|c. 1st Half of 4th Millennium||Ancient Egyptians founded ancient city-states (Nomes) in Egypt. The more important ones included Hierakonpolis, Elephantine, Thebes, Abydos, Thinis, Buto, Memphis, Sais, Xois, Heliopolis, Bubastis and Tanis. Beginning of the Pre-Dynastic Period of Egypt.|
|c.3500||Nomes in southern and northern Egypt formed the Kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, respectively.|
|c.3200||Sumerians founded city-states in southern Mesopotamia (also known as Fertile Crescent).|
|c.3100||The Canaanites started to found city-states in Syria-Palestine. The more important ones included Ebla, Haleb, Hazor, etc.
Men, King of Upper Egypt, conquered Lower Egypt and established the unified Kingdom of Egypt (First Dynasty), commonly called "Ancient Egypt" by historians. Thereafter, there emerged 33 dynasties of Ancient Egypt. End of the Pre-Dynastic Period and beginning of the Protodynastic Period of Egypt. This period saw the emergence of Slavery.
|c.2879||According to legend, Van Lang Tribe in northern Vietnam founded the Van Lang Confederacy (Hong Bang "Dynasty"), which was regarded as the first "dynasty" in Vietnamese history.|
|c.2850||Sumerians founded a number of warring city-states including Kingdom of Ur, Kingdom of Lagash, Kingdom of Umma, Kingdom of Uruk and Kingdom of Kish. Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of southern Mesopotamia.|
|c.2686||Egypt (Third Dynasty) founded with capital at Memphis. End of the Early Dynastic Period and beginning of the Old Kingdom Period of Egypt.|
|c.2615||Enmebaragisi became King of Kish. During his reign the Sumerian city-states united to form the League of Sumerian City-States, with Nippur being the religious centre (hence also called the Nippur League) and Enmebaragisi being the first Chief of the League. Thereafter, most Chiefs of the League assumed the title of "King of Kish" as a tradition.|
|c.2613||Egypt (Fourth Dynasty) founded. During this dynasty the pharoahs gained supreme powers and began to assume to title of "Son of Re". Re, the sun god, was thus regarded as the highest god in Egypt. The convention that the Crown Prince automatically became the Chief Minister also appeared during this dynasty.|
|c.26th Century||The Canaanites founded the Kingdom of Ebla in northern Syria, which became a regional power in Syria later.|
|c. 1st Half of 26th Century||Mesannipada and Aannipada became Kings of Ur sucessively. During their reigns, they became Chiefs of the League of Sumerian City-States and established the hegemony of Ur among the Sumerian city-states.|
|c.2589||Cheops became Pharoah of Egypt. During his reign he built the Great Pyramid in Giza.|
|c.2550||Elamites founded the Kingdom of Elam in western Iran.|
|c. 2nd Half of 3rd Millennium||Assyrians founded the Kingdom of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Beginning of the Old Kingdom Period of Assyria.|
|c.2494||Egypt (Fifth Dynasty) founded. During this dynasty the Governors of the Nomes became hereditary positions and the powers of the local authorities expanded.|
|c.2460||Eannatum became King of Lagash. During his reign he defeated the joint attack of Umma, Kish, Akshak and established the hegemony of Lagash. He erected the Stele of Vultures to celebrate his victory.|
|c.2378||Urukagina became King of Lagash. During his reign he carried out the earliest social reforms that were ever recorded in history: tax reduction, promulgation of laws, protection of commoners' rights.|
|c.2371||Sargon, Chief of the Akkadians, founded the Kingdom of Akkad in southern Mesopotamia. End of the Early Dynastic Period and beginning of the Sumer-Akkad Period of southern Mesopotamia.
Lugalzaggisi became King of Umma. During his reign he conquered Lagash and other Sumerian city-states. He made himself King of Uruk and assumed the title of "King of Uruk and Ur".
|c.2347||Sargon defeated Lugalzaggisi and destroyed Umma and Uruk. Thereafter, Sargon conquered the Sumerian city-states and established his hegemony in southern Mesopotamia. He further invaded Assyria, Elam, Asia Minor and Syria, and assumed the title of "King of the Four Quarters of the World".|
|c.2300||Dravidian-speaking peopless founded the two city-states of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in Indus River Valley. This civilization is thus called Harappa Civilization.|
|c.2291||Naram-Sin became King of Akkad. During his reign he staged a number of wars of conquest and assumed the title of "King of the Four Quarters of the World". He also deified himself.|
|c.2285||Diyao, Chief of the Huaxia Confederacy, appointed Dishun as his Regent so that the latter would succeed his position when he died. Later Dishun also adopted the same method to choose Si Wenming as his successor.|
|c.2198||Upon the death of Si Wenming, Chief of the Huaxia Confederacy, Boyi became the Regent of the Confederacy. Si Qi, son of Si Wenming, however, made himself King and established the Xia Kingdom. Boyi and the Youhu Tribe rose up against Si Qi but were suppressed. The Confederacy thus evolved into a hereditary dynasty. End of the Period of the "Five Emperors" and beginning of the "Three Dynasties" of China (including the three dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou).|
|c.2191||The Gutians destroyed Akkad, conquered southern Mesopotamia and established the Gutium Regime. End of the Sumer-Akkad Period of southern Mesopotamia.|
|c.2181||End of the Old Kingdom Period and beginning of the First Intermediate Period of Egypt. During this period, Egypt was torn by civil wars between Governors of the Nomes and the First Great Revolt of Egypt. The two cities of Thebes and Heracleopolis rose up to become the political centres in the south and the north, respectively.|
|c.2160||Houyi, Chief of the Youqiong Tribe, deposed King Si Taikang of Xia Dynasty and became de facto ruler of the regime.|
|c.2150||Gudea became King of Lagash. During his reign he paid a lot of tributes to Gutium and gained independence from the latter. He also carried out social reforms and restored the power of Lagash.|
|c.2145||Houyi exiled King Si Xiang of Xia Dynasty and established the Youqiong Regime. In c.2118 the remnants of Xia Kingdom was exterminated by Youqiong Regime.|
|2133||Mentuhotpe I and Inyotef I seized control of the city of Thebes and founded Egypt (Eleventh Dynasty). Beginning of the Middle Kingdom Period of Egypt.|
|c.2120||Utu-khegal became King of Uruk. During his reign he expelled the Gutians from southern Mesopotamia and overthrew Gutium.|
|c.2113||Ur-Nammu founded Kingdom of Ur (Third Dynasty). During his reign he established the hegemony of Ur among the city-states in southern Mesopotamia and promulgated the Ur-Nammu's Code. Ur-Nammu defeated Utu-khegal and conquered Uruk.|
|c.2095||Ur-Nammu died and was succeeded by Shulgi, during whose reign he established the hegemony of Ur in Mesopotamia.|
|c.2079||Si Shaokang, Prince of the former Xia Dynasty, overthrew Youqiong Regime and restored Xia Kingdom.|
|c. Mid-21st Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Mari in eastern Syria.|
|c.2040||Egypt (Eleventh Dynasty) overthrew the Tenth Dynasty and reunified Egypt. End of the First Intermediate Period of Egypt.|
|c.2025||Naplanum founded the Kingdom of Larsa in southern Mesopotamia. Beginning of the Isin-Larsa Period of southern Mesopotamia.|
|c.2017||Ishbi-Erra rose against Ur and founded the Kingdom of Isin (commonly called the First Kingdom of Isin) in southern Mesopotamia and started a long-term struggle with Larsa.|
|c.2006||Elam, the Gutians and Subarians joined forces to destroy the Kingdom of Ur.|
|c. Late 21st Century||Ilshu-ilia founded the Kingdom of Eshnunna in southern Mesopotamia.|
|c.2000||The Hittites that spoke an Indo-European dialect appeared in Asia Minor and mixed with the indigenous Khattians.
The Phoenicians started to found Phoenician city-states in Lebanon. Rise of the Kingdom of Ugarit. The Phoenicians created 22 alphabets, which were the earliest alphabets in the world.
The Minoans founded the Kingdom of Knossos and other city-states on the island of Crete.
|1991||Ammenemes I, Chief Minister of Egypt, overthrew the Eleventh Dynasty and established the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.|
|1894||Sumuabum, Chief of the Amorites, founded the Kingdom of Babylon (commonly called [Old] Babylon by the historians) in southern Mesopotamia.|
|1878||Sesostris III became Pharoah of Egypt. During his reign, he adopted an expansionary policy.|
|c.1850||Abraham, Patriarch of the Hebrews, led the Hebrews to move to Palestine. Beginning of the Period of the Patriarchs of the Hebrews. During this period, the Hebrews were led by the patriarchs Abraham, Issac and Jacob, successively.|
|c.1813||Shamshi-Adad I became King of Assyria. During his reign he established absolute rule of the King and adopted an expansionary policy. He assumed the title of "King of the World".|
|c.1800||Pithana, Chief of the Kussar Tribe, a tribe of Hittites, conquered the other Hittite tribes and the Khattians, and founded the Kingdom of Hittite. Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Hittite. During this period Hittite was also called the Kingdom of Kussar.
Yarimlim I, a Canaanite, founded the Kingdom of Halebin northwestern Syria.
The Phoenicians founded the Kingdom of Byblos and the Kingdom of Sidon in western Syria.
|c.1786||End of Egypt (Twelfth Dynasty). Egypt split into two dynasties: the Thirteenth Dynasty ruling the east and the Fourteenth Dynasty ruling the west. Beginning of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.|
|c.1766||Zi Lu, Chief of the Shang Tribe, revolted and overthrew Xia Dynasty. He made himself King and founded the Shang Kingdom.|
|c.1750||The city-states and tribes in Syria-Palestine formed the Hyksos Confederacy, which became a great power in Syria-Palestine.
The Second Great Revolt of Egypt broke out.
|c.1749||Upon the conquest of Larsa by Babylon, the Period of Isin-Larsa of southern Mesopotamia ended.|
|c.1720||Gandash, Chief of the Kassites invaded southern Mesopotamia and founded Babylon (Third Dynasty)(also known as Kassite Dynasty).|
|c.17th Century||The Hurrians founded the Kingdom of Mitanni in northen Mesopotamia.|
|c.1680||Labarnas I became King of Hittite. During his reign he conquered the eastern part of Asia Minor. End of the Pre-Dynastic Period and beginning of the Old Kingdom Period of Hittite.|
|c.1674||Salitis, Chief of the Hyksos Confederacy, invaded Egypt and established the Fifteenth Dynasty (also known as Great Hyksos Dynasty), ruling northern Egypt. Another group of Hyksos established the Sixteenth Dynasty (also known as Minor Hyksos Dynasty) in northern Egypt.|
|c.1630||Jacob, Patriarch of the Hebrews, renamed himself as Israel and led the Hebrews to move to Egypt. Thereafter, the Hebrews were also called the Israelites.|
|c.1620||Mursilis I became King of Hittite. During his reign he defeated the Hyksos Confederacy and captured their dependencies in northern Syria.|
|c.1600||The Achaeans entered central Greece and Mycenae in southern Greece, conquering the indigenous peoples and forming hierarchical societies. The historians call Mycenae during this period as the "Shaft Grave Dynasty".
Suffering great damage, the Knossos Palace was quickly rebuilt and established its hegemony among the Cretan city-states, extending its power to certain islands on the Aegean Sea as well as central Greece. This is the legendary Kingdom of Minos.
|c.1595||Mursilis I overthew Babylon (First Dynasty). Since then, Hittite became a great power in West Asia.|
|c.1570||Amosis I founded Egypt (Eighteenth Dynasty) and started to reunify southern Egypt. Beginning of the New Kingdom Period of Egypt.|
|c.1567||Amosis I expelled the Hyksos from Egypt, overthrew the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties and reunified Egypt. End of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. The Hyksos Confederacy was gradually dismantled.|
|c.1526||Telepinus became King of Hittite. During his reign he carried out political reform and established the rule of succession of the throne by prohibiting internal strife within the royal family.|
|c.1503||Hatshepsut, queen of Egypt assumed the title of Pharoah and made Tuthmosis III co-Pharoah, with herself holding real powers.|
|Mid-2nd Millennium||The Lapita People (ancestors of the Oceanic-speaking peoples) established the Lapita Culture on the Bismarck Archipelago (at present part of Papua New Guinea). Later they spread to various parts of Melanesia and western Polynesia.|
|c.1500||The Indus city-states of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were destroyed. Thereafter, the majority of the Dravidian-speaking peoples gradually migrated southwards to South India and the Aryan-speaking peoples dominated North India. Beginning of the Early Vedic Period of India (also known as Rigveda Period). During this period Vedicism and the oldest portion of the Ancient Indian classic Veda were formed.
End of the Old Kingdom Period and beginning of the Middle Kingdom Period of Hittite.
The Phoenicians founded the Kingdom of Tyre in western Syria.
The Achaeans founded the Kingdom of Mycenae, which was called Tholos Tomb Dynasty by the historians.
The Olmecs started to establish chiefdoms in Mesoamerica. Later San Lorenzo and la Venta became ceremonial centres of the Olmecs successively.
|c.1482||Upon death of Pharoah Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis III became the sole ruler of Egypt. Thereafter, Tuthmosis III staged a series of wars of conquest, subjugated the local powers in West Asia and established a hegemonic empire.|
|c.1481||The states in Syria-Palestine rebelled against Egypt. They formed the Kadesh League and chose Kadesh as their leader. Egypt invaded Syria-Palestine and defeated the League in the Battle of Megiddo.|
|c.1401||Zi Xun, King of Shang, moved the capital to Yin. Since then, the capital of Shang was fixed at Yin and Shang Kingdom was also known as Yin Kingdom.|
|c.1400||Mycenae invaded Knosses and badly damaged Knosses Palace. The other Cretan city-states also suffered great damages. Cretan civilization declined. The power of Mycenae spread to every part of Greece.
According to legend, Theseus, Chief of the Ionians, founded the Kingdom of Athens on Attica Peninsula.
|c.1380||Suppiluliumas I became King of Hittite. End of the Middle Kingdom Period and beginning of the New Kingdom Period of Hittite. During the reign of Suppiluliumas I, he adopted an expansionary policy and established his hegemony in West Asia, which led to serious conflict with Egypt over Syria.|
|c.1379||Amenophis IV became Pharoah of Egypt. During his reign, to weaken the powers of the Amon priests, he carried out a religious reform in an attempt to creat a monotheism that worship the sole god Aton. He also renamed himself Akhenaten. Being opposed by the Amon priests and the nobility, the religious reform led to civil strife and finally failed.|
|c.1365||Ashur-uballit I became King of Assyria. During his reign Assyria shook off control by Mitanni. End of the Old Kingdom Period and beginning of the Middle Kingdom Period of Assyria.|
|c.1360||Taking advantage of the religious unrest in Egypt, King Suppiluliumas I of Hittite captured Syria-Palestine.|
|c.1348||Haremhab became Pharoah of Egypt. He declared the end of the religous reform and the resumed the worship of Amon.|
|c.1345||In a Babylonian popular revolt, King Nazibugash was killed. A Rebel Government was established. The Babylonian nobility united to overthrow the Rebel Government and suppressed the revolt.|
|c.1325||Zi Zhao became King of Shang. During his reign he expanded southwards.|
|c.1320||End of Egypt (Eighteenth Dynasty). Chief Minister Ramesse I crowned himself and established the Nineteenth Dynasty.|
|c.1304||Ramesse II became Pharoah of Egypt. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy.|
|c.1298||Egypt and Hittite contested for the hegemony and culminated in the Battle of Kadesh. In c.1284 the two powers concluded a peace agreement which defined their boundaries in Syria-Palestine.|
|c.1260||Assyria destroyed Mitanni.|
|c. Mid-13th Century||
|c.12th Century||The Greeks invaded Crete and destroyed the Cretan Civilization. The Greeks started to found city-states in Greece. Beginning of the Homer Period of Greece (also called the Dark Age). According to legend, the two famous epics Iliad and Odyssey were composed by the Greek poet Homer at this time.|
|c.1200||The Sea Peoples in western Asia Minor and Aegean Sea formed a Confederacy (among which the Philistines were the most important) and invaded West Asia and Egypt. The Confederacy united with the Phrygians and overthrew Hittite. End of the New Kingdom Period of Hittite.
The Canaanites founded the Kingdom of Edom, Kingdom of Ammon and the Kingdom of Moab in Jordan.
The Hebrew Confederacy started to elect their Chiefs (Judges). Beginning of the Period of the Judges of the Hebrews. The Philistines occupied the coastal areas of Palestine, which led to regular conflict with the Hebrew Confederacy.
The Bedouins founded the Kingdom of Main in Yemen.
Egypt (Nineteenth Dynasty) ended in a turmoil. Irsu, leader of the Syrian rebels, seized powers and established Egypt (Rebel Government). Sethnakhte suppressed the revolt and established the Twentieth Dynasty. This period saw the expansion of the powers of the priest group. The Amon priests also became hereditary positions.
According to Greek legend, King Agamemnon of Mycenae led the Greek city-states to attack Troy, a city-state in western Asia Minor and started the Trojan War. In c.1190 Mycenae captured Troy. But Mycenae started to decline since then.
|c. 1st Half of 12th Century||The Hittites started to found city-states in southeastern Asia Minor and northern Syria, including the Kingdom of Arpad, Kingdom of Til Barsip, Kingdom of Carchemish, Kingdom of Hamath, etc. Carchemish later became the leader of the alliance of the city-states in this area.|
|1156||Babylon (Fourth Dynasty) founded. This dynasty was also called the Second Kingdom of Isin by historians.|
|c.1125||Nebuchadrezzar I became King of Babylon. During his reign he adopted an expansionary policy and restored the power of Babylon.|
|c.1122||Ji Fa, Chief of the Zhou Tribe, overthrew Shang Dynasty and established Zhou Kingdom ([Western] Zhou). [Western] Zhou carried out the First General Enfeoffment and created a number of vassal states: Kang Principality, Chen Principality, Cai Principality, Cao Principality, Qi Principality ([Jiang] Qi), Yan Principality, Wu Principality. In addition, Zi Wugeng, Prince of the former Shang Dynasty, was made Prince of Yin and established the Yin Principality. To keep Yin under surveillance, [Western] Zhou established three principalities to surround Yin.
Ki Ja, a Prince of the former Shang Dynasty, led some of the remnants of the Dynasty to move to Korea, where Ki Ja made himself King and founded Choson (Ki Dynasty) (commonly called [Ki] Choson by historians). Choson (Tangun Dynasty) migrated southwards and subsequently developed into three confederacies: Mahan, Jinhan and Byeonhan (collectively called the "Three Hans").
|1115||Tiglath-Pilesar I became King of Assyria. During his reign he invaded the states in West Asia. But in the latter part of his reign, Assyria suffered from the invasion of the Aramaeans.|
|c.1115||Yin formed an alliance with the three princes and revolted against [Western] Zhou. Ji Dan, Regent of [Western] Zhou, led an army to crush the revolt in c.1113. In this year, [Western] Zhou created Lu Principality and Chu Principality as its vassals.|
|c.1112||[Western] Zhou carried out the Second General Enfeoffment. Zi Qi, a royal member of the former Shang Dynasty was installed as Prince of Song, thus creating the Song Principality as a successor state of Yin. Kang Principality was renamed Wei Principality.|
|c.1106||[Western] Zhou installed Ji Yu as Prince of Tang and created the Tang Principality (which was renamed Jin Principality in c.1079).|
|c.1102||According to legend, the Dorians founded the Kingdom of Sparta in Peloponnesus Peninsula. The Kingdom adopted a system of double kingship.|
|c.1100||The Dorians destroyed Mycenae. According to legend, Timenos, Chief of the Dorians, founded the Argos Regime in Peloponnesus. Xanthos, Chief of the Aeolians, founded the Thebes Regime in Boeotia.|
|c.1085||End of Egypt (Twentieth Dynasty). Egypt split into two parts: Smendes, ruler of Tanis, established the Twenty-First Dynasty, ruling northern Egypt; Hrihor, de facto ruler of the Twentieth Dynasty and High Priest of Thebes, established the Priest Government, ruling southern Egypt. End of the New Kingdom Period and beginning of the Late Dynastic Period of Egypt.|
|c.1020||Hebrew Confederacy elected Saul to be their King and founded the Kingdom of Israel (Saul Dynasty).|
|c. 1st Millennium||The Bantu-speaking peoples commenced the Bantu Expansion and later became widespread in Central and Southern Africa.
Some Malayo-Polynesian-speaking peoples migrated to the Micronesian islands.
|c. 1st Half of 1st Millennium||The Lapita Culture on Samoa and Tonga evolved into the Polynesian Culture. Later the Polynesian People spread to the Polynesian islands.|
|c. Early 1st Millennium||The Lydians founded the Kingdom of Lydia in western Asia Minor.|
|10th Century||The Aramaeans usurped the authority of the Hittite city-states of Arpad, Til Barsip and Hamath. Thereafter, Arpad was renamed Kingdom of Bit Agusi and Til Barsip was renamed Kingdom of Bit Adini.
Emergence of the Chavin Civilization, centred in Chavin de Huantar, in the Andes region of present day Peru. This Civilization declined in 3rd Century B.C.E.
|c.1000||The Urartians founded the Kingdom of Urartu in Lake Van of Caucasus.
The Phrygians founded the Kingdom of Phrygia in Asia Minor.
The Greeks started to found city-states in western Asia Minor (which was called Ionia) and the nearby islands, including Miletus and Ephesus.
The Aramaeans founded the Kingdom of Zobah and Kingdom of Damascus in Syria.
Saul, King of Israel, died in a war with the Philistines. Israel split into two parts, with Eshbaal succeeding to the Israelite throne and ruling the northern part. The Judah Tribe in the south, on the other hand, elected David as their King and founded the Kingdom of Judah (David Dynasty).
The Phoenicians began to colonize the Mediterranean region and established colony city-states therein.
Emergence of the Adena Culture in the Ohio Valley of North America. Commencement of the Woodland Period in the history of North America.
|c. 1st Half of 10th Century||Isreal conquered Ammon, Moab and Edom, defeated the Philistines and established its hegemony in Palestine.|
|c.993||King Eshbaal of Israel was assassinated, which marked the end of Israel (Saul Dynasty). The Israelite tribes elected David as King of Israel and reunified Israel.|
|c.978||Hiram I became King of Tyre. During his reign Tyre became a regional power.|
|c.970||Hadadezer became King of Zobah. During his reign Zobah became the leader of the alliance of the city-states in southern Syria.|
|c.950||The Bedouins founded the Kingdom of Saba in Yemen.|
|c. 2nd Half of 10th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Axum in present-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.|
|c.947||Sheshonk I, a general of Egypt (Twenty-First Dynasty) and Chief of the Meshwesh Libyans revolted and established the Twenty-Second Dynasty (commonly called Libyan Dynasty).|
|c.945||End of Egypt (Twenty-First Dynasty) and the Priest Government. Beginning of the Libya-Sais Period of Egypt.|
|c.933||Ashur-dan II became King of Assyria. During his reign he restored the power of Assyria. End of the Middle Kingdom Period and beginning of the New Kingdom Period of Assyria.|
|c.922||Upon death of King Solomon of Israel, Rehoboam succeeded to the throne. Israel split into two countries again. The northern tribes elected Jeroboam I as King of Israel and established Israel (Jeroboam Dynasty). Thereafter, Israel was ruled by a number of dynasties; Rehoboam ruled the southern part and changed his title to King of Judah.|
|911||Adad-nirari II succeeded as the Assyrian King. During his reign Assyria began large-scale expansion. Later Assyria grew into a transcontinental empire.|
|c.9th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Kuru and Kingdom of Pancala in north India. Thereafter 16 regimes emerged in north and west India, which were called the Sixteen States of India. The 16 states were: Kuru, Pancala, Vatsa, Vajji, Magadha, Kosala, Kasi, Anga, Malla, Matsya, Surasena, Cedi, Assaka, Kamboja in north India; Avanti, Gandhara in west India. Kuru split into the Hastinapura Government and the Indraprastha Government.|
|c.900||Baasha of Israel overthrew Jeroboam Dynasty and established Israel (Baasha Dynasty).
Bacchus, Chief of the Dorians, founded the Corinth Regime (Bacchiad Dynasty) in Corinth Isthmus.
|c.897||[Western] Zhou installed Feizi as Prince of Qin and created the Qin Principality.|
|c.890||Ben-Hadad I became King of Damascus. During his reign Zobah declined and Damascus replaced Zobah to become the leader of the alliance of the city-states in southern Syria.|
|c.876||Zimri of Israel overthrew Baasha Dynasty and made himself King. Being on the throne for only 7 days, Zimri was in turn killed by Omri, who established Israel (Omri Dynasty).|
|859||Shalmaneser III became King of Assyria.|
|858||The Aramaean city-states of Samal, Bit Adini and the Hittite city-states Carchemish, Khattina united to form the Northern Aramaean Coalition in opposition to Assyria. King Shalmaneser III of Assyria defeated the Coalition at Lutibu.|
|855||King Shalmaneser III of Assyria conquered Bit Adini and shattered the Northern Aramaean Coalition.|
|854||Damascus, Hamath, Israel united to form the Southern Aramaean Coalition in opposition to Assyria.|
|c.850||The Nubians broke away from Egypt and founded the Kingdom of Kush (also called Kingdom of Nubia) in East Sudan.|
|842||Ji Hu, King of [Western] Zhou, was overthrown in an uprising by the citizens in Hao, capital of [Western] Zhou. The princes of Zhou and Zhao were then chosen to be Co-Regents by the nobility.|
|c.842||King Shalmaneser III of Assyria destroyed the Southern Aramaean Coalition.
When King Ahaziah of Judah met King Jehoram of Israel, General Jehu of Israel revolted and killed both Kings. Israel (Omri Dynasty) was then supplanted by Israel (Jehu Dynasty). Dowager Queen Athaliah staged a coup in Judah. After assuming the title of King of Judah, Athaliah slaugtered the Davidic House.
|841||From this year onward, there was accurate historical record of the events in Chinese history.|
|c.840||Sarduri I became King of Urartu. During his reign he unified the country.|
|c.837||Jehoiada, Chief Priest of Judah, killed King Athaliah and crowned Joash. The rule of the Davidic House in Judah was thus restored.|
|c.814||According to legend, Princess Elissa of Tyre, who fled her country because of political persecution, founded the Kingdom of Carthage (also called Kingdom of Punicus, which became a republic later) in Maghrib.|
|c.810||As the power of Carchemish declined, Bit Agusi replaced Carchemish to be the leader of the alliance of the city-states in southeastern Asia Minor and northern Syria.|
|806||[Western] Zhou installed Ji You as Prince of Zheng and created the Zheng Principality.|
|c.805||Menua became King of Urartu. During his reign he greatly expanded the territories of Urartu and constructed a number of canals.|
|c.8th Century||The Dorians founded the Megara Regime in Attica.|
|c.800||End of the Early Vedic Period and beginning of the Later Vedic Period of India (also called the Age of Epics). During this period, the Indian society was divided into 4 castes (Varna): clergymen (Brahmin), nobility (Kshatriya), commoners (Vaisya) and slaves (Sudra). The two famous epics Mahabharata and Ramayana also appeared.
The Greeks started to found city-states in southern Italy and the island of Sicily (this region was later known as Magna Graecia).
|c.785||Upon death of King Menua of Urartu, Argisti I succeeded to the throne. During his reign he greatly expanded the territories of Urartu, which became a regional power.|
|c.776||According to legend, the First Olympic Games were held in this year. Beginning of the Olympic Era.|
|771||After Ji Gongnie, King of [Western] Zhou, was killed by the joint attack of a rebellious vassal and a barbarian tribe, the vassals put Ji Yijiu on the throne.|
|770||With the capital moved to Luoyi, [Western] Zhou came to an end. The Kingdom was then called [Eastern] Zhou. Beginning of the Spring and Autumn Period of China. During this period, as the vassals became more and more powerful, Zhou Kings became figureheads. There emerged 12 powerful vassals, which were called the Twelve Vassals in Chinese history. These 12 vassals were: Song, Wei, Chen, Cai, Cao, Qi, Yan, Lu, Jin, Qin, Zheng, Chu.
The Prince of Qin was granted the land in the western frontier for his contributions in the moving of the capital. Thereafter, Qin started to expand westwards.
|760||The Greek city-state of Chalcis founded the colony city-state of Cumae in southern Italy.|
|c.753||According to the Roman legend, Romulus and Remus built the city of Rome in central Italy. Romulus founded the Roman Kingdom (Romulus Dynasty).|
|Mid-8th Century||King Matiel of Bit Agusi formed the First Anti-Assyrian Coalition and became the leader of the Coalition.|
|745||Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne. During his reign he implemented the enlistment system and expanded westwards, which made Assyria a military power.|
|c.745||Shallum of Israel overthrew Jehu Dynasty and made himself King. Being on the throne for only 1 month, Shallum was in turn killed by Menahem, who established Israel (Menahem Dynasty).|
|743||Assyria defeated the First Anti-Assyrian Coalition and beseiged Bit Agusi. In 740 Assyria conquered Bit Agusi. Judah continued its resistance against Assyria. After Assyria defeated Judah in 738, the First Anti-Assyrian Coalition fell apart.|
|c.736||Sparta staged the First Messenian War and invaded Messenia. In c.716 Sparta conquered Messenia. The majority of the Messenians, who were then called Helots, were enslaved by the Spartans; a minority were driven to the remote area and were then called Perioeci or Laconians.|
|c.735||Pekah, local ruler of Gilead under Israel, rebelled and overthrew Menahem Dynasty, and made himself King.
Corinth founded the colony city-state of Syracuse in Sicily.
|734||Israel and Damascus united to form the Second Anti-Assyrian Coalition (also called the Syro-Ephraimite Coalition) in opposition to Assyria.|
|732||Having destroyed the Second Anti-Assyrian Coalition, King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria conquered Damascus and annexed part of the territories of Israel and Syria.|
|c.730||Piankhi, King of Kush, conquered southern Egypt and assumed the title of Egptian Pharoah. Since then Kushite Kings also held the title of Egptian Pharoahs. Such is called Egypt (Twenty-Fifth Dynasty) (also called Ethiopian Dynasty or Kushite Dynasty) by historians.|
|722||Beginning of the record of the chronicle Spring and Autumn compiled by Confucius, a thinker of Lu Principality. Some historians use this year as the starting year of the Spring and Autumn Period of China.
Sargon II became King of Assyria. In the same year, Sargon II destroyed Israel and captured a large number of Israelites to Assyria.
|c.700s||King Hezekiah of Judah formed the Third Anti-Assyrian Coalition with Egypt, the Phoenician city-states and Philistine.|
|c.708||Deioces, Chief of the Medes, founded the Kingdom of Media in western Iran.|
|706||Phalanthos of Sparta founded the colony city-state of Taranto in southern Italy.|
|705||Upon death of King Sargon II of Assyria, Sennacherib succeeded to the throne. During his reign, there was power struggle between the priest group and the commercial slave-owner group.|
|704||Mie Xiongtong, Prince of Chu, changed his title to King. This was the first Zhou vassal to assume the title of King.|
|701||Assyria defeated the Third Anti-Assyrian Coalition, conquered Philistine and ravaged Judah.|
|7th Century||The Greeks founded the Rhodes Regime on the Aegean Island of Rhodes.|
|c.7th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Videha in north India.
Vedicism of India evolved into Brahmanism.
|c.700||Achaemenes, Chief of the Persians, founded the Kingdom of Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty) in Fars, Iran.
The Greeks began to colonize the southern shore of Black Sea and formed the Republic of Panticapaeum.
The Thessalian tribes and city-states in northern Greece formed the Thessalian League, which also controlled the Amphictyony of Anthela.
The Etruscans founded 12 city-states in northern Italy, one of them being Veii. Later these city-states united to form the Etruscan League, which became a regional power in central and northern Italy. The city-states in Latium of Italy also formed the Latin League to protect themselves against the Etruscans.
|c.690||The Cimmerians invaded Asia Minor and destroyed Phrygia.|
|c.688||Rhodes founded the colony city-state of Gela in southern Italy.|
|685||Jiang Xiaobai became Prince of Qi. During his reign he appointed Guan Zhong as the Chief Minister. The power of Qi started to grow.|
|683||Abolition of the Athenian monarchy and the establishment of the Republic of Athens, which was ruled by an oligarchy, composed of the "Nine Archons": Archon Eponymous, Archon Basileus, Polemarch and 6 Thesmothetai, all were elected by the Areopagus (Council of Nobles).|
|681||Sennacherib was killed by his son. Esarhaddon succeeded to the Assyrian throne and suppressed the civil strife.|
|c.680||Pheidon, a royal member of Argos, seized the throne in a coup. During his reign the power of Argos started to grow.|
|676||Orthagoras, a military officer of Sicyon under the suzerainty of Argos, rebelled against Argos and made himself Tyrant of the Sicyon Regime.|
|671||King Esarhaddon of Assyria invaded Egypt. Having captured Memphis, he took the title of "King of Upper and Lower Egypt and Nubia".|
|669||Esarhaddon died in a second invasion of Egypt. He was succeeded by Ashurbanipal.|
|c.663||King Ashurbanipal of Assyria captured Thebes and annexed the Nile Delta. In opposition to Assyria, Psamtik I established Egypt (Twenty-Sixth Dynasty) (also called Sais Dynasty) with the capital Sais.|
|c.657||General Kypselos of Corinth overthrew Bacchiad Dynasty and established Corinth (Kypselid Dynasty).|
|c.656||Psamtik I expelled the Kushites and Assyrians from Egypt. Egypt resumed independence. End of Egypt (Twenty-Fifth Dynasty).|
|651||Jiang Xiaobai, Prince of Qi, summoned a general conference with other Princes in Kuiqiu and formed the Kuiqiu Alliance. Jiang Xiaobai became the overlord of the Zhou Princes. Since then there appeared five overlords. (The Five Overlords refer to the five powers of Qi, Song, Jin, Qin, Chu. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, two more powers - Wu and Yue emerged.)|
|c.650||Rise of the Kingdom of Magadha (Haryanka Dynasty) in north India.
Perdiccas I founded the Kingdom of Macedon (Argead Dynasty) in the region of Macedonia (including parts of present-day Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece) centred at present-day northern Greece.
Aristomenes of Arcadia led the Messenians to revolt against Sparta, the Second Messenian War broke out. The Messenian revolt was crushed by Sparta in c.630.
|c.640||Lydia began to mint coins, probably the oldest coins in the world.|
|639||King Ashurbanipal of Assyria destroyed Elam and looted its captial Susa.|
|638||Zi Zifu, Prince of Song, attempted to establish his hegemony but failed after being defeated by Chu.|
|632.4M||Jin defeated Chu in the Battle of Chengpu. In the same year Ji Chonger, Prince of Jin summoned a general conference in Jiantu with the other Princes and formed the Jiantu Alliance. Ji Chonger thus became an overlord of the Zhou Princes.|
|c.632||Cylon, an Athenian noble, attempted to seize power and established a tyranny, but failed. His followers were slaugtered by Megacles, Chief of the Alcmaeonid Clan (Curse of the Alcmaeonid).|
|c.630||Cyaxares became King od Media. During his reign he strengthened the army by imitating the Assyrian military system and made Media a regional power in West Asia.
Battus I of Thera (in Greece) founded the colony city-state - Kingdom of Cyrene (Battid Dynasty) in Libya.
|c.626||Nabopolassar, Chief of the Chaldaeans, occupied Babylon and established Babylon (Tenth Dynasty) (also called [New] Babylon or Chaldaean Dynasty).|
|623||Ying Renhao, Prince of Qin, defeated the "barbarian" tribes in western China and established his hegemony. Thereafter, Qin emerged as a power in western China.|
|622||King Josiah of Judah carried out political and religious reforms: debt abatement and establishment of Jehovah as the sole god of the whole country.|
|c.620||In a legal reform, Draco, Archon of Athens, enacted stringent laws to limit the privileges of the nobility.|
|c.616||Tarquinius Priscus, Chief of the Estruscans, invaded Rome. Having overthrown Romulus Dynasty, he established Tarquin Dynasty.|
|612||The coalition army of [New] Babylon and Media captured Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, which amounted to a deadly blow to the power of Assyria.|
|c.610||According to legend, Lycurgus, a Spartan statesman, implemented the Eunomia by which he militarized the country and defined the powers of the Kings, the Ephors (Chief Magistrates), the Gerousia (Elders' Council) and the Apella (Citizens' Council).|
|609||Upon death of King Psamik I of Egypt, Neko II succeeded to the throne. To scramble for the hegemony in West Asia with [New] Babylon, Egypt sent an army to help Assyria recapture Harran. The coalition army of Egypt and Assyria was defeated by [New] Babylon. Assyria was finally destroyed. End of the New Kingdom Period of Assyria.|
|606||Mie Lu, King of Chu, led his army to the vicinity of Luoyi, capital of [Eastern] Zhou and challenged the authority of Zhou King, revealing his ambition to become the overlord of the Zhou vassals.|
|605||In the Battle of Carchemish, [New] Babylon defeated Egypt, thus expelling Egyptian influence from Syria-Palestine.|
|6th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Colchis in western Georgia.|
|c.6th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Nepal in the Himalayan region.
Rise of the Kingdom of Kosala, Kingdom of Kasi, Kingdom of Anga, Republic of Malla in north India, Kingdom of Avanti in west India and Kingdom of Kalinga in south India.
Kuru (Hastinapura Government) moved its capital to Kausambi and was renamed as the Kingdom of Vatsa.
The north Indian city-states of Licchavi and Videha united to form the Republic of Vajji.
The Sakas (called Sacae or Scythians by the Westerners) formed the Saka Confederacy on the Kazakh Steppe.
The most ancient part of the classic Avesta in Central Asia and Iran was formed.
The Sarmatians formed the Sarmatian Confederacy in the area around Kazakh Steppe and Russian Steppe.
|c. 1st Half of 6th Century||Rise of the Kingdom of Gandhara in west India.|
|c.600||Thebes forced the city-states in the Boeotian region to recognize its hegemony and formed the Boeotian League.|
|597.3.16||King Nebuchadrezzar II of [New] Babylon captured Jerusalem and took a large number of people captive from Judah to Babylon (First Babylonian Captivity).|
|597.6M||In the Battle of Bi, Jin Pincipality was defeated by Chu Kingdom. The hegemony of Jin thus declined and was replaced by Chu.|
|c.595||Urartu was destroyed under the joint attack of Media and the Scythians.|
|594||Lu implemented a taxation system, which amounted to the adoption of the private land ownership system in place of the original "Nine Square System" (a serf system).
Solon became the Athenian Archon and launched reforms to curtail the privileges of the nobility.
|591||The Zhongsun Clan, Shusun Clan and Jisun Clan (collectively called the "Three Huan Clans") of the Lu Principality began to take control of the Lu regime.|
|c.590||The Greek city-state of Crisa attempted to occupy Delphi, the holy land of Greece. Thessaly, in command of the Amphictyony of Anthela, staged the First Sacred War and attacked Crisa, which was demolished in the next year. The war confirmed the status of the Amphictyony of Anthela as the administrator of Delphi.|
|588.1||King Zedekiah allied with Tyre and Egypt in opposition to [New] Babylon, which attacked Judah and beseiged Jerusalem. In 587 Zedekiah was captured. In 586.7 Judah was conquered and a large number of Jews were carried captive to Babylon (Second Babylonian Captivity).|
|c.581||Gela founded the colony city-state of Agrigentum in southern Italy.|
|579||Hua Yuan, a senior official of Song, caused Jin and Chu to reach a peace agreement. Since then the Zhou vassals convened a number of peace conferences in an attempt to bring about general peace. But the efforts were in vain.|
|c.578||Upon death of King Tarquinius Priscus of Rome, Servius Tullius succeeded to the throne. During his reign he carried out reforms to divide the people into five classes. He also set up new military units called centuries and the new popular assembly called Comitia Centuriata.|
|575||In the Battle of Yanling, Jin defeated the joint forces of Chu and Zheng and thus revived the hegemony of Jin.|
|c.570||The two Greek allies of Chalcis and Eretria were engaged in the Lelantine War in a scamble for Lelantine Plain. Chalcis was victorious.|
|569||Evelthon the Greek founded the Kingdom of Salamis on the island of Cyprus.|
|562||The "Three Huan Clans" of Lu Principality divided the army of the Prince of Lu and deprived him of his military force.|
|561||Peisistratus, a Greek noble, seized power and established a tyranny in Athens. Thereafter, Peisistratus seized power again in 555 and 541.|
|c.559||Cyrus II became King of Persia.|
|554||Zi Chan became the Chief Minister of Zheng Principality and carried out reforms. Under his rule, the country was powerful and prosperous for a short period.|
|c.551||Death of Zoroaster, religious leader of Media. During his lifetime he founed Zoroastrianism in Central Asia and Iran.|
|Mid-6th Century||Having conquered Sindh and Baluchistan in West India and the Gulf Region in Arabian Peninsula, Persia established the Satrapy of Maka.|
|550||Persia destroyed Media and unified Iran. Thereafter Persia began to expand its territories and grew into a transcontinental empire.|
|c.546||Persia destroyed Lydia and conquered Ionia.
In the Battle of the 300 Champions, Sparta defeated Argos. Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League (which had excluded Argos and Achaea) and established its hegemony in Pelopnnesus.
|c.544||Bimbisara became King of Magadha. During his reign he conquered Avanti.|
|539.10.12||Persia destroyed [New] Babylon and conquered Mesopotamia and Syria.|
|c.529||In an expedition to Central Asia, King Cyrus II of Persia was killed by the Massagetae (a tribe of the Sarmatians). Cambyses II succeeded to the Persian throne.|
|527||Upon death of Peisistratus, the Athenian Tyrant, Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded to the position.|
|c.527||According to Jainist legend, Mahavira (originally named Vardhamana, also titled Jain), a religious leader in India, died in this year. (His actual years of birth and death should be c.540-c.468). During his lifetime Mahavira founded Jainism.|
|525||Upon conquest of Egypt, King Cambyses II of Persia took the title of Egyptian Pharoah. Persian Kings started to assume the title of Egyptian Pharoahs, which is called Egypt (Twenty-Seventh Dynasty) by historians. End of the Libya-Sais Period of Egypt.|
|515.4M||Wu Guang became King of Wu. He appointed Wu Yun as his Chief Minister, under whose rule Wu became a regional power.|
|510||Cleisthenes, leader of the Athenian commons, overthrew the Tyrant Hippias and defeated Isagoras, leader of the nobles. In 508 Cleisthenes carried out democratic reform in which he divided the whole country into ten local tribes (phylai) and 30 "trittyes". A Council (Boule) of 500 and a Group of 50 were set up to hold the supreme powers. A democratic system among the slave-owners was thus established in Athens.|
|c.509||The Romans, under the leadership of Brutus, overthrew Tarquin Dynasty and founded the Roman Republic. The position of two Praetors (later renamed as Consuls), who were to be elected by the Comitia Centuriata, was established to rule the country.|
|505.6M||Yang Hu, a minister of the Jisun Clan, usurped the powers of the "Three Huan Clans" and became de facto ruler of Lu Principality. In 502 the "Three Huan Clans" defeated Yang Hu and regained powers.|