athens and Spart broke out.|
|413||20,000 Athenian slaves fled.|
|411||The Athenian oligarchic club (Hetairai) staged a coup and established an oligarchy under which the highest powers were held by the Provisional Committee of 400. The Athenian army stationed at the island of Samos refused to recognize the new government and elected Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus to be their generals, in opposition to the oligarchic government. Alcibiades returned to Athens and opposed the Hetairai. When the Hetairai intended to surrender to Sparta, Theramenes, leader of the moderates, abolished the Provisional Committee and established a Government of the 5000 in place of it.|
|404||Sparta besieged Athens. Internal struggle between factions who advocated war (led by Cleophon) and peace (led by Theramenes) arose in Athens. With the failure of Cleophon's faction, he was executed and a peace agreement was finally concluded between Athens and Sparta under which Athens was to dissolve the Delian League and ally itself with Sparta. Athens thus lost its hegemony and the Second Peloponnesian War ended. Sparta forced Athens to abrogate its democratic system and formed the Commission of Thirty (commonly called the Thirty Tyrants) which was chaired by Critias but whose real power was held by Theramenes. But Critias succeeded to seize power and executed Theramenes. Becoming the leader of the Athenian democrats, Thrasybulus led a struggle against the Thirty Tyrants.
Amyrteos the Libyan rebelled against Persia and established Egypt (Twenty-Eighth Dynasty).
|403||Chiefs of the "Three Jin Clans", Zhao Ji, Wei Si and Han Qian, divided the territories of Jin. The Zhou King thus conferred the titles of Prince on Zhao Ji, Wei Si and Han Qian and established the Zhao Principality, Wei Principality and Han Principality. Jin Principality was only left with two towns. Some historians used this year as the beginning of the Period of the Warring States.
Thrasybulus overthrew the Thirty Tyrants. The Council of 3000 elected a Commission of Ten to rule Athens which was still dominated by the aristocrats. Struggle between the aristocrats and the democrats continued. Sparta dissolved the Commission of Ten and formed a Government of Ten. Thrasybulus became the Strategos and held real powers.
|c.401||Orontes I took up the position of the Satrap of the Eighteenth Satrapy under Persia and started to rule the Ararat Region. In c.331 Orontes II, ruler of Ararat, formally assumed the title of King.|
|4th Century||Magadha conquered the states of Kuru, Pancala, Kasi, Anga, Vajji, Vatsa and Malla, and became a power in north India.|
|c.4th Century||The Tamils founded the Kingdom of Pandya ([Early] Pandya) in south India.
The Illyrians founded the Kingdom of Illyria in Balkan Peninsula.
The Mauris founded the Kingdom of Mauritaniain northern Morocco.
The Zapotecs founded the Kingdom of Monte Alban in Mexico.
|c.400||Alcetas I founded the Kingdom of Epirus in northwestern Greece.
Upon destruction of la Venta, a ceremonial centre of the Olmecs, the Olmec Culture declined and ended.
|399||Cinadon of Sparta planned to organise a revolt of the bankrupt commoners (Cinadon Conspiracy). He was killed when his conspiracy was uncovered.|
|398||King Dionysius I of Syracuse started a contest for the hegemony in southern Italy with Carthage and led to the First Dionysius War. The war ended in 392 and Syracuse was unable to drive the Carthaginians out.|
|396||Rome conquered and annexed Veii, whose subjects were then divided into four tribes. By then Rome had completely destroyed the power of the Etruscans. The Veii War was thus ended and the Etruscan League gradually disintegrated.|
|395||Persia induced Athens, Thebes, Corinth, Argos, Megara, the Boeotian states and Euboea to form the Second Anti-Spartan Alliance, which led to the Corinthian War.|
|390.7.18||The Gauls invaded Rome. When they tried to attack the Roman army on Mount Capitoline, the clamour of a flock of geese alerted the Roman army, who then drove the Gauls away ("Geese save the Capitol"). Later Rome bribed the Gauls to retreat with gold.|
|387||Antalcidas, the Spartan admiral, concluded the King's Peace (commonly called Antalcidas' Peace) with Persia. The Ionian city-states came under the suzerainty of Persia while the other city-states gained independence. End of the Corinthian War.|
|386||Tian He, de facto ruler of Qi Principality, exiled Jiang Tai, the Prince of Qi, to a remote area. The Zhou King thus conferred the title of Prince of Qi upon Tian He, whose regime was called [Tian] Qi by historians to be distinguished from the previous [Jiang] Qi. In 379 [Tian] Qi annexed the remaining territory of [Jiang] Qi.|
|383||Outbreak of the Second Dionysius War between Syracuse and Carthage. Syracuse was defeated in c.381.|
|379||Sparta defeated Olynthus and dissolved the Chalcidian League. But in 371 Olynthus reestablished the League.|
|377||Athens and Thebes formed the Second Athenian Naval League against Sparta.|
|376||Zhao, Wei and Han divided the remaining territories of Jin, thus putting an end to the Jin Principality.
From this year onwards, the Roman plebeians elected Licinius and Sextius as the Tribunes for 10 consecutive years. In 367 the patricians were forced to pass the Licinio-Sextian Laws by which a series of social and political reforms were carried out. The reform measures included reduction of debts, limitation of the amount of land that one could occupy and opening of the consulship to plebeians.
|371||Epaminondas became ruler of Thebes. Spart and Athens reached a peace agreement. When Thebes refused to recognize the agreement, Sparta attacked Thebes, but was defeated by Epaminondas, thereby losing its hegemony. Thebes then established its hegemony among the Greek city-states.|
|370||Thebes attacked Sparta and dissolved the Peloponnesian League. Thebes formed the Arcadian League. The Boeotian League was incorporated into the Arcadian League.|
|368||Outbreak of the Third Dionysius War. Carthage retained its hegemony in southern Italy.|
|367||The Principalities of Zhao and Han attacked Zhou Kingdom and divided the territories of the Kingdom into two parts: Xizhou and Dongzhou, which were then administered by two Princes. The Zhou King stayed in Dongzhou.|
|c.364||Mahapadma Nanda, a royal barber of Magadha, overthrew Sisunaga Dynasty and estabished Magadha (Nanda Dynasty).|
|362||Athens, Sparta and other city-states formed an alliance. When Epaminondas attacked Sparta, he died in the Battle of Mantinea, which marked the decline of Thebes' hegemony. The Arcadian League dissolved.|
|362.4M||Wei Principality moved its capital to Daliang. Since then Wei was also called Liang Principality.|
|359||Philip II became King of Macedon.|
|357||The allies of Athens rose against Athens and led to the First Social War (also called the First War of the Allies). When Athens was defeated in 355, the Second Athenian Naval League dissolved.|
|355||Phocis captured Delphi and started the Third Sacred War with the Amphictyony of Anthela. Thebes' defeat by Phocis in 353 shocked many Greek city-states, which then turned to seek help from Sparta. In 352 Sparta defeated Phocis and invaded Greece. In 346 Sparta destroyed Phocis and took control of the Amphictyony of Anthela.|
|c. Mid-4th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Taksasila in west India.|
|c.350||Ariarathes I, the Persian Satrap of Cappadocia in eastern Asia Minor, made Cappadocia a de facto hereditary kingdom and founded the Cappadocia Regime. Since then there appeared a number of minor kingdoms in Asia Minor, which were called Asia Minor Helenistic Regimes.|
|348||Macedon conquered Olynthus and dissolved the Chalcidian League.|
|347||Death of Plato (427-347), the Athenian philosopher. During his lifetime he created a philosophy centred at the concept of "Forms". His famous works included The Republic. Plato's philosophical thoughts became one of the key bases of the early Medieval Christian theology.|
|343||Persia destroyed Egypt (Thirtieth Dynasty). The Persian Kings resumed the title of Egyptian Pharoahs, which is called Egypt (Thirty-First Dynasty) by historians.
When the Samnites invaded Campania, the tribes in Campania sought help from Rome, which led to the First Samnite War. The war ended in a draw in 341.
|340||Oppressed by Rome, the city-states of the Latin League rose against Rome and led to the Latin War. In 338 Rome defeated the Latin states, which then became Roman colonies or dependent states. The Latin League dissolved.|
|339||Outbreak of the Fourth Sacred War between the Amphictyony of Anthela and Amphissa. When the Amphictyony of Anthela sought help from Macedon, Macedon took the opportunity to invade Greece.|
|338||King Philip II defeated the Greek city-states and ended the Fourth Sacred War. In the Congress of Corinth, Philip II formed the Second Hellenic League (also called the League of Corinth) and made himself Hegemon and Commander of the League. The Greek city-states thus became dependent states of Macedon.|
|c.336||Mithridates I, the ruler of Cius under Persia, started to rule Pontus in northeastern Asia Minor and made it a de facto hereditary kingdom. Beginning of the Pontus Regime.|
|335||When the rumour of the death of Alexander III spread through Greece, the Greek city-states rose against Macedon under the leadership of Thebes. Alexander III destroyed Thebes and suppressed the revolt.|
|334||Tian Yinqi, Prince of [Tian] Qi and Wei Ying, Prince of Wei, met at Xuzhou and agreed to assume the titles of Kings simultaneously. Thereafter, there appeared seven kingdoms in China - Chu, [Tian] Qi, Wei, Qin, Yan, Han and Zhao. [Eastern] Zhou lost its suzerainty over the vassals.
Macedon launched an eastward expedition (Alexander's Conquest) and later became a transcontinental empire. Macedon attacked and defeated the Persian armies. The Ionian city-states rebelled against Persia and became Macedon's dependent states.
|333||Macedon conquered Asia Minor and intruded into Syria-Palestine. In the Battle of Issus the Macedonians defeated the Persians.|
|332||Macedon conquered Syria-Palestine and Egypt. Alexander III built the city of Alexandria in Egypt. The Macedonian Kings started to assume the title of Egyptian Pharoahs, which is called Egypt (Thirty-Second Dynasty) by historians. End of the Late Dynastic Period of Egypt.|
|330.7||King Darius III of Persia fled to Bactria and was murdered by Bessus, Satrap of Bactria, which marked the end of Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty). Bessus made himself Persian King and renamed himself Artaxerxes IV.|
|329||Macedon conquered Bactria and killed Artaxerxes IV, thus ending the Persian Kingdom.|
|327||Macedon conquered Sogdiana.
Ziboetes started to rule Bithynia in northwestern Asia Minor and established the Kingdom of Bithynia.
|327.5||The Macedonian army crossed Hindu Kush Mountain and intruded into India.|
|326||Zhao Yong became Prince of Zhao (he assumed the title of King in 315). During his reign he carried out military reform and enhanced the strength of Zhao.
Outbreak of the Second Samnite War between Rome and the Samnites. The war ended in 304 and Rome occupied Campania.
|c.324||Chandragupta of Magadha rose against Macedon and expelled the Macedonian army from India. Chandragoupta seized power in Magadha and established Magadha (Maurya Dynasty).|
|323.6.13||Upon death of Alexander III, his generals started the Wars of the Diadochi in which they scrambled for hegemony within Alexander's empire. In the same year, Athens formed the Third Hellenic League in opposition to Macedon and led to the Lamian War.|
|322||Macedon destroyed the Athenian navy and demolished the Third Hellenic League. The Macedonian army occupied Athens and replaced Athens' slave-owner democratic system with an oligarchy.
Death of Aristotle (384-322), a Greek philosopher and scientist. His famous works included Politics, Metaphysics, Physics, etc. He epitomized the intellectual achievements of Hellenism. Aristotle's philosophical thoughts later had strong influence on the late Medieval Christian philosophy.
|316||Qin conquered the Shu and Ba Peoples in the present provinces of Hubei and Sichuan. Thereafter the Shu People and part of the Ba People were assimilated to the Chinese nation, while the remaining Ba People evolved into the Cong People later.|
|315||Ji Yan became Zhou King and moved from Dongzhou to Xizhou. Thereafter, Zhou King lost his administrative powers over his own territory, which was ruled by the Princes of Xizhou and Dongzhou separately.|
|314||[Tian] Qi conquered Yan. In 312 Zhao Kingdom made Ji Zhi King of Yan and restored the Kingdom of Yan. Ji Zhi appointed Guo Kui as his think-tanker and revived the strength of his country.|
|313||[Tian] Qi allied with Chu in opposition to Qin. Zhang Yi, the Chief Minister of Qin, tempted Chu to form an allaince with Qin (the "Horizontal Alliance" strategy) so as to break up the alliance of [Tian] Qi and Chu. In 312 Qin defeated Chu, whose strength then declined.|
|312||Seleucus I, a Macedonian warlord, captured Babylon and started to rule Mesopotamia. His regime is called Kingdom of Syria (Seleucid Dynasty) by historians. In 305 Seleucus I formally assumed the title of King.|
|c.312||Atropates, Satrap of Media Minor under Macedon, started to rule southern Azerbaijan (the name "Azerbaijan" in fact originated from Atropates) and founded the Kingdom of Atropatene.|
|310||Cassander, de facto ruler of Macedon, overthrew the Argead Dynasty. He became supreme ruler of Macedon and established Macedon (Antipater Dynasty). Refusing to recognize the legitimacy of Cassander, the generals of Alexander III revolted against the central government and became local warlords.
Ptolemy I, a Macedonian warlord, ruled Egypt and established Egypt (Ptolemaic Dynasty). In 305 Ptolemy I formally assumed the title of Pharoah.
|306||Antigonus I and Demetrius I, Macedonian warlords, ruled Asia Minor and Syria and founded the Kingdom of Asia (Asia Minor was known as "Asia" in Ancient Times).
Lysimachus, a Macedonian warlord. ruled Thrace and founded the Kingdom of Thrace.
|305||Agathocles, Tyrant of Syracuse, made an agreement with Carthage. The two countries divided their spheres of influence on Sicily. Agathocles assumed the title of King of Sicily and transformed Syracuse into Kingdom of Sicily.|
|c.302||Thiha Radza, Chief of the Mons, founded the Kingdom of Thaton in southern Burma.|
|301||Macedon, Thrace and Syria joined forces to destroy the Kingdom of Asia. As a result of the division of its territories among the victors, Syria obtained the region of Syria and Thrace obtained central and western Asia Minor.|
|c.3rd Century||The Sarmatians attacked the Scythians on the Russian Steppe. Some of the Scythians moved to the northern bank of Black Sea.|
|c.300||The Deutero-Malays (ancestors of the Malays, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Acehnese, Minangkabau, Balinese, Tagalog, Moros, etc.) migrated into the Malay Archipelago and forced the Proto-Malays (ancestors of the Bataks, Dayaks, etc.) to move to the inland territories of the archipelago.|
|298||The Samnites united with the Gauls, Estruscans and Lucanians and launched an attack against Rome. The Third Samnite War broke out. The war ended in 290 and the Samnites became an autonomous ally of Rome.|
|294||Having overthrown Macedon (Antipater Dynasty), Demetrius I made himself King of Macedon and established Macedon (Antigonid Dynasty).|
|290||The city-states in central Greece formed the Aetolian League.|
|289||Upon death of King Agathocles of Sicily, Sicily was renamed Syracuse. Syracuse lost its hegemony on the island of Sicily.|
|288||Su Qin of Zhou, acting on behalf of [Tian] Qi, persuaded Yan, Wei, Han, Zhao to form an alliance against Qin (the "Vertical Alliance" strategy). In the next year, Su Qin, on the other hand, caused dissension among the allies and induced a united front against [Tian] Qi.
Thrace joined forces with Epirus in an attack against Macedon and overthrew Macedon (Antigonid Dynasty). The territories of Macedon was divided between the two countries.
|284||Yan united with Qin, Wei, Han and Zhao and attacked [Tian] Qi. The joint forces captured more than 70 cities and towns.|
|282||Philetaerus, ruler of Pergamum under Thrace, founded the Pergamum Regime.
When Rome attacked Taranto, the latter sought help from Epirus. In 280 King Pyrrhus I of Epirus united with Taranto and the Samnites in opposition to Rome and led to the War with Pyrrhus. In 272 Epirus and Taranto were defeated and Taranto was annihilated by Rome.
|281||Syria destroyed Thrace and ended the War of the Diadochi.|
|280||Outbreak of the Damascene War between Syria and Egypt. Syria was defeated in 279.
Prince Ptolemy Ceraunus of Egypt occupied Macedon and established Macedon (Ptolemaic Dynasty). The city-states in western Greece formed the Achaean League.
|c.270s||The Tamils founded the Kingdom of Chera in the southern Indian region of Kerala.|
|279||[Tian] Qi launched a counterattack against Yan and recovered its lost territories. Since then, the strength of [Tian] Qi and Yan both declined.
The Gauls invaded Macedon and killed Ptolemy Ceraunus. End of Macedon (Ptolemaic Dynasty).
|276||Outbreak of the First Syrian War between Syria and Egypt, who contended for the hegemony in West Asia. In 272 the two countries concluded a truce by which Syria lost Miletus, Phoenicia and western Cilicia.
Antigonus II led the Greeks to defeat the Gauls and conquered Macedon. He restored Macedon (Antigonid Dynasty). Alexander III's empire was thus divided into three parts: Syria, Macedon and Egypt.
|c.271||Simuka founded the Satavahana Regime (commonly called the Andhra Regime) in the Deccan Region of India.|
|c.270||Parnavaz I (-c.220) founded the Kingdom of Iberia in eastern Georgia.|
|266||Egypt instigated a revolt of Athens and Sparta against Macedon and led to the Chremonidean War. Subsequent to Sparta's defeated in 265, Athens was also defeated in 262. Macedon replaced Athens' democratic system with an oligarchy.|
|264||Syracuse attacked Messana. The Mamertines (i.e. Campanian mercenaries) sought help from Rome and Carthage. Rome occupied Messana. Syracuse then united with Carthage to attack Messana and led to the First Punic War.|
|260||In the Battle of Changping, Zhao was defeated by Qin and its strength started to decline. Since then Qin became the most powerful kingdom in China.
Syria, united with Macedon and Rhodes, launched an attack against Egypt. The Second Syrian War broke out. The war ended in 255, when Syria recovered Ionia and western Cilicia.
|c.257||Thuc Phan, Chief of the Thuc Tribe of the Au Viets, defeated Van Lang Confederacy and unified all Au Viet and Lac Viet tribes. Thuc Phan founded the Kingdom of Au Lac (Thuc Dynasty).|
|256||Ji Jiu, Prince of Xizhou, formed an alliance against Qin. Qin captured Xizhou and took Ji Jiu and King Ji Yan of Zhou captive. The territory of Zhou Kingdom was thus only left with Dongzhou. Traditionally this year is taken as the end of Zhou Dynasty.|
|c.256||Diodotus I, Satrap of Bactria under Syria, declared independence and founded the Kingdom of Bactria (Diodotid Dynasty) in Central Asia.|
|c.250||The Scythians founded the Kingdom of Scythia in Crimea.|
|249||The Prince of Dongzhou planned to launch an attack against Qin. Qin captured Dongzhou. The whole territory of Zhou Kingdom was thus annexed by Qin, which marked the end of the dynasty as well as the Three Dynasties of China.|
|c.249||According to legend, Arsaces I, Chief of the Parnae-Dahaes, revolted against Syria and founded the Kingdom of Parthia (Arsacid Dynasty) in Iran.
Aratus, ruler of Sicyon, became Commander of the Achaean League and adopted a policy that opposed Macedon and protected the rights of the aristocrats.
|c.246||Seleucus II became King of Syria. Dowager Queen Berenice II, step-mother of Selecus II and originally an Egyptian princess, planned to crown her son. Egypt invaded Syria in support of Berenice II and led to the Third Syrian War (also called Laodicean War or War of Berenice). In 241 the war ended and Egypt captured Syria and southern Asia Minor.|
|c.245||Agis IV became King of Sparta and carried out reforms. The reform measures included writing off debts and redistributing the land. Opposing his land policy, the Spartan aristocrats overthrew Agis IV in 241.|
|241||Rome annihilated the Carthaginian navy and ended the First Punic War. Carthage was forced to abandon Sicily. The western part of Sicily was annexed by Rome while the eastern part was given to Syracuse. Since then Rome expanded its territories outside the Italian Peninsula and later became a transcontinental empire.|
|238||When an uprising of the Carthaginian mercenaries on the island of Sardinia broke out, Rome occupied the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.|
|235||Cleomenes III seized the Spartan throne after a coup. During his reign he carried out reforms to redistribute the land and abolish the post of Ephors.|
|c.235||Euthydemus I, Satrap of Sogdiana under Bactria, overthrew the Diodotid Dynasty and established Bactria (Euthydemid Dynasty).|
|230||Ying Zheng, King of Qin, staged war and annexed Han.|
|229||Rome sent an army to attack the pirates controlled by Queen Teuta of Illyria, which led to the First Illyrian War. In 228 Rome suppressed the pirates.|
|228||Qin destroyed Zhao. Zhao Jia, a Prince of Zhao, made himself King of Dai and established the Dai Kingdom.|
|225||Qin annexed Wei.|
|c.225||Antiochus III became King of Syria. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy which was in direct conflict with Rome.|
|223||Qin annexed Chu. The Hmong-Mien (also called Miao-Yao by the Chinese) speaking peoples (called Miao Barbarians at that time) ruled by Chu were annexed into the Qin Kingdom.|
|222||Qin annexed Yan and Dai.
br> Macedon formed the Fourth Hellenic League with the city-states of the Achaean League and defeated King Cleomenes III of Sparta, who fled to Egypt. Macedon replaced the dual kingship of Sparta with a republican system with the Ephors being the chiefs of state.
|221||Qin annexed [Tian] Qi. Qin unified China. End of the Period of the Warring States of China. Ying Zheng, King of Qin, assumed the title of Emperor and founded the Qin Empire. During his reign Ying Zheng standardized the writing system as well as weights and measures. He also reset the tenth lunar month as the start of the year.
Outbreak of the Fourth Syrian War between Syria and Egypt, which contested for the control of the Syrian coast. Syria gained nothing in the war, which ended in 217.
|219||Outbreak of the Second Illyrian War between Rome and Illyria. Rome defeated Illyria.
Macedon started the Second Social War (also called the Second War of the Allies) and attacked the Aetolian League, which allied with Sparta and Elis. Macedon defeated Spart and ravaged Elis. In the same year Sparta restored the dual kingship.
|218||Rome declared war on Carthage and the Second Punic War broke out.|
|217||Mediated by Egypt and Rhodes, Macedon signed the Peace of Naupactus with the Aetolian League and ended the war.
|215||Rome sent an army to prevent Macedon from helping Carthage, which led to the First Macedonian War. In 205 the war ended when Macedon concluded a peace agreement with Rome.|
|214||Qin expanded southwards and conquered the Tai-Kadai (also called Zhuang-Dong by the Chinese) speaking peoples (called Hundred Yue Peoples at that time).|
|211||Rome annihilated Syracuse and conquered eastern Sicily.|
|209.7M||Chen Sheng and Wu Guang revolted against Qin Empire. Outbreak of the Late Qin Peasant War. In the ninth lunar month of the same year, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, an aristocrat of the former Chu Kingdom, rose against Qin.|
|207.8M||Zhao Gao, a royal eunuch of Qin Empire, murdered Ying Huhai, Qin Emperor, and abolished the title of Emperor. He crowned Ying Ying as King of Qin. In the ninth lunar month of the same year, Ying Ying killed Zhao Gao.|
|206||Nabis seized the Spartan throne. During his reign he expelled the aristocrats and great landlords. He then redistributed their property and carried out land reform.|
|206.10M||Liu Bang, a leader of the rebels, overthrew the Qin Dynasty.|
|206.2M||Xiang Yu made himself King of Xichu and established the Xichu Kingdom. In an enfeoffment, Xiang Yu conferred the title of Kings upon a number of generals, among whom Liu Bang was conferred the title of King of Han, thus establishing the Han Regime ([Western] Han). Later a civil war broke out among the Kings. In the eighth lunar month of the same year, Liu Bang rose against Xiang Yu, which led to the Chu-Han War, during which Liu Bang annexed the territories of a number of Kings.|
|c.206||Trieu Da, governor of Nanhai under Qin Dynasty, made himself King and founded the Kingdom of Nam Viet (Trieu Dynasty).|
|203||Rome sent an army to attack Carthage. Hannibal was then recalled to defend Carthage. In 202 Hannibal was defeated by the Romans. By a peace agreement signed between Rome and Carthage, the latter was forced to abandon its Spanish and Mediterranean dependencies. Rome thus established its hegemony in the western Mediterranean region.|
|203.8M||Xichu and [Western] Han concluded a peace agreement and delimited their boundaries.|
|202.10M||War resumed between [Western] Han and Xichu when the former attacked the latter.|
|202.12M||[Western] Han destroyed Xichu and reunified China.|
|202.2M||Liu Bang assumed the title of Emperor. In the early stage of his reign, there still remained several Kingdoms which coexisted with the [Western] Han Empire. Later, he annihilated these Kingdoms and replaced them with Vassal Kingdoms created for the royal members of the Empire.|
|c.202||Massinissa, Chief of the Numidians, unified the tribes of the Numidians and founded the Kingdom of Numidia.|
|201||Batur Tengriqut, Chief of the Huns, made himself King (Shanyu) and founded the Hunnic Kingdom in Mongolia.
When the indigenous people in the Nile Delta revolted against the Egyptian government, Syria attacked Egypt, which led to the Fifth Syrian War. In 195 the two countries concluded a truce and Egypt suppressed the revolt.
|c.2nd Century||Rise of a number of "oasis city-states" in the Western Region (i.e. present day Xinjiang of China and parts of Central Asia, including the Kingdom of Karasahr, Kingdom of Kucha, Kingdom of Kroraim, Kingdom of Khotan and Kingdom of Shule.
The Pyu people migrated from Southwestern China into Burma and established city-states.
The Tamils founded the Kingdom of Chola in south India.
|200||Rome invaded Greece, which led to the Second Macedonian War. The war ended in 197, when Macedon was defeated by Rome.|
|c.200||End of the Ararat Kingdom. Armenia Major then became a territory of Syria nominally but was under the rule of Artashes I, who made Armenia a de facto hereditary kingdom. Beginning of the Armenia Regime (Artaxiad Dynasty).
The Adena Culture in the eastern part of North America was superseded by the Hopewell Culture.
|195.4M||Upon death of Liu Bang, the [Western] Han Emperor, Liu Ying succeeded to the throne but was under the control of the Dowager Empress Lu Zhi. Thereafter, real powers of the royal court was held by the Lu Family.|
|194||Wi Man, a Chinese migrant, overthrew Choson (Ki Dynasty) and established Choson (Wi Dynasty) (commonly called [Wi] Choson by historians).|
|192||Defeated by the Achaean League, King Nabis of Sparta was assassinated and Spart then became a republic.|
|c.190||Zadriades, Satrap of Sophene under Syria, made himself King and founded the Kingdom of Sophene.
After being defeated by Rome in the Battle of Magnesia, the strength of Syria declined.
|c.185||Pushyamitra Sunga, a military officer of Magadha, overthrew the Maurya Dynasty and established Magadha (Sunga Dynasty).|
|180||Nam Viet destroyed Au Lac.|
|180.7M||Upon death of Dowager Empress Lu Zhi, the Lu Family (headed by Lu Can and Lu Lu) continued to hold powers. In the ninth lunar month of the same year, Zhou Bo and Chen Ping, senior officials of [Western] Han, staged a coup to overthrow the rule of the Lu Family and crowned Liu Heng as Emperor. During the reigns of Liu Heng and his son, Liu Qi, they adopted a little government policy and the strength of the country was thus revitalized.|
|171||Rome attacked Macedon and started the Third Macedonian War.|
|c.171||Eucratides I, a Bactrian general, seized control of Bactria proper and established Bactria (Eucratidid Dynasty). Bactria (Euthydemid Dynasty) was forced to retreat to the Punjab region. Thereafter, Bactria was torn by internal strife and there appeared semi-independent local rulers.|
|168||Rome conquered Macdeon.|
|167||Rome conquered Illyria.|
|c.166||When Syria outlawed Judaism, Judas Maccabaeus led the Jews to revolt against Syria (Maccabean Revolt. Judas Maccabaeus founded the Judaea Regime (Hasmonaean Dynasty) and assumed the title of High Priest.|
|c.165||The Huns attacked the Yuezhis in northwestern China. The Yuezhis then split into two sections: the Greater Yuezhis migrated to River Ili Basin; while the Lesser Yuezhis remained in northwestern China.
The Greater Yuezhis attacked the Sakas. The latter were then forced to migrate in different directions. Some of them migrated to north India, Russian Steppe and other areas.
|164.4M||The [Western] Han Central Government began to weaken the powers of the Vassal Kings. In the first lunar month of 154, seven Vassal Kings joined forces against the Central Government (Revolt of the Seven Kingdoms). The revolt was suppressed by the Central Government in the second lunar month in the same year.|
|c.163||Ptolemaeus, the Syrian Satrap of Commagene in eastern Asia Minor, declared independence and founded the Kingdom of Commagene.|
|c.160||The Wusuns in northwestern China migrated to River Ili Basin and defeated the Greater Yuezhis. The Wusuns founded the Kingdom of Wusun.
The Greater Yuezhis migrated further to Central Asia.
|Mid-2nd Century||The Saka Confederacy conquered Sogdiana (which was called Sute or Kangju in the ancient Chinese historical records).|
|149||Andriscus of Macedon rose against Rome (Fourth Macedonian War). In the next year Andriscus was killed and Macedon then became a Roman province.
Alleging that Carthage violated the peace agreement by attacking Numidia, Rome sent an army to besiege Carthage, which led to the Third Punic War. In 146 Rome completely destroyed Carthage, thus ending the war. The city of Carthage and its neighbourhood then became the Roman province of Africa, while the remaining territories were annexed by Numidia.
|148||Rome annihilated Epirus and incorporated its territories into its province of Macedon.|
|146||Critolaus and Diaeus, leaders of the Achaean League, staged a revolt against Rome. Rome defeated the League and destroyed Sicyon, Corinth and Thebes. The various leagues of the Greek city-states were then disbanded by Rome. The whole area of Greece was annexed by Rome and put under the supervision of the Governor of Macedon.|
|141.1M||Liu Che became Emperor of [Western] Han. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy and established [Western] Han's hegemony in East Asia.|
|140||Liu Che started to use reign titles. From this year onwards, the Chinese monarchs used reign titles during their reigns and this practice was later spread to Korea, Japan and Vietnam. In the tenth lunar month of the same year, Liu Che adopted the proposal of Dong Zhongshu, a senior official, to establish Confucianism as the sole official intellectual thought of China.|
|c.140||Part of the Sakas migrated to Farghana in Central Asia, conquered the Greeks there and formed the Kingdom of Farghana. Another group of Sakas conquered Bactria and later formed the state of Daxia as mentioned in the ancient Chinese historical records. The royal court of Bactria (Eucratidid) was forced to move southwards.|
|138||[Western] Han appointed Zhang Qian as an envoy to visit the Western Region. In 126 Zhang Qian returned to China, thus opening the way for the communication between China and the Western Region.|
|137||Eunus staged a sevile revolt against Rome in Sicily; Cleon started another revolt in Agrigentum and joined forces with Eunus (First Servile War). By crowning himself and renaming himself Antiochus VII, Eunus established the Sicilian Servile Regime. In 132 Rome suppressed the revolt. Cleon died in the fighting and Eunus was taken captive and died in prison.|
|133||King Attalus III of Pergamum died. In his will, he bequeathed his country to Rome. Aristonicus, a royal member of Pergamum, rose against Rome and established the Solar State in opposition to Rome. In 129 Aristonicus was killed by Rome and his regime annihilated. Rome then annexed Pergamum, which became the Roman province of Asia.
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, leader of the Roman plebeians, was elected Tribune. He carried out Gracchus' Reforms by endorsing the Land Law to limit the holding of land, and seting up a Commission of Three to redistribute land. His reforms were opposed by the Roman patricians, who murdered T.S. Gracchus and his supporters in the next year.
|c.130||The Greater Yuezhis conquered the Sakas in Bactria (i.e. the state of "Daxia" in ancient Chinese historical records). Thereafter the Greater Yuezhis were also called Tokharians. Later they split into five tribes, each governed by a Chief, with Kushan Tribe being the strongest tribe among the five. (According to another theory, Tokharians were in fact the Sakas under the rule of the Greater Yuezhis.)|
|123||Gaius Gracchus was elected Tribune. He revived the Land Law and proposed a number of reform programmes to further implement Gracchus' Reforms. In 121 G. Gracchus failed to reelected. The Senate then declared a state of emergency and killed G. Gracchus and his supporters. The reform measures were then abrograted.|
|121||Mithridates VI became King of Pontus. During his reign he contested the hegemony in Asia Minor with Rome.|
|c.115||Ilasharah Yahdub, King of Saba, annexed the Dhu-Raidan region in Yemen. He then changed his title to King of Himyar and founded the Kingdom of Himyar.|
|111||[Western] Han conquered Nam Viet. Northern Vietnam began to be under Chinese rule which lasted for several centuries.
King Antiochus VIII and King Antiochus IX of Syria agreed to divide the territories of their countries. The ruling dynasty of Syria thus split into two lines: Antiochus VIII Line and Antiochus IX Line.
When King Jugurtha of Numidia slaughtered the Italians in Cirta, Rome declared war on Numidia and led to the Jugurthine War. In c.106 Rome allied with Mauritania against Numidia and Jugurtha was finally taken captive.
|110||Hainan Island was annexed by [Western] Han.|
|109||[Western] Han conquered the Southwestern Barbarians (including Tibeto-Burman-speaking, Tai-Kadai-speaking and Mon-Khmer-speaking peoples) in southwestern China. Thereafter the Southwestern Barbarians were sometimes subjugated to and sometimes rebellious against Chinese rule.|
|108||[Western] Han conquered Choson.|
|c.108||King Pairisades V of Bosporus abdicated and bequeathed the thron to King Mithridates VI of Pontus. Saumacus, a Scythian slave of Bosporus, rose against Pontus and made himself King. Mithridates VI sent an army to suppress the revolt. In c.107 the Pontid army crushed the revolt and killed Saumacus. Mithridates VI then assumed the title of King of Bosporus.|
|107||Marius was elected Roman Consul. He reformed the military system by implementing the enlistment system and restructuring the army.|
|104||[Western] Han reset the first lunar month as the beginning of the year.
Salvius staged the Second Sevile War in Sicily. He crowned himself, took the title of Tryphon and reestablished the Sicilian Servile Regime. Athenion also staged a servile revolt in western Sicily. Having joined forces with Salvius, Athenion became the Commander-in-Chief of the rebels. In 101 the Roman army attacked Sicily. After the death of Athenion, the Servile Regime collapsed and the Second Servile War came to an end.
|c.100||Maues founded the Kipin Saka Regime in southern Central Asia and northwestern India.|
|96||Rome annexed Cyrene.|
|90||Discontented with their unequal status of having no citizenship, the Roman allies revolted against Rome and the War of the Allies (also called Social War) broke out. The revolting allies formed the Republic of Italia and set up their own Senate. In 88 Rome suppressed the revolt.|
|88||King Mithridatus VI of Pontus intruded into the Roman province of Asia and instigated an anti-Roman revolt among the subjects of Asia Minor and Greece, which led to the First Mithridatic War. In 84 when the Roman army entered Asia Minor, Pontus concluded a peace agreement with Rome by which it abandoned the invaded territories and paid reparations to Rome.|
|83||Outbreak of the Second Mithridatic War when Rome invaded Cappadocia and Pontus. After Pontus was defeated by Rome in 81, a peace agreement wad made.
Taking advantage of an uprising that broke out in Antioch, the capital of Syria, Armenia invaded and annexed Syria.
|82||The Roman patricians (led by Sulla) defeated the plebeians (led by Cinna) and seized the political powers. By making himself Dictator for life, Sulla carried out dictatorial rule in Rome. He slaughtered his opponents, limited the people's democratic rights and expanded the Senate.|
|80||Sertorius, leader of the Roman plebeians and former Governor of Spain, returned to Spain and allied with the indigneous tribes in a revolt against Rome. Sertorius established the Spanish Regime and occupied most part of Spain. In 72 he was assassinated by his general Perperna. A Roman army was then sent to Spain to crush the revolt and reconquered Spain.|
|77||[Western] Han renamed Kroraim as Kingdom of Shanshan.|
|c.75||Vasudeva, a senior official of Magadha, overthrew Sunga Dynasty and established Magadha (Kanva Dynasty).|
|74||King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia died. In his will, he bequeathed his country to Rome. Pontus occupied Bithynia and supported Armenia's annexation of Cappadocia and Syria. The Third Mithridatus War broke out. Rome defeated Pontus and annexed Bithynia.|
|73||Spartacus, a Roman gladiator, planned a revolt. When the plan was uncovered, he fled to Vesuvius Mountain, where he was joined by a large number of slaves and poor people. The Third Servile War thus broke out. In 71 the rebels split. Spartacus was defeated and killed in a battle in Apulia. His remnants fled to southern Italy, where they were annihilated by the Roman army.|
|69||After Rome defeated Armenia, Syria regained independence and restored the Kingdom of Syria.|
|64||Deiotarus I, Chief of the Galatians in Asia Minor, was crowned King of Galatia by Rome and founded the Kingdom of Galatia.
Rome conquered Syria.
|63||The Third Mithridatus War came to an end upon death of King Mithridatus VI of Pontus in a battle. Thereafter, Pontus became a Roman vassal state.
In the election campaign for the Roman consulship, Catiline proposed a programme of radical reforms, but failed. Catiline then conspired to overthrow the government (Conspiracy of Catiline). He fled Rome when his conspiracy failed.
|60||Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey and Crassus, leaders of the Roman plebeians, formed an alliance (the First Triumvirate) against the patricians.|
|c.60||Burebista, Chief of the Getaes in northern Thrace, founded the Kingdom of Getae.|
|57||According to legend, Pak Hyok Ko Sae, Chief of a Korean tribe, founded the Kingdom of Silla (Pak Dynasty). Beginning of the Period of the Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea.|
|c.50||Vonones, Chief of the Pahlavas, seceded from Parthia and founded the Pahlava Regime in northwestern India and southeastern Iran.
The Caucasian Albanians founded the Kingdom of Albania in northern Azerbaijan.
|49.1.7||G. Pompey incited the Roman Senate to release all official duties of Ceasar. On the 11th day of this month, Ceasar invaded Italy, which marked the beginning of the Civil War of the First Triumvirate. G. Pompey fled to Greece.|
|48||Caesar launched an eastern expedition and defeated G. Pompey, who then fled to Egypt and was killed there.
Caesar became Roman Consul for a term of five years and was vested with dictatorial powers.
|47||Rome annexed Pontus. But the Mithridatid Dynasty continued to rule Bosporus.
Ptolemy XII was killed and Cleopatra VII gained supreme power in Egypt.
|46||G. Pompey's son, Sextus Pompey allied with Numidia against Caesar. Caesar defeated S. Pompey. Rome conquered Numidia.
Ceasar promulgated a new calendar (the Julian Calendar) which took effect in the next year. This calendar became the common calendar of the Western countries in the following centuries.
|44.3.15||Caesar was assassinated by the Roman patricians in the Senate. The Civil War of the First Triumvirate ended.|
|43||Outbreak of a civil war (Civil War of the Second Triumvirate) between Anthony, leader of the Roman plebeians, and the patrician Senators. In July Octavius seized the Roman political powers in Rome. In November Anthony, Octavius and Lepidus formed an alliance (the Second Triumvirate). Holding supreme powers, the Second Triumvirate slaughtered their opponents and confiscated the properties of the patricians.|
|42||The Second Triumvirate defeated the patrician Senators and divided the provinces among themselves: Anthony gained the eastern provinces; Octavius gained the western provinces; Lepidus gained Africa and Gaul.|
|37||Ko Mong, a Prince of the Korean Puyos, unified the tribes and founded the Kingdom of Koguryo.
Judaea allied with Parthia. Rome overthrew Judaea (Hasmonaean Dynasty) and crowned Herod I as King of Judaea, establishing Judaea (Herodian Dynasty).
|31.9.2||In the Battle of Actium, Octavius defeated Anthony, who fled to Egypt. Thereafter Octavius gained supreme powers in Rome and was appointed Consul for 9 consecutive years.|
|30||Consul Octavius of Rome invaded Egypt. General Anthony of Rome and Pharoah Cleopatra VII of Egypt committed suicide. Egypt was annexed by Rome. Octavius exterminated all his opponents and the Civil War of the Second Triumvirate ended.|
|c.30||Satavahana annihilated Magadha.|
|27.1.13||The Roman Senate granted the honorific title of Augustus to Octavius, which marked the end of the Roman Republic. Octavius assumed the title of Princeps and Imperator (from which the word "Emperor" originates) and laid the foundation of the Roman Empire (Julio-Claudian Dynasty).|
|c.25||Kujula Kadphises I, Chief of the Kushan Tribe of the Greater Yuzhis, unified the five tribes and founded the Kingdom of Kushan (Kadphises Dynasty).|
|18||According to legend, Ko On Jo, Prince of Koguryo, under political oppression, fled southwards. He renamed himself Pu Yo On Jo and founded the Kingdom of Paekche.|
|4||Upon death of Herod I, Rome made three of his sons Vassal Kings and controlled Judaea.|
|1.6M||Wang Mang, a relative of the [Western] Han royal family, became de facto ruler of the Empire.|