A Chronology of World Political History
(2001 C.E. - )

DateHistorical Event
2001.1.7 As President Rawlings of Ghana stepped down, civilian rule was restored in Ghana.
George Walker Bush succeeded as USA President. During his presidency he adopted the Unilateralist policy in an attempt to establish USA's hegemony in the world.
Thaksin, leader of the Thais Love Thais Party, succeeded as the Prime Minister of Thailand.
2001.5.31 The Commonwealth of Independent States Customs Union was reorganised as the Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC).
2001.6.1 Having murdered King Birendra of Nepal and several royal members, Prince Dipendra was shot unconscious. Dipendra was proclaimed as King of Nepal. On ..4 of the same month, Dipendra died. The former King Gyanendra was restored to the throne. During his reign he restored the King's political power. Nepal's democracy suffered a setback.
2001.6.7 Participating states of the GUAM Alliance signed a charter and established the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
2001.6.15 Uzbekistan joined the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) was established.
2001.7.24 Simeon Koburgotski, (previously called Simeon II), former Tsar of Bulgaria, succeeded as Premier, thus ending the alternate rule of the Socialist Party and the Union of Democratic Forces.
2001.9.11 al-Qaeda, an Afghan terrorist organisation, launched the "September 11th Terrorist Attacks" on USA.
2001.10.7 USA launched the "War on Terrorism" and conducted air-raids on Afghanistan. USA allied with the Anti-Taliban Alliance against the Taliban Government of Afghanistan. On .11.13 of the same year the Taliban Government collapsed. On .11.17 the Anti-Taliban Alliance established a government.
2001.12.23 A new constitution of Comoros was ratified. On 2002.1.20, Azali, Head of State of Comoros, stepped down.
2002.1.18 The Sierra Leone Civil War came to an end.
2002.2 The Algerian army killed Zouabri, head of the Armed Islamic Group. Since then the Armed Islamic Group declined and the Algerian Civil War gradually subsided.
2002.2.22 Ravalomanana made himself President of Madagascar in opposition to President Ratsiraka, resulting in a situation of two governments and political turmoil in Madagascar. On .4.30 of the same year, the provinces under Madagascar unilaterally declared independence. From .6.13 onwards, Ravalomanana regained control of the independent provinces. On .7.5 Ratsiraka was forced to step down.
2002.3.10 The new constitution of Comoros came into effect. Anjouan, Moheli and Grande Comore became autonomous islands under Comoros. Anjouan thus reverted under the suzerainty of Comoros.
2002.4.19 The [East] Congo Government and the various opposition forces signed the Sun City Agreement which provided for a multipartite coalition government. Later, the [East] Congo Government also concluded peace with Rwanda and Uganda.
2002.5.6 As President Chirac of France was reelected, Premier Jospin resigned, thus ending the third "Political Cohabitation".
2002.5.20 East Timor formally gained independence. The Democratic Republic of East Timor was reestablished.
2002.5.26 Azali, former Head of State of Comoros, was inaugurated as popularly-elected President. During his tenure he carried out constitutional reforms.
2002.7.9 The Organization of African Unity was reorganised as the African Union (AU).
2002.9.19 The Ivory Coast Patriotic Movement started a rebellion. The First Ivorian Civil War broke out. The country split into two parts when the Patriotic Movement seized control of the northern part. In December of the same year, the Patriotic Movement formed the New Forces with the other rebels.
2002.10 USA discovered that [North] Korea was secretly developing nuclear weapons. The Korean Nuclear Crisis resumed.

King Gyanendra of Nepal dissovled the Parliament and reestablished an absolute monarchy.

Bozize, a Central African military officer, started a revolt.
2002.12.30 President Moi of Kenya stepped down and Kenya African National Union lost the ruling party status.
2003.2.4 Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederation and was renamed the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
2003.2.26 Non-Arab ethnic groups in the Darfur region of [East] Sudan rose against the [East] Sudanese Government, which marked the beginning of the War in Darfur.
2003.3.15 Bozize, a Central African rebel leader, seized power.
2003.3.21 Alleging that Iraq was storing weapons of mass destruction, USA and Britain launched the Iraqi War and invaded Iraq. On .4.9 of the same year, the coalition army captured Baghdad and overthrew President Saddam. Military rule was then established in Iraq. Resistance movements sprang up throughout Iraq. On .7.13 a Governing Council was set up in Iraq.
2003.4.30 President Buyoya of Burundi stepped down and was succeeded by Ndayizeye. During his tenure Ndayizeye was committed to making peace between the Hutus and Tutsis.
2003.6.30 The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of [East] Congo formed a transitional government with various parties, thus ending the one-party rule and the Second Congo War.
2003.8.18 Various parties of Liberia signed the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement, thereby ending the Second Liberian Civil War.
2003.11 Large-scale mass movements broke out in Georgia. On ..23 of the same month, President Shevardnadze was forced to resign (the Rose Revolution).
2004.2.27 French Polynesia became an overseas country of France.
2004.6 The Houthis revolted against the Government of the General People's Congress in Yemen.
2004.6.28 The USA and British occupation troops transferred power to the Iraqi Government.
2004.8.27 [North] Korea, [South] Korea, China, USA, Russia and Japan started to hold the Six-Party Talks on the Korean Peninsula with a view to resolving the Korean Nuclear Crisis.
2004.10.14 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a warlord of Somalia, was inaugurated as President. On .11.3 of the same year in Kenya, he formed the Somali Transitional Federal Government, which was recognized by certain neighbouring countries but was in exile.
2004.11 Alleging that Premier Yanukovych of Ukraine was engaged in fraudulence in the last presidential election, Yushchenko, former Premier, launched an anti-governmental mass campaign (the Orange Revolution). In the same month, the Parliament nullified the election results. In December another presidential election was held and was won by Yushchenko. On 2005.1.23 Yushchenko succeeded as President of Ukraine.
2005.1.9 The [Eastern] Sudanese Government concluded peace with the Southern Sudanese guerillas, thus ending the Second Sudanese Civil War. On .7.9 of the same year the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was re-established.
2005.2.5 Upon death of President Eyadema, his son Faure succeeded to the presidency, but was forced to step down under international pressure on ..4 of the same month. After he won the presidential election held in April, he returned to the presidency on .5.4.
2005.2.14 Fomer Premier al-Hariri of Lebanon was assassinated. On ..21 of the same month mass campaigns against Syria broke out in Lebanon requesting for the withdrawal of the Syrian troops. On .4.27 Syria was compelled to pull out all its troops from Lebanon (the Cedar Revolution). Lebanon was thus freed from the occupation of all foreign armed forces.
2005.3.18 Large-scale mass campaign against President Akayev broke out in Kyrgyzstan. On ..23 of the same month, Akayev fled abroad (the Tulip Revolution).
2005.8.3 President Taya of Mauritania was ousted in the wake of a coup. Thereafter Mauritania was beset by political turmoil.
2005.8.15 The Indonesian Government concluded peace with the Free Aceh Movement whereby both parties ceased fire.
2005.8.26 Nkurunziza became a popularly-elected President of Burundi. The Burundian Civil War officially came to an end.
2006.2.4 Mass anti-governmental protests arose in Thailand. Thereafter, anti-governmental and pro-governmental protests led to political crisis in Thailand. On .9.19 military leader Sonthi staged a coup and ousted Prime Minister Thaksin and his Thais Love Thais Government. Thailand reverted to military rule.
2006.2.26 The Somali Transitional Federal Government was moved to Baidoa in Somalia. On .12.21 of the same year, the joint forces of the Somali Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia captured the capital Mogadishu. On ..29 the Transitional Federal Government was moved to Mogadishu and became the first internationally recognized Somali government that is able to control the capital ever since 1991.
2006.4 The Second Popular Movement broke out in Nepal against the autocratic rule of King Gyanendra. On .5.19 of the same year, the parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in Nepal.
2006.4.6 President Kerekou of Benin stepped down and ended his prolonged rule.
2006.6.3 Montenegro declared independence.
2006.6.5 The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was formally dissolved. Serbia became an independent state.
2006.7.31 F. Castro R., President of the Council of State of Cuba, being unable to perform his duties, delegated his authority to his brother Raul Modesto Castro Ruz who became the Acting President of the Council of State. On 2008.2.24 R.M. Castro R. officially succeeded to the presidency.
2006.10.13 A number of insurgent militant groups and terrorist groups in Iraq formed the Islamic State of Iraq. Later its influence was extended to Syria.
2006.11.21 The Nepalese Government reached a peace agreement with the Communist Party (Maoist), thus ending the Nepalese Civil War.
2006.12.5 Bainimarama, a Fijian military officer, staged a coup to seize power. On 2007.1.5 he became the Prime Minister.
2007.2.8 Bhutan and India revised the Treaty of Friendship by which Bhutan ceased to be a client state of India.
2007.3.4 The Ivory Coast Government concluded a peace agreement with the New Forces, thus ending the civil war.
2007.6.17 Two rival governments appeared in Palestine, with the West Bank under the control of the Palestinian National Liberation Movement (commonly called Fatah) and Gaza Strip under the control of the Islamic Resistance Movement (commonly called Hamas).
2007.8.15 Anti-government mass campaign broke out in Burma. Later a large number of monks joined the protests, which was thus called the Saffron Revolution (also called the Cassock Revolution). On .9.27 of the same year, the Burmese Government began to crack down on the anti-government movement.
2008.1.29 As Thailand reverted to civilian rule, the People's Power Party (previously Thais Love Thais Party) assumed power.
2008.2.17 Kosovo unilaterally declared independence again.
2008.4.9 The first party cabinet appeared in Bhutan. On .7.18 of the same year a constitution was enacted in Bhutan, which marked the beginning of the constitutional system of Bhutan.
2008.5.23 The South American countries established the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) with a view to promoting regional cooperation.
2008.5.28 The monarchical system was officially abolished in Nepal.
2008.8.7 In an attempt to resume control of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Georgia staged the Second South Ossetia War (also called Russo-Georgian War). Later, Russia, in support of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, also got itself involved in the war. On ..16 of the same month, Russia and Ossetia signed a ceasefire agreement.
2008.8.18 President Musharraf of Pakistan stepped down, which marked the end of military rule in Pakistan.
2008.8.26 People's Alliance for Democracy (commnonly called the Yellow Shirts), an opposition group of Thailand, organized mass protests against the Government of the People's Power Party. Later conflicts arose between the Alliance and the pro-governmental National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (commnonly called the Red Shirts) and led to serious political crisis. The ruling People's Power Party was forced to step down on .12.2 and was replaced by the Democratic Party, which was supported by the Red Shirts, on .12.15.
2008.9.14 A financial crisis named the "Financial Tsunami" broke out in USA and led to a global economic crisis.
2008.9.26 Turkmenistan put an end to its one-party system.
2008.11.1 The Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland was established from a splinter group from the People's Party. The Swiss Government thus changed from a 4-party coalition to a 5-party coalition.
2008.11.11 As President Gayoom stepped down, a democratic system was established in Maldives.
A group of Chinese pro-democracy activists including Liu Xiaobo issued the the Charter requesting the Government to carry out various reforms, thus launching the Charter 08 Campaign. The campaign was suppressed by the Government in the same year.
2008.12.22 President Conte of Guinea died. On ..24 of the same month, military officer Camara staged a coup and seized power.
Obama was inaugurated as USA President and became the first African American President of USA.
2009.5.18 The Sri Lankan government forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, putting an end to the Sri Lankan Civil War.
2009.6.16 Four newly emerging and fast growing developing economies - Brazil, Russia, India and China (commonly called the BRIC states) held the first summit, which laid the foundation of their future cooperation.
2009.7 Boko Haram, a Nigerian terrorist group, started revolt in Nigeria. Later its influence was extended to Chad, Cameroon and Niger.
2009.11 A financial crisis broke out in Greece and subsequently spread to other European countries, developing into the "European Sovereign Debt Crisis".
2010.2.25 Yanukovych succeeded as President of Ukarine. During his presidency, he adopted pro-Russian policies.
2010.4.10 The Thai Red Shirts organized mass protests against the Government of the Democratic Party. The protest was finally crushed by the army. Thereafter, the conflicts between the Red Shirts and the Yellow Shirts gradually subsided.
2010.10.10 With the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Curacao and Sint Maarten became self-governing countries of Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius became special municipalities of Netherlands.
2010.12.4 Outtara was elected President of Ivory Coast. A political crisis set in when the incumbent President Gbagbo refused to accept the election results.
2010.12.18 Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Tunisia. On 2011.1.14 President Ali fled the country (Tunisian Revolution, also called the Jasmine Revolution). Subsequently civil uprisings spread to various countries in Middle East (the Arab Spring).
2010.12.21 Civilian rule was restored in Guinea.
2011.1.18 Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Yemen and quickly evolved into armed conflicts (Yemeni Uprising).
2011.1.25 Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Egypt. On .2.10 President Mubarak announced transfer of political power and was forced to resign on ..11 (Egyptian Revolution).
2011.1.26 Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Syria. Amid suppression by the government, the campaign later evolved into the Syrian Civil War.
2011.2.14 Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Bahrain and quickly evolved into armed conflicts (Bahraini Uprising). In May of the same year the Government cracked down on the uprising. Thereafter Bahrain continued to be beset by political unrest.
2011.2.15 Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Libya. Amid suppression by the government, the campaign soon developed into the Libyan Civil War. On .3.5 the rebels formed the Transitional National Council in Benghazi.
2011.3.19 The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation intervened in the Libyan Civil War by supporting the Libyan rebels' resistance against the government.
2011.3.28 President Outtara of Ivory Coast formed the Republican Forces with the New Forces to oppose Gbagbo. The Second Ivorian Civil War broke out.
2011.3.30 Thein Sein became President of Burma, whick marked the end of military rule in Burma. Thein Sein began to carry out democratic reform and released political prisoners.
2011.4.11 The Ivory Coast Republican Forces captured Gbagbo, thus ending the civil war.
2011.4.14 Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa held a summit meeting, thus expanding the BRIC states to the BRICS states.
2011.5.2 USA special forces attacked and killed bin Laden, head of the Afghan terrorist orgainsation al-Qaeda, in Pakistan.
2011.7.9 Southern Sudan gained independence from [Eastern] Sudan and was renamed South Sudan.
2011.8.8 For Thais Party (previously People's Power Party) rose to power in Thailand.
2011.8.23 The Libyan rebels captured the capital Tripoli and toppled al-Qadhdhafi's government. After al-Qadhdhafi was killed on .10.20, the Libyan Civil War came to an end.
2011.12.18 USA troops withdrew completely from Iraq, ending the Iraqi War.
2012.1.16 The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad made up of the Tuaregs started a rebellion in northern Mali (Northern Mali Conflict). On .3.22 President A.T. Toure of Mali was ousted in a coup. On .4.6 the National Movement unilaterally declared establishment of the independent State of Azawad. But later further conflict broke out between the National Movement and the Islamist groups in Azawad.
2012.1.22 President Saleh of Yemen left his country and ended his autocratic rule.
2012.2.15 A National Constititional Conference attended by the various political forces in eastern and southern Somalia was held in Garowe to conclude peace. On ..18 of the same month the Somali Transitional Federal Government recognized Puntland and Galamdug as autonomous states. On 2013.8.28 the Transitional Federal Government also recognized Jubaland as an autonomous state.
2012.2.27 A multi-party system was adopted in Syria upon implementation of the new constitution. But the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party remained in power and the civil war continued.
2012.6.30 Morsi was inaugurated as a popularly elected president of Egypt.
2012.11.11 The Syrian rebels formed the National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces in opposition to the government led by the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party.
Xi Jinping succeeded as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. He became the President of China on 2013.3.14.
2013.1.6 The Palestinian National Authority unilaterally declared reestablishment of the State of Palestine.
2013.4.8 The Islamic State of Iraq was renamed the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL for short).
2013.4.28 Badr and other opponents of President Morsi of Egypt organized the Egyptian Tamarod Movement, which developed into widespread anti-governmental campaign on .6.30 of the same year.
2013.6.30 The Egyptian military staged a coup and ousted President Morsi (Egyptian Coup d'etat). Violent clashes broke out between Morsi's supporters (Muslim Brotherhood being the main force) and the military. On .8.14 of the same year Morsi's supporters were suppressed by the military.
2013.9 President Xi Jinpinag of China proposed the Silk Road Economic Belt initiative, and later proposed the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road initiative in 2013.10. Thereafter, the two initiatives were collectively called the Belt and Road Initiative.
2013.11.2 A popular movement (called Euromaidan) against President Yanukovych's pro-Russian policies broke out in Ukraine. The movement later developed into a widespread anti-governmental campaign. On 2014.2.22 Yanukovych fled to Russia.
2013.11.4 A large scale anti-governmental campaign broke out in Thailand, which brought the country into turmoil. On 2014.5.22, Prayuth, a military officer, overthrew the government of the For Thais Party and suppressed the ant-governmental campaign.
2014.2.26 Pro-Russian forces in Crimea began to seize control of the Crimean Peninsula and force Ukrainian troops to withdraw, which led to the Crimean Crisis. On .3.17 of the same year Crimea unilaterally declared independence from Ukraine. On ..21 Crimea was annexed to Russia, causing tension between Russia and the Western countries.
2014.3.18 In opposition to the Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement signed between Taiwan and Mainland China, Taiwan students staged the Sunflower Student Movement and occupied the Legislative chamber. On .4.6 of the same year the Legislative Yuan promised to postpone review of the Agreement. On ..10 the participating students vacated the Legislative chamber.
2014.4.7 The War in Donbass broke out as Russia induced Donetsk to declare independence unilaterally from Ukraine. On ..27 of the same month, Russia also induced Lugansk to declare independence unilaterally from Ukraine.
2014.6.2 The two Palestinian Governments controlled by Fatah and Hamas were reunited.
2014.9.21 When the Houthis took control of the Yemeni capital Sana, the General People's Congress was forced to form a unity government with the Houthis.
2014.9.26 Popular discontent with the Chinese Government's intervention into Hong Kong's democratic development led to an anti-governmental campaign, which came to be called the Umbrella Revolution in Hong Kong. On .12.15 of the same year, the campaign was suppressed by Hong Kong Government.
2015.2.6 The Houtihs toppled the Government of the General People's Congress in Sana and replaced it with the Revolutionary Committee. On ..21 of the same month the General People's Congress reestablished a government in Aden in opposition to the Houthi Government.
2015.3 Boko Haram, a Nigerian terrorist group, announced allegiance to ISIL and was renamed the Islamic State West Africa Province.
2016.2.4 A number of Pacific Rim countries signed the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement to promote free trade in the Asia-Pacific region.
2016.3.20 The National League for Democracy came to power in Burma, with Aung San Suu Kyi holding real power.
2016.12.1 After a defeat in the presidential election, President Jammeh of the Gambia attempted to annul the results. After the Economic Community of West African States sent troops into the Gambia on 2017.1.19, Jammeh was finally forced to resign and end his dictatorship on ..21 of the same month.
2017.3.10 Nagorno-Karabakh was renamed Republic of Artsakh.
2017.4.9 South Ossetia was renamed Republic of South Ossetia-State of Alania.
2017.11.14 The Zimbabwe military force staged a coup d'etat. President Mugabe was forced to resign and end his dictatorship on ..21 of the same month.
2019.2.12 Macedonia was renamed Republic of North Macedonia.
2019.3.21 ISIL was extermianted when the last bastion of ISIL was captured by Kurdish military forces in Syria.
2019.4.11 President al-Bashir of [East] Sudan was overthrown amidst a coup d'etat.

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