A Chronology of World Political History
(1961 - 1980 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1961 The Sandinist National Liberation Front of Nicaragua rose against the dictatorial rule of the Somoza Family. The Nicaraguan Civil War broke out.
1961.1.7 Some African countries held the a summit meeting in Casablanca of Morocco and endorsed the Charter of Casablanca by which they formed the Casablanca Bloc. In May of the same year 20 African countries met in Monrovia and formed the Monrovia Bloc. The African countries were thus divided into two blocs.
1961.2.4 The Angolan Popular Liberation Movement led by Neto rose against Portuguese colonial rule. The Angolan War of National Liberation broke out. Later the National Front for the Liberation of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola also joined the rebellion.
1961.2.9 Mobutu, de facto ruler of [East] Congo, returned the power to President Kasavubu. On .8.5 of the same year, the leftists and rightists of [East] Congo concluded peace and the First Stanleyville Government was dissolved. But soon the [East] Congolese Government suppressed the leftists. On .12.30 [East] Congo conquered South Kasai.
1961.4.17 USA induced a group of Cuban rebellious forces to occupy the Giron Beach in an attempt to topple the leftist government. On ..19 of the same month, the military actions failed (Giron Beach Incident (also called the Bay of Pigs Incident).
1961.4.27 Sierra Leone gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Sierra Leone.
1961.5.16 Park Chung Hee, a [South] Korean military officer, staged the "May 16th Coup" and set up a military government. Since then [South] Korea was under prolonged military dicatorship.
1961.5.30 R.L. Trujillo, de facto ruler of the Dominican Republic, was assassinated. Thereafter there was opposition against the Trujillo Family. On .11.19 the dictatorship of the Trujillo Family was overthrown.
1961.5.31 South Africa ended its dominion status and established the Republic of South Africa. By withdrawing from the British Commonwealth, South Africa became isolated in the international community. In June of the same year, the African National Congress rose against the racist rule of the South African Gvoernment.
1961.6.1 Britain incorporated the northern part of Western Cameroon into Nigeria. On .10.1 of the same year, the southern part of Western Cameroon was annexed into Cameroon.
1961.6.2 Seven Latin American countries signed the Treaty of Montevideo and formed the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA). Since then there appeared a number of international organisations of economic cooperation formed by developing countries for the promotion of "South-South Cooperation".
1961.6.15 USSR demanded for the solution of the Berlin problem by the end of this year and created acute tension with the West (the Third Berlin Crisis). On .8.13 [East] Germany constructed the Berlin Wall to contain West Berlin, which aroused strong protest from the West. In October USSR cancelled the time limit.
1961.6.19 Kuwait gained independence from Britain.
1961.7 The Cuban leftist parties (including the Revolutionary Movement of July 26th, People's Socialist Party and Revolutionary Directory March 13th) united to form the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution and established one-party rule in the country.
1961.8.17 USA signed the Alliance for Progress Charter with the Latin American countries and launched a scheme called the "Alliance for Progress", under which USA was to provide the Latin American countries with various kinds of assistance to prevent the spread of Communism in Latin America. The scheme came to an end in 1973.
1961.9 The Eritrean Liberation Front rebelled against the Ethiopian Government. The Eritrean War broke out. In 1978 the Liberation Front was reorganised as the People's Liberation Front.
1961.9.1 25 countries held the First Summit Meeting of Non-Aligned Nations in Belgrade and formally formed the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which became an international power evenly matched with the Western Bloc and the Communist Bloc.
1961.9.7 Goulart succeeded as President of Brazil. During his presidency he carried out radical reforms which led to economic turmoil.
1961.9.11 Barzani, President of the Kurdish Democratic Party, staged a revolt against the Iraqi Government and led to the First Iraqi-Kurdish War.
1961.9.28 The Syrian military officers staged the Syrian Independence Coup and established the Syrian Arab Republic. Syria proclaimed withdrawal from UAR, which was thus left with the region of Egypt.
1961.9.30 OEEC was reorganised as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
1961.10 Turkey adopted the parliamentary cabinet system.
1961.12 The Salvadorian military government organised the National Conciliation Party and started its prolonged rule. The Party continued to adopt the military reformist policies.
1961.12.9 Tanganyika gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Tanganyika. On .12.9 of the next year, it ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Tanganyika. Nyerere started his prolonged rule.
1961.12.11 USSR severed relation with Albania.
1961.12.26 UAR proclaimed dissolution of the United Arab States.
1962 Maldives destroyed Suvadiva.
1962.1.1 Western Samoa gained independence from New Zealand and established the Independent State of Western Samoa.
1962.3.16 India resumed sovereignty over Portuguese India from Portugal.
1962.3.18 France concluded the Evian-les-Bains Agreement with the Algerian Government-in-Exile and ended the war. France recognized the right of self-determination of Algeria. On .7.3 of the same year, Algeria formally declared independence from France. On .7.24 ben Bella became the Premier (He became the President on 1963.9.20).
1962.5.26 In contention for Dutch New Guinea (also called Western Irian), Indonesia and the Netherlands entered into the Western Irian War. On .8.15 of the same year, the two countries agreed that Western Irian shall be taken over by the United Nations on .10.1. On 1963.5.1 the United Nations handed Western Irian to Indonesia.
1962.5.31 Britain dissolved the Federation of the British West Indies. Thereafter various British dependencies on Carribean Sea gained independence sucessively.
1962.6.11 The Laotian leftist, centrist and rightist wings formed the Second Coalition Government, with Phouma being the Prime Minister again.
1962.7 USSR began to transport missiles to Cuba to threaten USA. On .10.22 of the same year, USA proclaimed a blockade of Cuba and requested USSR to withdraw all the missiles from Cuba. The incident was called the Cuban Missile Crisis by historians. On .12.6 USSR withdrew all missiles.
1962.7.1 Rwanda and Urundi declared independence from Belgium. Urundi adopted a constitutional form of government.
1962.8.2 Five Central American countries founded the Central American Common Market (CACM).
1962.8.6 Jamaica gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Jamaica, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1962.8.31 Trinidad and Tobago gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Trinidad and Tobago, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1962.9.26 as-Sallal, head of the [Northern] Yemen Free Officers, launched the "September 26th" Revolution. After overthrowing King al-Badr, he established a Republican Government. al-Badr summoned the royalists to oppose the Republican Government, which led to the [Northern] Yemen Civil War. Subsequently Saudi Arabia and UAR supported al-Badr and the Republican Government, respectively.
1962.10.9 Uganda gained independence from Britain and established the Ugandan Regeime, which was a British dominion. On .10.9 of the next year, Uganda ended its dominion status.
1962.11.11 Kuwait promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.
1962.11.14 Ethiopia abolished the federal system. Eritrea became a province of Ethiopia.
1963.1.13 Eyadema, a Togolese military officer, staged a coup and toppled the Government of the Unity Party. On .5.5 he returned power to a civilian government.
1963.1.18 Britain reorganised the Colony of Aden as the State of Aden, which became one state of the Federation of South Arabia. Britain united those princely states which refused to join the Federation of South Arabia in southern Yemen as the Protectorate of South Arabia.
1963.1.23 African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde led by Cabral started a rebellion in Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde Islands against Portuguese colonial rule. The Guinea-Bissau War of National Liberation broke out.
1963.2.8 al-Bakr, leader of the Iraqi Socialist Arab Rebirth Party, united with military officer Abd as-Salam Mohammed Arif to stage a coup and overthrew Premier Qasim. On .11.18 of the same year A.S.M. Arif purged the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party. Iraq then came under the rule of the Arif Family.
1963.2.27 Bosch succeeded as President of the Dominican Republic. During his presidency he carried out democratic reforms. On .9.25 the rightist military men staged a coup to overthrow Bosch.
1963.3.8 The Sryian Socialist Arab Rebirth Party united with the Nasserites to launch the "March 3rd Revolution" and seize power. On .7.27 of the same year, the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party expelled the Nasserites and seized the supreme power.
1963.3.31 13 Guatemalan military officers including Azurdia staged the Military Coup of the Thirteen Colonels to seize power and established a military dictatorship.
1963.4.7 Yugoslavia ratified a new constitution and implemented a new political system that decentralized powers to the constituent republics.
1963.5.25 The African countries held the Summit Conference of Independent African States in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia and established the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The Casablanca and Monrovia Blocs were thus united.
1963.7.11 Jijon, an Ecuadorian military officer, staged a coup and seized power.
1963.8 The Southern Yemen nationalist groups united to establish the National Liberation Front. On .10.14 of the same year, they rose against British rule.
1963.8.5 USA, Britain and USSR signed the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited nuclear testing in the atmosphere, outer space and underwater. The Cold War entered the period of Detente.
1963.8.15 Outbreak of the August Revolution of [West] Congo. President Youlou was overthrown. On the next day Massemba-Debat became the Chairman of National Council of the Revolution.
1963.9.16 Singapore, North Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Sarawak declared independence from Britain and united with Malaya to form the Federation of Malaysia.
1963.10.1 Nigeria ended its dominion status and established the Federal Republic of Nigeria (First Republic).
1963.10.3 Arellano, a Honduran military officer, seized power in a coup. Since then Honduras was under prolonged military dictatorial rule.
1963.10.27 Soglo, a military officer of Dahomey, staged a coup and overthrew the Government of the Democratic Union. On 1964.1.25 Soglo stepped down and civilian rule was restored.
1963.11 Swazi enacted a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.
1963.11.2 Duong Van Minh, a [South] Viet Nam military officer, staged a goup and established a military government. Since then [South] Viet Nam was under prolonged military dictatorial rule. On .1.30 of the next year, military officer Nguyen Khanh staged another coup to overthrow Duong Van Minh.
1963.12.10 Zanzibar gained independence from Britain and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1963.12.12 Kenya gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Kenya. On .12.12 of the next year, Kenya ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Kenya. Kenyatta and his political party Kenya African National Union started his long-time rule.
1963.12.15 Spanish Guinea was renamed Equatorial Guinea and began to exercise self-rule.
1963.12.31 The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved.
1964.1 In contention for the Ogaden district, Ethiopia and Somalia entered into the First Ogaden War. In March of the same year the two countries ceased fire.
1964.1.1 British Honduras became a British associated state.
1964.1.12 The Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar launched the January Revolution of Zanzibar and overthrew Sultan Jamshid and established a Republican Government.
1964.1.21 The UN forces annihilated Katanga. [East] Congo was thus reunified. In the same year, Gbenye, leader of the National Movement, rebelled and restarted the civil war. On .9.7 the rebels set up a government in Stanleyville (the Second Stanelyville Government).
1964.4.1 Branco, a Brazilian military officer, staged a coup to overthrow President Goulart and established a military dictatorship. This marked the end of the Second Republic of Brazil and the beginning of the "Military Republic".
1964.4.19 The Laotian rightist military officers staged the "April 19th Coup" and forced Prime Minister Phouma to expel the leftists. The Coalition Government collapsed.
1964.4.26 Tanganyika and Zanzibar were united to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. On .10.29 the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.
1964.6.2 Several Palestinian groups and armed forces united to form the Palestine Liberation Organization in Eastern Jerusalem to be the representative body of the Palestinians.
1964.6.15 77 countries and districts issued the Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries in Geneva whereby they formed the Group of Seventy-Seven (G-77) (the membership increased later) to strive for a New International Economic Order.
1964.7.6 Nyasaland gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Malawi. Banda started his prolonged rule.
1964.8.4 The USA navy was attacked by the [North] Viet Nam troops in Tonkin Gulf (the Tonkin Gulf Incident). Thereafter direct conflicts broke out between USA and [North] Viet Nam.
1964.9.21 Malta gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Malta, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1964.9.25 The Mozambique Liberation Front rose against Portuguese colonial rule. The Mozambique War of National Liberation broke out.
1964.10.14 A "palace coup" took place in USSR. Khrushchov, First Secretary of the Communist Party, was dismissed. Brezhnev succeeded as the the First Secretary. On ..15 of the same month, Kosygin succeeded as Chairman of the Council of Ministers. On 1965.12.9 Podgorny succeeded as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. A collective leadership was thus set up and it came to be known as the "Soviet Triumvirate".
1964.10.24 Northern Rhodesia declared independence from Britain and established the Republic of Zambia. Kaunda started his prolonged rule. Southern Rhodesia was thus renamed Rhodesia.
1964.11.4 The Bolivarian armed forces staged a coup to overthrow the Government of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement. Thereafter Bolivia came under military rule again.
1964.12 Five Central African countries signed a treaty in Brazzaville whereby they were to establish a customs and economic union. When the treaty came into effect on 1966.1.1, the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) was formally established.
1965 The "Students for a Democratic Society" of USA initiated a mass campaign to oppose the US policies on Vietnam War, thus launching the Anti-Vietnam War Movement that spread throughout USA.
1965.2.18 The Gambia gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of the Gambia. Jawara started his prolonged rule.
1965.3.8 USA dispatched troops to [South] Viet Nam to suppress the leftist guerillas. The Special Warfare thus became a Limited War.
1965.3.19 Ceausescu succeeded as General Secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party. During his rule he freed Romania from Soviet control and carried out dictatorial rule in his country.
1965.4.25 An uprising against the dictatorial rule broke out in the Dominican Republic. Caamano, a leftist military man, staged a coup. On ..25 he overthrew the military government and established a provisional government. Wessin, a rightist military man, rose against the provisional government and thus led to the Dominican Republic Civil . On ..28 USA dispatched a troop to the Dominican Republic to intervene in the Civil War. In May there emerged a leftist and a rightist governments. On .9.3 USA compelled both sides to end the Civil War.
1965.6.9 The Dhofar Liberation Front launched the "June 9th Revolution" in Dhofar of Oman in opposition to Muscat. In 1968.9 the Front was renamed the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf. In 1971.11 it was further renamed the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf.
1965.6.14 Nguyen Van Thieu, a [South] Viet Nam military officer, staged a coup to seize power.
1965.6.19 Boumedienne, an Algerian military officer, staged a coup to overthrow President ben Bella and made himself Chairman of the Revolutionary Council.
1965.6.22 Japan and [South] Korea concluded the Japan-Korea Basic Treaty. Thereafter USA, Japan and [South] Korea formed a quasi-military bloc.
1965.7.26 Maldives declared independence from Britain.
1965.8.4 Cook Islands became an associated state of New Zealand.
1965.8.5 India and Pakistan entered into the Second Indo-Pakistani War. On .1.10 of the next year the two countries signed the Tashkent Declaration and ended the war.
1965.8.9
Singapore seceded from Malaysia. The Republic of Singapore was established. Lee Kuan Yew, leader of the People's Action Party, started his long-time rule.
1965.9 Portugal, South Africa and Rhodesia agreed to jointly suppress the anti-colonial and anti-racist struggles in Southern Africa. The bloc was called the "Unholy Alliance" by historians.
1965.9.30 Untung, an Indonesian leftist military officer, united with the Communist Party to stage the "September 30th Coup" in an attempt to seize power. Soeharto, a rightist military officer, suppressed the coup. On .10.1 President Sukarno was forced to hand over his power to Soeharto, who exercised dictatorial power thereafter.
1965.11.8 Britain united the Chagos Archipelago administered under Mauritius and Aldabra Islands and otherislands administered under Seychelles as the British Indian Ocean Territory.
1965.11.11 The Rhodesian Colonial Government unilaterally declared independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Rhodesia, which was a White racist regime without international recognition. On 1970.3.2 the Republic of Rhodesia was established.
1965.11.25 Mobutu, an [East] Congolese military officer, staged a coup to overthrow President Kasavubu. He then made himself President and carried out dictatorial rule.
1965.11.27 Power struggle broke out within the Dahomey Government. On .12.22 of the same year Soglo, a military officer staged a coup and seized power.
1965.12.8 USA and Belgium annihilated the Second Stanelyville Government of [East] Congo, thus ending the [East] Congo Civil War.
1965.12.15 Four Caribbean nations and regions signed a treaty on Antigua to found the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA).
1965.12.31 Bokassa, a Central African military officer, overthrew President Dacko in a coup and seized power. On 1966.1.1 Bokassa made himself President and carried out dictatorial rule.
1966 The National Liberation Front of Chad rose against President Tombalbaye. The Chadian Civil War broke out.

The Colombian Communist Party organised the Revolutionary Armed Forces and started a guerilla warfare. The Colombian Civil War broke out. Later the Civil War became a prolonged armed conflicts between the Colombian Government and right-wing paramilitary groups on one side and a number of left-wing guerillas on the other side.
1966.1.4 Lamizana, an Upper Volta military officer, seized power in a coup and established a military government.
1966.1.16 The Nigerian military men of the Ibo tribe, overthrew the First Republic in a coup and established a military government. On .7.29 of the same year, the northern troops staged another coup to seize power. Thereafter Nigeria was under military dictatorship.
1966.2.24 The Ghana military men staged a coup to overthrow President Nkhrumah. Since then Ghana was torn by political unrest and there occurred a number of military coups.
1966.3.9 France withdrew from the integrated NATO command and adopted an independent policy.
1966.4.28 The Zimbabwe African National Union rebelled against the White racist rule of the Rhodesian Government. The Zimbabwe War of National Liberation brokt out. In 1967.8 the Zimbabwe Afican People's Union also started their rebellion.
1966.5 Leopoldville, the capital of [East] Congo, was renamed Kinshasa. Thereafter [East] Congo was also commonly called Congo [Kinshasa].
1966.5.16 Mao Zedong launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China. On .6.1 of the same year, Red Guards were organised in the whole country and started to seize power of different levels of government, resulting in a general chaos of the whole country.
1966.5.26 British Guiana gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Guyana.
1966.6.28 Ongania, an Argentine military officer, seized power in a coup and established a military dictatorship. Since then Argentina was under military dictatorial rule until 1973. This period was called the Period of the Argentine Revolution by historians.
1966.7.6 Malawi ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Malawi. The Malawi Congress Party established one-party rule.
1966.7.8 With the support of the military officer Micombero, Prince Ndizeye of Urundi seized power. On .9.1 of the same year, Ndizeye succeeded to the throne and was renamed Ntare V. On .11.28 Micombero staged a coup to depose Ntare V. He made himself President and renamed his country the Republic of Burundi, which was under the one-party rule of the Union of National Progress.
1966.8.26 The South West African People's Organization rose against the colonial rule of South Africa. The Namibian War of National Liberation broke out.
1966.9.27 The United Nations proclaimed termination of South Africa's mandate of South West Africa and resolved that South West Africa shall be administered by the United Nations. Neglecting the resolution, South Africa continued to occupy South West Africa.
1966.9.30 Bechuanaland declared independence from Britain and established the Republic of Botswana, which was under the prolonged rule of the Democratic Party.
1966.10.4 Basuto declared independence from Britain and changed the country's name to the Kingdom of Lesotho, which adopted a constitutional form of government but was in fact under the dictatorial rule of the Prime Minister Jonathan.
1966.11.30 Barbados gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Barbados, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1967.1 The Chinese ultra-leftists staged a mass movement to seize power. Later mass movements spread to other parts of China. The events came to be known as the Storm of January. In February of the same year the ultra-leftists formed revolutionary committees in a number of places in China. Thereafter the various levels of local governments were replaced by revolutionary committees.
1967.1.27 Nations in the world signed the Outer Space Treaty, which provided for the principles governing the exploration and use of outer space.
1967.2.27 Grenada became a British associated state.

British Dominica became a British associated state.

Saint Lucia became a British associated state.

Antigua became a British associated state.

Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla became a British associated state.
1967.3.12 Soeharto, de facto rule of Indonesia, deposed President Sukarno and made himself Acting President. On .3.27 of the next year he made himself President.
1967.4.14 Military officer Eyadema of Togo staged another coup to seize power. He made himself President and started his prolonged rule.
1967.4.21 Papadopoulos, a Greek military officer, seized power in a coup. On .12.13 of the same year, King Konstantinos II fled overseas, which marked the end of Greece (Danish Dynasty). The military men formed a Regency and carried out dictatorial rule. Papadopoulos became the Prime Minister.
1967.5.30 Ojukwu, military commander of the Eastern Region of Nigeria, seized control of the Eastern Region and established the Republic of Biafra. The Biafra War (also called the Nigerian Civil War) broke out. On .9.20 Okonkwo, a military officer of Biafra, occupied the Mid-West region of Nigeria and established the Republic of Benin. On ..21 Nigeria annihilated Benin.
1967.6.5 Israel started the Third Arab-Israeli War (also called the Third Middle East War or the June 5th War). By launching surprise attack against several Arab states, Israel occupied Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip of Egypt, Golan Heights of Syria, West Bank and Eastern Jerusalem of Jordan. Thereafter the Palestinian Liberation Organisation was based in Jordan.
1967.6.6 Three east African countries concluded the Treaty for East African Cooperation in Kampala, capital of Uganda. On .12.1 of the same year the East African Community was established.
1967.7 The native states of Southern Yemen started to be abolished one by one. On .11.30 of the same year, the Federation of South Arabia and Protectorate of South Arabia were dissolved. Southern Yemen declared independence from Britain and established the People's Republic of Southern Yemen.
1967.7.1 EEC, ECSC and ERATOM were united to form the European Community (EC).
1967.7.5 French Somaliland was renamed French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
1967.7.12 Anguilla unilaterally declared independence from Britain and established the Anguillan Regime.
1967.8.8 Five Southeast Asian countries formed the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Bangkok.
1967.11.5 Abdel Rahman al-Eriani, former Premier of [Northern] Yemen, launched the November 5th Movement and seized power after overthrowing President as-Sallal.
1967.11.28 Bongo succeeded as President of Gabon and started his prolonged rule.
1968 The Red Army Faction, an ultra-leftist terrorist organisation, was founded in Germany. Thereafter a number of ultra-leftist terrorist organisations appeared in several Western countries (the most well-known ones included the Red Brigades of Italy, the Japanese Red Army, the Action Direct of France).
1968.1 The Khmer Workers' Party (commonly called the Khmer Rouge) started a rebellion in Cambodia.
1968.1.1 Hungary implemented a new pricing system and launched a comprehensive economic reform.
1968.1.5 Dubcek succeeded as First Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party. On .4.8 of the same year, Dubcek carried out a series of liberalized reforms which came to be known as the "Prague Spring". On .8.20 the East European countries, under the command of USSR, invaded Czechoslovakia and suppressed the Prague Spring. On .4.17 of the next year Dubcek was dismissed.
1968.1.31 Nauru gained independence from Australia and established the Republic of Nauru.
1968.3.12 Mauritius gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Mauritius, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1968.4.4 Upon assassination of Martin Luther King, a USA Black rights activist, by the racists, widespread riots broke out among the Blacks throughout the country.
1968.4.26 The Sierra Leone All People's Congress started its prolonged rule.
1968.5.3 Students' and workers' protests took place in Paris and quickly developed into riots. The incident was called Storm of May by historians.
1968.6.12 The United Nations formally changed the name of South West Africa to Namibia.
1968.7.1 USA, USSR, Britain and other countries signed the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons from nuclear weapons states to non-nuclear-weapons states.
1968.7.17 al-Bakr, leader of the Iraqi Socialist Arab Rebirth Party, united with military officer an-Naif to stage a coup and overthrow the rule of the Arif Family. On ..30 of the same month the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party expelled an-Naif and seized the supreme power.
1968.7.31 Ngouabi, a [West] Congolese military officer, launched the "July 31st Movement" to overthrow President Massemba-Debat and seized power.
1968.9.1 Velasco succeeded as President of Ecuador. During his presidency he adopted the populist policy.
1968.9.6 Swazi declared independence from Britain and was renamed the Kingdom of Swaziland.
1968.10 The establishment of the Quebecois Party marked the beginning of the Quebec Independence Movement.
1968.10.3 Velasco, a Peruvian military officer, seized power in a coup. Thereafter Peru was under the prolonged rule of military governments which adopted nationalist policies. The military rule was called the Peruvian Revolution bu historians.
1968.10.12 Spanish Guinea declared independence from Spain and established the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Masie became the President.
1968.10.11 Torrijos, a Panamanian military officer, seized power in a coup. During his rule he carried out nationalist policies.
1968.10.31 USA ceased the bombing of [North] Viet Nam and ended the Limited War. On .1.20 of the next year, USA and [South] Viet Nam commenced the Paris Peace Talks with [North] Viet Nam and Viet Nam South. On .7.25 USA President Nixon proposed the Vietnamization of the Vietnam War and the plan of retreating USA troops from Vietnam. This policy came to be known as the Nixon Doctrine.
1968.11.11 Maldives replaced the monarchical system by a republican system with a strongman government.
1968.11.19 Traore, a Mali military officer, seized power in a coup and started his prolonged rule.
1969.1.1 Czechoslavia adopted a federal system and established the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic as its two constituent states.
1969.2.2
Arafat became Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
1969.3.19 Britain reconquered Anguilla.
1969.5.25 Nimeiry, an [Eastern] Sudanese military officer, staged a coup to seize power.
1969.5.26 Five South American countries signed the Andean Pact in Cartagena of Colombia and established the Andean Group.
1969.6.4 Honduras issued an order to check the influx of Salvadorian migrants and led to conflicts between the two countries. Later a conflict between the soccer players of the two countries aggravated the tension. On .7.14 of the same year, el Salvador invaded Honduras and the Soccer War (also called the Hundred Hours' War) broke out. On ..30 the Salvadorian armies retreated.
1969.6.8 The Viet Nam South National Liberation Front established the Republican Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Viet Nam South Regime.
1969.6.22 Rubayyi, radical leader of the Southern Yemen National Liberation Front launched the Southern Yemen Correction Movement (also called the "June 22nd Coup") to seize power.
1969.6.30 Morocco regained Ifni from Spain.
1969.7.16 The USA astronauts successfully landed on the Moon. USA surpassed USSR in the competition of aeronautical technology.
1969.9.1
Omar Muammar al-Qaddafi, head of the Libyan Free Officers, launched the "September 1st Revolution". He overthrew King Idris and established a Republican Government.
1969.10 The USA Department of Defense successfully devised a computer network, which was developed into the Internet subsequently. This marked the beginning of the Information Age.
1969.10.21 Brandt succeeded as Chancellor of [West] Germany. During his tenure he pushed on the "Ostpolitik" to improve relation with USSR and East Europe.

Siyad, a Somali military officer, staged the October Coup of Somalia and seized power.
1969.10.27 Saint Vincent became a British associated state.
1970 Guerilla activities arose in el Salvador, which marked the beginning of the Salvadorian Civil War.
1970.1.12 Nigeria annihilated Biafra, thus putting an end to the Biafra War.
1970.2.23 Guyana ended its dominion status and established the Co-operative Republic of Guyana.
1970.3 The Iraqi Government concluded a peace agreement with the Kurdish Democratic Party and promised to grant autonomy to the Kurds, thus ending the First Iraqi-Kurdish War.

[Northern] Yemen and Saudi Arabia concluded peace, which ended the civil war between the royalists and the Republican Government of [Northern] Yemen.
1970.3.18 Prime Minister Lon Nol of Cambodia staged the "March 18th Coup" to overthrow Sihanouk, the Head of State. On .4.30 of the same year, USA dispatched troops to help the Lon Nol administration suppress the leftist guerillas in Cambodia and [South] Viet Nam. The First Cambodian War broke out. On .5.5 Sihanouk formed the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia (Government-in-Exile) with the Khmer Communist Party in China. On .10.9 Lon Nol renamed his country the Khmer Republic.
1970.4.19 Qatar promulgated a provisional constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.
1970.4.24 [North] Viet Nam, Viet Nam South, the Laotian People's Party and the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia held the Summit Meeting of Indochinese Peoples in the border area between China, Vietnam and Laos. The participants issued a joint declaration which proclaimed their concerted efforts in resisting USA.

The Gambia ended its dominion status and established the Republic of the Gambia.
1970.6.4 Tonga declared independence from Britain.
1970.7.23
Prince Qabus of Muscat seized power in a coup. On .8.9 of the same year he renamed his country the Sultanate of Oman.
1970.9 Conflicts broke out between the Jordan Government and the Palestinian Liberation Organisation, which was forced to move its headquarters to Lebanon.
1970.10.5 Sikkim promulgated a constitution and adopted a constitutional system.
1970.10.10 Fiji Islands gained independence from Britain and established the Fijian Regime, which was a British dominion.
1970.11.3 Allende succeeded as President of Chile. During his presidency he carried out leftist policies which led to economic turmoil.
1970.11.13 Hafez al-Assad, a Syrian military officer, launched the Syrian Correction Movement to seize power.
1970.11.30 Southern Yemen was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen ([Southern] Yemen).
1971 The environmentalists of USA and Canada established the Green Peace in New Zealand. This marked the beginning of the green peace movement of the Western countries.
1971.1.25 Amin, a Ugandan military officer, staged the January Coup of Uganda to seize power and established a dictatorship.
1971.3.26 The People's League of Eastern Pakistan unilaterally proclaimed secession of Eastern Pakistan from Pakistan and established the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
1971.4.19 Sierra Leone ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Sierra Leone.
1971.8.15 Bahrain declared independence from Britain.

USA proclaimed end of the direct connection between the US dollars and gold. The Bretton Woods System collapsed.
1971.8.21 Banzer, a Bolivian military officer, staged a coup to seize power.
1971.9 The Khmer Workers' Party was renamed the Communist Party of Cambodia.
1971.9.1 The United Arab Republic was renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt.
1971.9.3 Qatar declared independence from Britain.

USA, Britain, France and USSR concluded the Berlin Agreement, which finalized the relationship between West Berlin and [West] Germany. The Berlin problem was thus resolved.
1971.9.8 Lin Biao, Vice-Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, conspired a coup. On ..11 of the same month his conspiracy failed. On ..13 Lin Biao died in an air crash in Mongolia when he tried to flee by air. This incident was called the "September 13th Incident" by historians.
1971.10.25 The United Nations passed a resolution that the Chinese seat in UN currently occupied by the Republic of China shall be replaced by the Peoples's Republic of China.
1971.10.27 [East] Congo was renamed the Republic of Zaire.
1971.11.21 India dispatched troops to support Bangladesh. The Third Indo-Pakistani War broke out.
1971.12.1 Six states of Trucial Oman (including Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain and Fujairah) declared independence from Britain. On ..2 of the same month the six states united to form the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
1971.12.2 Oman declared independence from Britain.
1971.12.20 The Pakistani military government stepped down. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, leader of the People's Party, succeeded as President.
1972.1 President Nimeiry of [Eastern] Sudan organised the Socialist Union and established one-party rule in the country.
1972.1.1 Egypt, Libya and Syria united to form the Federation of Arab Republics, a confederation in which the member states maintained their independent status.
1972.2.1 The petroleum producing countries in the Persian Gulf region demanded increasing their shares in the Western transnational petroleum corporations. Thereafter the petroleum producing countries in the Persian Gulf region gradually resumed control of their petroleum resources, thus greatly increasing their national incomes and together becoming a new economic power.
1972.2.11 Ras al-Khaimah declared independence from Britain and was incorporated into the UAE.
1972.2.15 Lara, an Ecuadorian military officer, staged a coup and overthrew President Velasco. Thereafter the military governments carried out nationalist policies.
1972.2.28 China and USA issued the Shanghai Joint Communique, by which USA recognized the People's Republic of China as the sole legitimate government of China. This marked the beginning of detente between the two countries.

The [Eastern] Sudanese Government concluded the Addis Ababa Agreement with the rebellious groups in Southern Sudan by which Southern Sudan was granted autonomy and a Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was established, thus ending the First Sudanese Civil War.
1972.5.15 USA returned the Okinawa Island of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan, thus ending USA's occupation of Japanese territories.
1972.5.22 A new constitution was ratified in Ceylon, which was renamed the Sri Lankan Regime. The constitution established the superior status of the Sinhalese and cancelled the provisions that protected minorities. In the same month the Tamils of Sri Lanka organised the Tamil United Front and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in opposition to the Sri Lankan Government.
1972.5.26 USA and USSR signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which limited the anti-ballistic missile systems of the two countries.
1972.6.1 USA and USSR signed the First Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), which limited the number of nuclear arms of the two countries.
1972.6.2 Cameroon changed from a federation to a unitary state.
1972.6.5 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment convened in Stockholm, Sweden in which the Stockholm Declaration was ratified. This event signified the whole world began to be aware of the global environmental issue.
1972.6.17 Five staff members of the Committee to Re-Elect the President of the USA Republican Party were suspected of eavesdropping the electioneering strategies of the Democratic Party in the Watergate Complex of Washington and were arrested. The incident became the Watergate Scandal.
1972.7.2 India and Pakistan concluded the Simla Agreement to gradually reestablish their relationship and end the Third Indo-Pakistani War.
1972.9.23 By staging a "self-coup", President Marcos of the Philippines proclaimed military rule and established a dictatorship.
1972.10 President Pak Chung Hee of [South] Korea staged a Revitalization Coup and suspended the Constitution. On ..17 of the same month, he promulgated the "Revitalization Constitution" .

The Moros in southern Philippines formed the Moro National Liberation Front to fight for independence by violent means.

A number of countries signed the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons.
1972.10.11 The Malagasy armed forces seized power in a coup. Since then Malagasy was under military rule.
1972.10.26 Kerekou, a military officer of Dahomey, seized power in a coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
1972.12 [West] Germany and [East] Germany concluded the Basic Treaty to establish mutual recognition between the two countries.
1972.12.4 Arellano, former President of Honduras, staged another coup to regain power.
1972.12.18 Whitlam succeeded as Prime Minister of Australia. In the next year the Government promulgated a number of legislation which abolished the White Australia Policy.
1973.1.27 [North] Viet Nam, Viet Nam South, [South] Viet Nam and USA concluded the Paris Agreement, by which the belligerents ceased fire.
1973.2.21 The Laotian Government concluded the Vientiane Agreement, which provided for ceasefire of both parties.
1973.3 USA ended the fixed exchange rate between the US dollars and other currencies. Thereafter the major currencies in the world adopted a system of flexible exchange rate.
1973.3.10 Deng Xiaoping became Vice-Premier of China and took care of the daily administratative issues. On .8.30 of the same year, Jiang Qing and three other ultra-leftists entered the Politburo of the Communist Party and were called the "Gang of Four". Power struggle within the Communist Party was intensified.
1973.3.29 The USA withdrew all its troops from [South] Viet Nam. But the civil war between the [South] Viet Nam Government and Viet Nam South continued.
1973.4 King Sobhuza II abrogated the constitutional system and restored the absolute monarchy.
1973.5.25 The Argentine military government stepped down, which marked the end of the Argentine Revolution. Campora, leader of the Justicalist Party, succeeded as President. On .6.20 of the same year, former President Juan Peron returned to the country and held real power. On .10.12 Peron became the President again.
1973.6 President Bordaberry of Uruguay united with the armed forces to stage a self-coup and established a dictatorship.
1973.6.1 The monarchical system of Greece was abolished and replaced by the Third Greek Republic. In a coup that took place on .11.25 of the same year, President Papadopoulos was overthrown.

British Honduras was renamed as Belize.
1973.6.13 al-Hamdi, a [Northern] Yemen military officer, launched the [Northern] Yemen Correction Movement. After overthrowing al-Iriani, Chairman of the Republican Council, he seized the supreme power.
1973.7.3 The European and North American countries held the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), which aimed for reconciliation between the Communist and Western Blocs.
1973.7.5 Habyarimana, a Rwandan military officer, staged the "July 5th Coup" to seize power and started his prolonged rule.
1973.7.10 Bahamas gained independence from Britain and established the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, which was a British dominion that adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1973.7.17 Daud, former Prime Minister of Afghanistan, staged the "July 17th Coup" and overthrew the Zahir Dynasty. He established a Republican Government and carried out dictatorial rule.
1973.8.1 The Caribbean Free Trade Association was reorganised as the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM).
1973.8.13 The parliamentary cabinet system was restored in Pakistan.
1973.8.25 The Zambian United National Independence Party established one-party rule in the country.
1973.9.11 Pinochet, a Chilean military officer, staged the "September 11th Coup" and overthrew President Allende. After seizing power, he established a dictatorship.
1973.9.24 The African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde unilaterally declared the independence of Portuguese Guinea and established the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Cabral, leader of the Independence Party, became the Chairman of the Council of State and established one-party rule in the country. On .9.10 of the next year, Portugal recognized the independence of Guinea-Bissau, which marked the end of the Guinea-Bissau War of National Liberation.
1973.10.6 Egypt and Syria jointly started the Fourth Arab-Israeli War (also called the Fourth Middle East War or October War) and launched an attack against Israel. Soon they suffered a setback.
1973.10.17 The Arab petroleum exporting countries resolved to wage the "Oil War" on the Western countries by reducing oil supply and raising the prices of crude oil. The action led to the Oil Crisis. Economic crises broke out in the Western countries from December of the same year onwards.
1973.11.13 France convened the First Franco-African Summit with parts of the African countries in Paris, in an attempt to reestablish its influence in Africa.
1973.12 With the constitution of Bahrain taking effect, a constitutional form of government was established.
1974.1.12 Tunisia and Libya united to form the Arab Islamic Republic, a confederation in which the two member states maintained their independent status. With the withdrawal of Tunisia on ..14 of the same month, the Arab Islamic Republic disintegrated.
1974.2.7 Grenada gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Grenada, which came under the dictatorial rule of the United Labour Party after independence.
1974.4 The autonomy negotiations between the Iraqi Government and Kurdish Democratic Party broke down. Conflicts broke out between the two parties, which came to be called the Second Iraq-Kurdish War. When the Iraqi troops defeated the Kurdish Democratic Party in mid-1975, the war came to an end.
1974.4.15 Kountche, a military officer of Miger, overthrew the Government of the Progressive Party in a coup and seized power. Thereafter Niger was under prolonged military rule.
1974.4.25 The Portuguese Armed Forces Movement staged the Carnation Revolution (also called the "April 25th Coup" and overthrew the Government of the National Union. This marked the end of the Second Portuguese Republic and the beginning of the Third Portuguese Republic.
1974.7.1 President Juan Peron of Argentina died. His wife Martinez de Peron succeeded as President.
1974.7.15 Greece induced the Cypriot National Guards to stage the "July 15th Coup" and overthrow President Makarios III, who was succeeded by Sampson.
1974.7.20 Turkey dispatched troops to occupy the northern part of Cyprus, thus creating the situation of a Cyprus divided among the Greeks and Turks.
1974.7.23 President Sampson of Cyprus was expelled. On .12.7 of the same year Makarios III was restored to the presidency.

The Greek military government collapsed. A democratic government was set up in Greece, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1974.8.9 USA President Nixon resigned because of the Watergate Scandal.
1974.9.12 The Ethiopian Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police, and Territorial Army launched the September Revolution of Ethiopia. They deposed Emperor Haile Selassie, overthrew the Solomonic Dynasty and established the Republican Government. On .3.21 of the next year, the new Government foramlly abrogated the imperial system and started to carry out radical reforms.
1974.10.19 Niue became an associated state of New Zealand.
1974.11 Tanzania, Zambia and Botswana formed the African Frontline States (later joined by Mozambique, Angola and Zimbabwe) to jointly oppose the racist rule in South Africa and Rhodesia.
1974.12.13 Malta ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Malta.
1974.12.19 Cape Verde Islands became a Portuguese autonomous republic and established the Republic of Cape Verde.
1975 Oman crushed the Dhofar rebellion.
1975.1.25 Mujibur, head of the Bangladesh People's League, became the President. In February of the same year, the People's League was reorganised as the Peasants, Workers and People's League. On .8.5 the Peasants, Workers and People's League proclaimed one-party rule. In the "August 15th Coup that happened on .8.15, Mujibur was killed. On .11.6 the Government of the Peasants, Workers and People's League was overthrown. Since then Bangladesh came under military rule and was torn by political unrest.
1975.2.13 Turkey installed the Northern Cypriot Regime in the northern part of Cyprus without international recognition.
1975.2.28 The EC countries concluded the Lome Agreement with a number of African, Caribbean and Pacific countries in Lome, capital of Togo whereby the EC was to grant preferential economic and trade conditions to these countries. This marked the beginning of the Regional North-South Talks.
1975.3 Conflicts between the Angolan Popular Liberation Movement (MPLA) and the National Front for the Liberation (FNLA) led to the outbreak of the Angolan Civil War. On .8.1 of the same year the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda unilaterally declared the independence of Cabinda, part of the Portuguese colony of Angola, from Portugal and established the Republic of Cabinda. On .11.11 the MPLA declared the independence of Angola from Portugal and established the Angolan Regime (Central Government), which was under the one-party rule of MPLA. On the same day, the FNLA and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) declared the establishment of the National Revolutionary Council in opposition to the Central Government. Cuba dispatched troops to support Angola (Central Government).
1975.3.1 India declared Sikkim to be its associated state. On .5.16 of the same year India annexed Sikkim.
1975.4.5 Upon death of President Chiang Kai-shek of China (Taiwan Government), Yen Chia-kan succeeded to the presidency. But real power was held by the President of the Executive Yuan, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son, thus forming the "Chiang's Dynasty".
1975.4.13 Conflicts between the Christians and Muslims in Lebanon led to the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War.

The Chadian armed forces staged the April Coup of Chad to overthrow President Tombalbaye. Subsequently the National Liberation Front split into factions. Civil war restarted in the next year.
1975.4.17 The Cambodian Communist Party captured the capital Phnom Penh and overthrew the Khmer Republic. The Kingdom of Cambodia was restored, but was under the one-party rule of the Communist Party.
1975.4.30 Having captured Saigon, the Viet Nam South Regime overthrew the [South] Viet Nam Government and seized control of the southern part of Vietnam.
1975.5 The economic crises of the Western countries came to an end. Thereafter the Western countries entered a stage in which economic stagnation and inflation coexisted, which came to be known as "stagflation".
1975.5.28 15 West African countries established the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Lagos.
1975.6.6 A number of African, Caribbean and Pacific developing countries established the African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP) in Georgetown of Guyana to coordinate their negotiations with the developed countries.
1975.6.15 Ratsiraka seized the supreme power of Malagasy. On .12.30 of the same year, he renamed his country as the Madagascaran Regime.
1975.6.22 British Solomon Islands were renamed Solomon Islands.
1975.6.25 Mozambique declared independence from Portugal and established the Mozambique Regime (Central Government), thus ending the Mozambique War of National Liberation. The Liberation Front established a one-party rule in the country. In the next year, the National Resistance led by Dhlakama started a rebellion and established the National Resistance Government in opposition to the Central Government. The Mozambique Civil War broke out.
1975.7.5 Cape Verde declared independence from Portugal. The African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde became the ruling parties of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde.
1975.7.6 Anjouan, Moheli and Grande Comore of the Comoros Islands declared independence from France and established the Comoros Regime, with Abderemane being the President of the Government (he changed his title to Head of State on the next day); while Mayotte remained under French rule.
1975.7.12 Sao Tome and Principe Islands declared independence from Portugal and established the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.
1975.8.3 Soilih, leader of the United National Front of Comoros, staged the August Coup of Comoros to overthrow Abderemane, the Head of State, and seize power.
1975.9.1 Bougainville, an island under Papua New Guinea, unilaterally declared independence and established the Republic of the North Solomons, which was re-incorporated into Papua New Guinea on 1976.8.9.
1975.9.16 Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia and established the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, a British dominion.
1975.10.1 Britain split Gilbert and Ellice Islands into two separate units: Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands. Ellice Islands were renamed Tuvalu Islands.
1975.10.17 23 Latin American countries formed the Latin American Economic System (SELA) to promote economic integration of the Latin American countries.
1975.10.30 Franco, the Spanish Head of State for life, was unable to attend to his official duties because of ill health and died on .11.20 of the same year. On ..22 Juan Carlos I became King of Spain and restored Spain (Bourbon Dynasty).
1975.11.25 Suriname declared independence from the Netherlands.
1975.11.28 The Revolutionary Front for the Independence of East Timor declared the independence of East Timor, a Portuguese dependency in the Malay Archipelago and established the Democratic Republic of East Timor. The Timorese Democratic Union and the People's Democracy Association of Timor denied recognition of the independence and demanded annexation with Indonesia.
1975.11.30 Dahomey was renamed the Benin Regime. President Kerekou organised the Popular Revolutionary Party and established one-party rule in the country.
1975.12.2 The "Seizure of Power Campaign" launched by the Laotian People's Revolutionary Party was successful. The monarchy was abolished and supplanted by a Republican Government under the one-party rule of the People's Revolutionary Party. This marked the end of the Second Laotian Civil War. The Second Indochina War came to an end.
1975.12.7 Indonesia invaded East Timor. On ..17 of the same month Indonesia installed a Provisional Government formed by the People's Democracy Association.
1975.12.11 The Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe began to exercise one-party rule.
1975.12.16 The developing and developed countries held the Conference on International Economic Cooperation in Paris, which marked the beginning of the Global North-South Talks.
1976 The National Liberation Front of Corsica was founded on Corsica. Aiming for independence by violent means, the Front became a terrorist organisation later.
1976.1 Angola (Central Government) annexed Cabinda. On .2.11 of the same year, the National Revolutionary Council was dissolved. But the National Front for the Liberation and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola continued their resistance against the Central Government.

A committee under the International Monetary Fund convened a meeting in Jamaica and concluded the Jamaica Agreement, which ratified the international financial arrangements after the collapse of the Bretton Woods System.
1976.1.2 Britain dissolved the British Western Pacific Territories.
1976.1.8 Premier Zhou Enlai died. On .4.5 of the same year, the people mourning the death of Zhou Enlai in the Tiananmen Square of Beijing condemned the Gang of Four and were suppressed by the Gang ("April 5th Tiananmen Square Incident"). On ..7 Deng Xiaoping was dimissed from all of his positions.
1976.2.26 Spain withdrew from Spanish Sahara, which was renamed Western Sahara since then. Morocco and Mauritania occupied the northern and southern parts of Western Sahara, respectively.
1976.2.27 The Popular Front for the Liberation of Seguia el-Hamra y Rio de Oro (commonly known as Polisario) established the Government-in-Exile of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic in Algeria in opposition to Morocco and Mauritania. The Western Saharan War broke out.
1976.3.24 The Argentine armed forces staged a coup to overthrow President Martinez de Peron. After seizing power they carried out oppressive rule, which was called the "Dirty War" by historians.
1976.4 Syria occupied northern Lebanon.
1976.6.29 Seychelles declared independence from Britain and established the Republic of Seychelles. Britain incorporated the Aldabra Islands into Seychelles.
1976.7.2 Viet Nam South and [North] Viet Nam united to form the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and thus reunify Vietnam.
1976.7.5 A democratic system was restored in Spain, which then adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1976.7.13 President Bordaberry of Uruguay was forced to step down by the armed forces, who then took over the power.
1976.7.17 Indonesia proclaimed annexation of East Timor. But the Revolutionary Front continued their resistance against Indonesia until 1978.12.31 when their resistance was finally crushed by Indonesia.
1976.7.23 The Portugueses military cabinet was replaced by a party cabinet. The parliamentary cabinet system was gradually established in Portugal.
1976.8.1 Trinidad ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
1976.9.9 Mao Zedong died. On .10.6 of the same year Ye Jianying, a senior leader of the Chinese Communist Party, ordered the arrest of the Gang of Four. This marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.
1976.10.6 Sa-ngad, a Thai military officer, seized power in a coup.
1976.10.7 End of the long-time rule of the Social Democratic Workers' Party in Sweden.
1976.10.26 South Africa proclaimed the independence of the black homeland Transkei and established the Republic of Transkei without international recognition.
1976.11.1 Bagaza, a Burundian military officer, staged a coup to overthrow President Micombero and seize power.
1976.12.4 President Bokassa of Central Africa changed his title to Emperor.
1976.12.24 The activists fighting for the independence of the Aceh Province formed the Free Aceh Movement and started a rebellion against the Indonesian Government.
1977.1
Havel and other Czechoslovak liberals, issued Charter 77 to oppose Soviet control and struggle for democracy and liberty. They launched the Charter 77 Movement, which was suppressed by the Government in the same year.
1977.3 The Communist Parties of Italy, France and Spain issued a joint declaration which proclaimed the birth of Eurocommunism.
1977.3.2 The Federation of Arab Republics was disbanded.

al-Qaddafi, Chairman of the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council, issued the Declaration of People's Power and established a "jamahiriya" (= state of the masses) by replacing the ruling party and various levels of goveernment with various levels of people's congresses and people's committees.
1977.3.8 Angola induced the Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (i.e. activists fighting for the independence of Katanga) to launch the First Shaba War and attack the Shaba Provnice (formerly called the Katanga Province). On .5.28 of the same year, with the support of the Western countries, Zaire expelled the armed forces of the Front.
1977.3.24 Desai suceeded as Prime Minister of India, thus ending the prolonged rule of the National Congress Party in India.
1977.6.5 The People's Unity Party of Seychelles staged a coup to seize power. In 1978.6 the party was renamed the Progressive Front of the Seychelles People. In 1979.3 one-party rule was established in the country.
1977.6.16 Podgorny, Chairman of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, was dismissed. Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Communist Party, became the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, thus holding the supreme powers of both the party and state.
1977.6.27 French Territory of the Afars and Issas gained independence from France and established the Republic of Djibouti. Gouled started his prolonged rule.
1977.7 Viet Nam and Laos signed the Lao-Vietnamese Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, by which Laos became a Vietnamese client state.

Conflicts broke out in the Ogaden region between Ethiopia and Somalia again. The Second Ogaden War broke out. In the next year Ethiopia expelled the Somali troops from Ogaden.
1977.7.5 Zia-ul-Haq, a Pakistani military officer, staged coup to overthrow Premier Z.A. Bhutto and seize power.
1977.9.7 USA and Panama concluded the Panama Canal Treaty, which provided that Panama shall gradually resumed the administration of the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone by Panama and completely resumed the sovereignty on 1999.12.31.
1977.11.19 President Sadat of Egypt made an unexpected visited to Israel and declared Egypt's willingness to negotiate peace, which led to a breakthrough in the relation between the two countries.
1977.12.2 Libya summoned a meeting with the radical Arab states (including Syria, Algeria, [Southern] Yemen). They formed a united front and proclaimed their standpoint of rejecting any compromise with Israel. The Arab world thus split into the radical and the moderate countries.
1977.12.6 South Africa proclaimed the independence of the black homeland Bophuthatswana and established the Republic of Bophuthatswana without international recognition.
1978.1.9 Northern Mariana Islands ended the status as a trust territory and became a USA commonwealth with autonomous power. The territory was renamed the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana.
1978.3.14 The First Israeli Invasion of Lebanon (also called the Lebanese War, the Fifth Arab-Israeli War or the Fifth Middle East War) took place. In June of the same year, Israel was compelled to withdraw its troops. But it set up a Free Lebanon Region in southern Lebanon and placed it under the control of the pro-Israeli militia.
1978.4.27 The Afghan People's Democratic Party launched the April Revolution of Afghanistan (also called the "April 27th Coup") and overthrew President Daud. On ..30 of the same month, one-party rule was established, with real power being held by the Khalq Faction of the Party.
1978.5.11 The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo launched the Second Shaba War and attacked the Shaba Province of Zaire again. In the same month several Western countries dispatched troops to help Zaire expel the Front.
1978.5.13 Abderemane, former Head of State of Comoros, overthrew President Soilih in a coup and regained power.
1978.6.26 A factional struggle broke out between Rubayyi, Chairman of the Presidential Council and Ismail, General Secretary of the National Front. Rubayyi was killed. The incident came to be known as the "June 26th Bloody Incident of Aden".
1978.7.7 The Solomon Islands gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Solomon Islands, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1978.7.10 Salek, a Mauritanian military officer, overthrew the Government of the People's Party in a coup and established a military government. Thereafter Mauritania was under prolonged military rule.
1978.8.22 President Kenyatta of Kenya died. On .10.14 of the same year, Moi succeeded to the presidency and started his prolonged rule.
1978.9.17 Egypt and Israel signed the Camp David Accords in USA and agreed upon certain principles of the peace treaty. On .3.26 of the next year, the peace treaty was concluded. Thereafter Israel started to withdraw its troops from the Sinai Peninsula. The withdrawal was completed in 1982.
1978.10 Ugandan dissidents supported by Tanzania staged a rebellion against President Amin of Uganda, who deployed a troop to invade Tanzania, leading to the Uganda-Tanzanian War (also called Ugandan Liberation War).

Swaziland promulgated a new constitution which restored the parliament. But real powers were held by the King.
1978.10.1 Tuvalu Islands (formerly called the Ellice Islands) gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Tuvalu.
1978.10.11 National Liberation Front, the ruling party of [Southern] Yemen, amalgamated the political parties in [Southern] Yemen and formed the Socialist Party. One-party rule was thus established in [Southern] Yemen.
1978.11 Big character posters commenting on current affairs began to appear on the "Democracy Wall" in Xidan, Beijing, China. Later the activities developed into the "Beijing Spring" Movement that strived for democracy.
1978.11.3 British Dominica declared independence from Britain and was then renamed the Commonwealth of Dominica, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1978.11.11 Gayoom became President of Maldives and started his prolonged rule.
1978.11.21 A.S. Toure, President of Guinea, declared integration of the ruling party and the state and established the People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea.
1978.12.18 The Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party confirmed the adoption of the reform and open policy, which came to be known as the "Third Plenary Session Line".
1978.12.25 Viet Nam invaded Cambodia and led to the Third Indochina War (also called the Second Cambodian War).
1979 A report published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development put Hong Kong, Taiwan, [South] Korea and Singapore on the list of "new industrialized countries". Since then these four countries and regions came to be known as Asia's Four Little Dragons.
1979.1.7 The Vietnamese troops captured Phnom Penh and overthrew the Government of the Cambodian Communist Party. They then installed a one-party government formed by the People's Revolutionary Party of Cambodia. The Cambodian Communist Party retreated to the frontier to resist the Vietnamese.
1979.1.16
When an uprising broke out in Iran, King Mohammad Reza fled overseas. On .2.1 Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Shiahs, returned to Iran. On .2.5 he launched the Islamic Revolution of Iran and overthrew Iran (Pehlevi Dynasty). Khomeini became the Rahbar (= Supreme Leader) and established a theocracy by applying the principles of Islamic Fundamentalism in his rule.
1979.2.17 The border disputes between China and Viet Nam led to the Sino-Vietnames War, which was ended on .3.5 of the same year.
1979.2.22 Saint Lucia gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Saint Lucia, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1979.3 The opposition groups of Uganda formed the National Liberation Front. On .4.13 of the same year, the National Liberation Front overthrew Amin, thus ending the Uganda-Tanzanian War.
1979.3.13 Bishop, head of the New Jewel Movement of Grenada, seized power in a coup. He made himself Prime Minister and carried out leftist policies.
1979.5.1 Greenland became a self-governing country of Denmark.

USA granted autonomy to Marshall Islands and established the Republic of Marshall Islands.
1979.5.4
Thatcher succeeded as Prime Minister of Britain. During her tenure she adopted the neo-conservative policies based on "Monetarism", which came to be known as Thatcherism.
1979.5.10 USA united Kosrae, Ponape, Truk and Yap of the Caroline Islands as the Federated States of Micronesia, which started to exercise internal self-rule.
1979.6.1 The Rhodesian White Government implemented the "internal settlement" by appointing Muzorewa as Prime Minister and forming a Black Government. The country was also renamed Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, but without international recognition. On .12.12 of the same year, Zimbabwe-Rhodesia terminated its independent status and reverted to colonial status.
1979.6.4 Rawlings, a military officer of Ghana, seized power in a coup. On .9.24 he returned power to a civilian government.
1979.6.18 USA and USSR concluded the Second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II), which placed limitation on the offensive nuclear arms of the two countries.
1979.7.1 The National People's Congress of China passed a resolution which abolished the revolutionary committees and reinstalled the local governments. Thereafter the various levels of revolutionary committees were reorganised as local governments.
1979.7.12 Gilbert Islands declared independence from Britain and established the Republic of Kiribati.
1979.7.16 Saddam succeeded as President of Iraq and carried out dictatorial rule.
1979.7.17 When the Sandinist National Liberation Front of Nicaragua captured the capital Managua, the rule of the Somoza Family collapsed. On ..20 the Sandinist National Liberation Front seized power. Thereafter the Front carried out leftist radical reforms and supported the leftist guerillas in the Central American countries, leading to the Central American Crisis.
1979.8.3 Obiang, a military officer of Equatorial Guinea, staged a coup to overthrow President Masie and started his long-time rule.
1979.8.5 Mauritania withdrew from the southern part of Western Sahara, which was then annexed by Morocco on ..11 of the same month.
1979.8.10 Civilian rule was restored in Ecuador.
1979.9.13 South Africa proclaimed the independence of the black homeland Venda and established the Republic of Venda without international recognition.
1979.9.20 Dacko, former President of Central Africa, staged a coup to overthrow Emperor Bokassa. After restoring the republic, Dacko became President again.
1979.9.21 Jose Eduardo dos Santos succeeded as President of Angola and started his prolonged rule.
1979.10.1 Civilian rule was restored in Nigeria, which marked the beginning of the Second Republic of Nigeria.
1979.10.15 A group of young Salvadorian military officers staged a coup to overthrow the Government of the National Conciliation Party.
1979.10.26 President Park Chung Hee of [South] Korea was assassinated. On .12.12 military officer Chun Doo Hwan staged the "December 12th Coup" to seize power and established his personal dictatorship.
1979.10.27 Saint Vincent gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system.
1979.11.4 Radical Iranian students occupied the USA embassy in Iran and held a number of USA hostages.
1979.11.26 The International Olympic Committee passed a resolution that recognized the Chinese Olympic Committee based in Beijing as the Olympic Committee representing China. The Olympic Committee based in Taipei shall be renamed the "Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee". Thereafter China (Taiwan Government) participated in international issues in the name of "Chinese Taipei".
1979.12.27 Power struggle arose between the Khalq Faction and the Parcham Faction of the Afghan People's Democratic Party. Seizing the opportunity to invade Afghanistan, USSR toppled the Government of the Khalq Faction and put the Parcham Faction to power. The Afghan populace rose against Soviet invasion and formed various Mujahideen organisations. The Soviet-Afghan War broke out.
1980.1.5 Viet Nam held the Conference of Indochinese Foreign Ministers with Laos and Cambodia (Government of the People's Revolutionary Party) and formed the Indochinese Bloc.
1980.2.25 Bouterse, a Suriname military officer, seized power in a coup. Thereafter Bouterse was in power for a prolonged period.
1980.4.1 Nine countries in Southern Africa established the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC).
1980.4.12 Doe, head of the Liberian Sergeant Group, staged a coup to overthrow the Government of the True Whig Party, marking the end of the First Republic of Liberia and the beginning of the Second Republic of Liberia.
1980.4.18
zimbabwe-Rhodesia declared independence from Britain and established the Republic of Zimbabwe with a Black majority government. The Zimbabwe War of National Liberation came to an end. Mugabe, head of the African National Union, started his prolonged rule.
1980.5.4 Upon death of President Tito of Yugoslavia, a collective leadership system was adopted in Yugoslavia. Thereafter national conflicts within the country were aggravated. A sense of separatism grew in the contituent republics.
1980.5.21 The Kwangju Uprising broke out in opposition to the [South] Korean military government, which crushed the uprising on ..27 of the same month.
1980.7.1
General strikes broke out in Poland. On .8.17 the factory workers in Gdansk formed the Strike Coordination Committee and chose Walesa as the Chairman. On .9.22 the independent trade unions in various places united to form the Solidarity, with Walesa being the Chairman.
1980.7.28 Civilian rule was restored in Peru.
1980.7.30 New Hebrides declared independence from Britain and France and established the Republic of Vanuatu.
1980.8.12 A number of Latin American countries signed the Montevideo Treaty, by which the Latin American Free Trade Association was reorganised as the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA).
1980.9.12 Evren, a Turkish military officer, seized power in a coup.
1980.9.22 Territorial disputes between Iran and Iraq led to the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War.
1980.10 The Salvadorian guerilla groups united to form the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front.
1980.11.14 Vieira, Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau, staged a coup to overthrow Cabral, Chairman of the Council of State and seized power.
1980.12.19 The British associated state of Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla was divied into two territories: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Anguilla.

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