A Chronology of World Political History
(1921 - 1940 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1921 12 tribes in the region of Riff in the northern part of Spanish Morocco rose against Spanish rule. On 1923.2.1 they founded the Federal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif. On 1926.5.27 the rebellion was jointly suppressed by France and Spain.
1921.2.15 Russia induced the Mongolian People's Party to launch a revolution in Outer Mongolia and declared the independence of Mongolia from China again. The People's Party carried out one-party rule.
1921.2.21 Reza Khan, Vizier of Persia, seized power in a coup. In March of the same year, Persia nullified the Anglo-Iranian Agreement and freed Persia from the status of semi-colony. In May the British army withdrew from Persia. In June the USSR army also withdrew from Persia.
1921.2.22 The centrist socialists of various countries held a conference in Vienna and founded the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (commonly called the Second and a Half International).
1921.2.25 Russia toppled Georgia (Government of the Social Democratic Worker's Party) and installed Georgia (Soviet Government).
1921.3.17 The Russian Government launched the New Economic Policy, which reinstalled some elements of private economy and free trade with a view to reviving the economy.
1921.3.18 Russia and Poland signed the Treaty of Riga, thereby ending the Soviet-Polish War. Western Ukraine and Western Belarus came under Polish rule.
1921.4.11 Britain installed Prince Abdullah I of Hejaz as Amir of Transjordan and established the Amirate of Transjordan to govern the eastern part of Palestine.
1921.5.5 Sun Yixian became the Extraordinary President of China (Military Government for Constitution Protection).
1921.5.7 Ukraine (Soviet Government) annihilated Ukraine (Rada Government).
1921.6.7 Czechoslovakia, Serbia and Romania formed the "Little Entente" to jointly protect their interests under the Versailles System.
1921.7 The Communist Party of China was founded.
1921.11.12 Nine countries held the Washington Conference to rearrange the powers' spheres of interest in the Pacific region. On .2.6 of the next year the powers concluded the Nine-Power Treaties, which recognized the sovereignty and independence of China and reiterated the Open Door Policy. On the same day, Britain, USA, Italy, France and Japan signed the Five-Power Treaty, which stipulated the ratios of the naval armaments of the five countries. USA gained an advantageous position in the Pacific region. The Washington System was thus formed.
1921.12.6 Britain and Ireland signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, by which the southern part of Ireland was to gain dominion status while the northern part remained the status quo.
1921.12.14 Zogu seized power in Albania and carried out dictatorial rule.
1922.2.28 Britain unilaterally proclaimed end of the protectorate of Egypt, but did not grant full independence to Egypt.
1922.3.12 Russia united three of its vassal states (Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia) to form the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1922.4.29 The Zhili Clique and Fengtian Clique warlords of China entered into the First Zhili-Fengtian War. After the defeat of the Fengtian Clique, the Beiyang Government was under the complete control of the Zhili Clique.
1922.6.16 Chen Jiongming, a Guangdong warlord of China, staged a coup. Sun Yixian was forced to flee to Shanghai. The Second Constitution Protection Movement failed.
1922.6.28 France reunited Aleppo and Damascus as the Syrian Regime.
1922.7.20 The German colony of Kamerun was paritioned into the eastern and western parts, which became a French and a British mandate, respectively (called French Cameroons and British Cameroons). The German colony of Togoland was paritioned into the eastern and western parts, which became a French and a British mandate, respectively (called French Togo and British Togoland). German East Africa became a British mandate and was renamed Tanganyika. Ruanda and Urundi became Belgian mandates and were united into one unit called Ruanda-Urundi.
1922.9.18 The Osmanli Provisional Government expelled all the Greek armies from Turkey. On .10.11 of the same year the Provisional Government signed the Convention of Mudania with the Allies and ended the Second Greco-Turkish War.
1922.10.25 Russia expelled the Japanese invaders from the Far Eastern region, thus ending the Russian Civil War. On .11.15 of the same year Russia annexed the Far Eastern Republic.
Mussolini, head of the Italian National Fascist Party, launched the "March on Rome" and occupied Rome on ..28. On ..31 Mussolini was appointed as Prime Minister. On .11.25 he was granted dictatorial power and carried out fascist rule in the whole country.
1922.11.1 The Osmanli Provisional Government abolished the monarchical system and established the Turkish Regime. The Osmanli Regime collapsed.
1922.12.6 Ireland was formally divided into the southern and northern parts: the 26 counties in Southern Ireland became the Irish Free State, a British dominion; while the 6 counties in Northern Ireland remained under Britain and exercised self-rule.
1922.12.30 Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Transcaucasus united to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR for short), which was under the one-party rule of the Russian Communist Party.
1923 Afghanistan promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchiacal system.

Lukacs, a Hungarian Communist, published History and Class Consciousness, which marked the birth of the Western Marxism (also called the Neo-Marxism).

Egypt promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchiacal system.
1923.1 The Chinese Nationalist Party defeated Chen Jiongming, the warlord in Guangdong, and reoccupied Guangzhou. On .3.2 of the same year, Sun Yixian reestablished the Military Government for Constitution Protection and resumed the position of Generalissimo.
1923.1.11 As Germany delayed paying the reparations, France and Belgium despatched armies to occupy the Ruhr mining districts (the Ruhr Crisis). On ..19 of the same month the German Government launched a resistance movement to resist the occupation armies. On .9.27 Germany stopped the resistance movement, thus ending the Ruhr Crisis.
1923.2.19 Lithuania annexed Memel. On .3.15 of the same year Lithuania renamed the district as Klaipeda.
1923.4.1 Sammarinese Fascist Party started its long-time rule. By banning all other parties in 1926, it established one-party rule in San Marino.
1923.5.21 Cao Kun, head of the Zhili Clique warlords of China, was elected President by bribery. He ascended to the presidency on .10.10 of the same year.
1923.6.9 Tsankov, head of the Bulgarian ultra-rightists, seized power in a coup. On .9.23 of the same year, Georgi Mihailov Dimitrov, leader of the Communist Party, launched the "September Uprising of Bulgaria" and set up the Supreme Military Revolution Committee. The uprising was suppressed by the Bulgarian Government on ..29.
1923.7.7 USSR put Qarabagh under the administration of Azerbaijan and renamed it as Nagorno-Karabakh. On 1924.2.9 it also put Nakhichevan under the administration of Azerbaijan.
1923.7.24 Turkey signed the Treaty of Lausanne with the Allies whereby Turkey gave up its territories outside Asia Minor but regained Eastern Thrace in return. Turkey freed itself of the status of semi-colony. An International Straits Commission was set up to administer the Black Sea straits.
1923.9.15 de Rivera, a Spanish military officer, seized power in a coup and established a military dictatorship.
1923.9.29 Syria (including Lebanon) became a French mandate.

Palestine (including Transjordan) became a British mandate.
1923.10.5 The Second International and the Second and a Half International held a conference in Hamburg, where they merged to form the Labour and Socialist International.
1923.10.23 Thalmann, leader of the German Communists, started the Workers' Uprising in Hamburg, but failed on..25 of the same month. On .11.8 Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (commonly known as the Nazi Party), plotted the Beer Hall Putsch, but was suppressed on ..11.
1923.12.19 The Greek army overhtrew King Georgios II. The Danish Dynasty collapsed. On .3.16 of the next year the Second Greek Republic was established.
1923.12.21 Nepal gained independence from Britain.
1924.1 The Friends of Constitutional Government, Association for Constitutional Politics and the Reform Club of Japan formed the "Three Pro-Constitution Factions". They launched the Second Constitution Protection Movement and requested for constitutional reform. In May of the same year, the three factions won the parliamentary elections. On .6.11 Kato Takaaki became the Prime Minister and formed the Cabinet of the Three Pro-Constitution Factions. Beginning of the Period of Party Cabinets.
Upon death of Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of USSR, Stalin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party. A power struggle ensued between Stalin and Trotsky.
1924.1.20 The Chinese Nationalist Party adopted the policy of cooperating with USSR and the Communist Party of China in the struggle against the warlords.
1924.1.22 MacDonald, leader of the British Labour Party, succeeded as Prime Minister. Since then the Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party as one of the main ruling parties (the other being the Conservative Party) of Britain.
1924.4.9 An expert committee of the Allies proposed the "Dawes Plan" to help Germany pay the reparations. On .7.16 of the same year, the Allies ratified the Dawes Plan. On .9.1 the French and Belgian armies withdrew from Ruhr.
1924.6.10 In a revolution that broke out in Albania, the revolutionaries overthrew the dictator Zogu and established a democratic government. In December of the same year, Zogu seized power again and resumed dictatorial power.
1924.6.15 The Socialist Party and Liberal Party of Italy formed the Aventine Group in opposition to the Fascist Party.
1924.7.5 Lopes, a military officer of Sao Paulo, Brazil, revoited. On .10.28 Prestes, head of the tenentes (lieutenants), started an insurrection in Rio Grande do Sul and formed the Prestes Column. In 1925.3 the two groups of rebels joined forces and started a long campaign throughout the country (the Long March of the Prestes Column). In 1927.2 the rebels were driven out of the country by the Brazilian army.
1924.9.17 The Fengtian Clique and Anhui Clique warlords of China united against the Zhili Clique and led to the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. On .10.23 Feng Yuxiang, a general of the Zhili Clique, staged the Beijing Coup. He organised the Nationalist Army and imprisoned President Cao Kun, who resigned on .11.2. On .11.24 the Nationalist Army united with the Fengtian Clique and established the Provisional Consulate, with Duan Qirui being the Provisional Consul.
1924.10.27 USSR dissolved Turkestan and reorganised the administrative division in Central Asia. USSR established the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in the southwestern part of Central Asia.
1924.11.26 Choibalsan assumed the leading role of the Mongolian People's Party and started his prolonged rule.
1924.12.1 The National Revolutionary Party of Mexico started its prolonged rule.
1924.12.5 USSR established the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in the central part of Central Asia.
1925 Atrash Sultan, head of the Druzes in Syria, started the Druze Rebellion against French rule. In September of the same year Atrash Sultan set up a Rebellious Government in conjunction with the People's Party. In 1926.4 France toppled the Rebellious Government. The rebellion was finally crushed in 1927.
1925.1.1 The Conservative Party and Liberal Party of Nicaragua concluded an agreement by which the two parties formed a coalition government to share powers. Early next year the coalition government was overthrown by military officers of the Conservative Party.
1925.3 The Organic Law of Iraq came into effect. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted in Iraq.
1925.3.12 Sun Yixian died. Thereafter the Nationalist Party split into the leftist (headed by Wang Ching-wei), centrist (headed by Chiang Kai-shek) and rightist (headed by Hu Hanmin) factions. On .7.1 of the same year, China (Military Government for Constitution Protection) was reorganised as China (Nationalist Government).
1925.5.13 Uzbek was incorporated into USSR.

Turkmen was incorporated into USSR.
1925.5.20 Machado succeeded as President of Cuba and carried out dictatorial rule.
1925.5.30 The British police in Shanghai foreign concession suppressed the mass movement ("May 30th Massacre") and led to the anti-imperialist "May 30th Movement" throughout the country.
1925.7.9 The Ecuadorian military officers staged a coup to overthrow the plutocrats of the Commercial and Agricultural Bank.
1925.8.14 Svalbard Archipelago (also called Spitzbergen Archipelago) became a Norwegian dependency.
1925.10.5 The Locarno Conference was convened to discuss the security issue of the neighbouring countries of Germany. On .12.1 of the same year, the countries signed the Locarno Treaties, which provided that any border disputes between Germany and its neighbours were to be settled by arbitration.
1925.10.31 Reza Khan, the Persian Vizier, overthrew the Qajar Dynasty. He crowned himself and established Persia (Pehlevi Dynasty).
1925.11 Guo Songling, a general of the Fengtian Clique warlords of China, united with Feng Yuxiang, head of the Nationalist Army, in opposition to Zhang Zuolin, head of the Fengtian Clique. He reorganised his army as the Northeastern Nationalist Army. The Anti-Fengtian War broke out. In December of the same year, Guo Songling was defeated and killed.
1925.12.18 The Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) held a conference on which it was decided that the party's name shall be changed to the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik). On the conference Stalin destroyed Trotsky's influence and gained supreme power.
1925.12.19 Najd overthrew Hejaz (Hashimite Dynasty). On .1.8 of the next year, King Abdul-Aziz II of Najd assumed the title of King of Hejaz concurrently and established Hejaz (Saudi Dynasty).
1926.4.20 Zhang Zuolin, head of the Fengtian Clique warlords of China, united with the Zhili Clique against the Nationalist Army, who were forced to retreat from Beijing. Provisional Consul Duan Qirui was forced to step down. The Anti-Fengtian War thus came to an end. In June of the same year Zhang Zuolin controlled the Beiyang Government. On 1927.6.18 Zhang Zuolin set up a military government and made himself Generalissimo.
1926.5.17 Pilsudski, former Head of State of Poland, staged the May Coup of Poland and seized power. He then carried out dictatorial rule.
1926.5.30 da Costa and Carmona, Portuguese military officers, seized power in a coup. On the next day, the First Republic of Portugal came to an end and the Second Portuguese Republic began. Since then Portugal was under prolonged military dictatorship.
1926.6.5 Britain, Turkey and Iraq signed the Treaty of Mosul, by which the majority of Mosul was given to Iraq. The Kurdistan region originally under Osmanli rule was thus divided into three parts: Southern Kurdistan (including Mosul) belonged to Iraq, Western Kurdistan belonged to Syria and Northern Kurdistan belonged to Turkey (Eastern Kurdistan remained under Persian rule).
1926.7.9 China (Nationalist Government) launched the Northern Expedition.
1926.8.11 Present-day Equatorial Guinea became a Spanish colony named Spanish Guinea.
1926.9.1 France reorganised the State of Great Lebanon as the Republic of Lebanon.
1926.9.2 The Qasimi Regime was renamed the Yemeni Regime ([Northern] Yemen).
1926.10.7 The Italian Government prohibited all non-Fascist parties. The National Fascist Party thus established one-party rule in Italy.
1926.11.14 Trotsky was expelled from the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik). In 1929.1 Trotsky was expelled from USSR. Later there emerged a Trotskyist Faction within the international socialist movement.

Supported by USA, Diaz, leader of the Nicaraguan Conservative Party, became the President. The Liberal Party rose against the Conservative Party and a civil war broke out in Nicaragua. In December USA despatched a troop to intervene in the civil war. Sandino launched a guerillar warfare against USA (the Sandino Movement) In May of the next year the Liberal Party compromised with USA and ended the war. But Sandino continued his resistance against USA.
1926.11.12 The Communist Party of Indonesia started a revolt in Dutch East Indies (1926 National Revolt of Indonesia, which was suppressed by the Dutch Colonial Government in January of the next year.
1926.12.17 Smetona, former President of Lithuania and leader of the Nationalist Union, staged a coup in conjunction with the Christian-Democratic Party and seized power. On ..19 of the same month Smetona resumed the presidency and carried out dictatorial rule.
1927.1.1 China (Nationalist Government) moved the capital to Wuhan. On .4.13 of the same year, Chiang Kai-shek purged the Communists within the Nationalist Party in Shanghai ("April 12th Purge"). On ..18 of the same month, Chiang Kai-shek set up another Nationalist Government in Nanjing in opposition to the Nationalist Government in Wuhan. On .7.15 the Central Committee of the Nationalist Party in Wuhan also purged the Communists ("July 15th Purge"). On .9.15 the two Nationalist Governments in Nanjing and Wuhan were reunified. Nanjing was chosen as the capital.
1927.4.12 Britain was renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1927.5.20 Britain signed the Treaty of Jedda with Najd by which Britain recognized the independence of the territories under the rule of the al-Saud Family (including Najd and Hejaz). Najd and Hejaz were thus freed from the status of semi-colony.
1927.8.1 The Chinese Communists started an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist Government, which marked the beginning of the First Nationalist-Communist Civil War. Subsequently, the Communists also started unsuccessful uprisings in several cities in southern China. Thereafter the Communists turned to the rural areas as their revolutionary bases, where they established a number of soviet governments.
Tafari seized control of the Ethiopian royal court. On 1930.4.3 Tafari succeeded as Emperor of Ethiopia and was renamed Haile Selassie.
1928.4 Jordan promulgated the Organic Law and adopted a constituional monarchical system.

Salazar seized control of the Portuguese Government. In 1930.7 he formed the National Union. One-party rule of the National Union started in 1933.2.
1928.6.3 China (Nationalist Government) attacked Beijing. Generalissimo Zhang Zuolin fled and the Beiyang Government collapsed. On .10.3 of the same year, the Nationalist Government proclaimed the beginning of the one-party rule of the Nationalist Party. On .10.8 Chiang Kai-shek became the Chairman of the National Government. On .12.29 Zhang Xueliang, a warlord in northeastern China, submitted to the authority of the Nationalist Government, thus completing the unification of China. But the Nationalist Revolutionary Army split into cliques headed by Chiang Kai-shek, Li Zongren (Guangxi Clique), Yen Tsi-shan, Feng Yuxiang and Zhang Xueliang, the so-called "New Warlords".
1928.8.27 A number of countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in Paris whereby they were committed to abandoning war and settling international disputes by peaceful means.
1928.10.1 USSR implemented the first Five-Year Plan, which marked the beginning of planned economy and extensive socialist policies within the country.
1928.11 Bacha-i-Saqqo, Chief of an Afghan tribe, rose against the Barakzai Dynasty. On .1.17 of the next year, he overthrew the Barakzai Dynasty. He made himself Amir and was renamed Habibullah Ghazi. On .10.17 Mohammad Nadir established Afghanistan (Zahir Dynasty). On .11.1 Mohammad Nadir overthrew Habibullah Ghazi.
1929 USSR launched the Collectivization Campaign to establish a common ownership system in agriculture. In 1937 common ownership became predominant in USSR.
1929.1.6 King Aleksandar of Serbs-Croats-Slovenes staged a coup. By abrogating the constitution, he resumed dictatorial power.
1929.2.11 The Roman Papacy and Italy concluded the Lateran Treaties, by which Italy recognized the suzerainty of the Roman Papacy over Vatican City. On .6.7 of the same year, Vatican City gained independent status and established the Vatican City State.
1929.3 Outbreak of the Chiang-Guangxi War between Chiang Kai-shek, Chairman of the Chinese Nationalist Government and the Guangxi Clique warlords. In April of the same year, the Guangxi Clique warlords were defeated.
1929.5.8 The island of Jan Mayen became a Norwegian dependency.
1929.6.7 An expert committee on the German reparations problem proposed the "Young Plan" to replace the Dawes Plan, which was ratified by the Allies on .8.6 of the same year.
1929.9 The first television broadcast in history took place in Britain.
1929.10.3 The Kingdom of Serbs-Croats-Slovenes was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
1929.10.24 The stock market crash in New York, USA led to economic crisis, culminating in the Great Depression of the capitalist world.
1929.12.5 USSR established the Tadzikh Soviet Socialist Republic in eastern part of Central Asia as one of its union republics.
1930.1 A Republican Revolution broke out in Spain. On ..30 the dictator de Rivera was forced to step down. When King Alfonso XIII was forced to abdicate on 1931.4.14, the Bourbon Dynasty was supplanted by the Second Spanish Republic.
1930.1.21 The imperialist powers held the London Naval Conference, on which they reached agreement on the reduction and limitation of the powers' naval armaments.
1930.2.9 Nguyen Thai Hoc and Nguyen Khac Nhu, leaders of the Vietnames Nationalist Party, started the Yen Bai Uprising against French rule. The uprising was suppressed on ..15 of the same month.
1930.3 The Guangxi Clique warlords, Yen Tsi-shan and Feng Yuxiang united to oppose Chiang Kai-shek. In April of the same year, the Henan War broke out between Chiang Kai-shek and the Anti-Chiang factions. In November Chiang Kai-shek defeated his opponents.
1930.3.3 Rafael Leonida Trujillo, a military officer of the Dominican Republic, seized power in a coup and established the dictatorship of the Trujillo Family.
1930.3.12 To oppose a colonial act on the sale of salt, Gandhi launched the "Salt March", which marked the beginning of the Second Non-Cooperation Movement. On .5.5 of the same year, the Colonial Government suppressed the movement. On 1931.5.4 Gandhi concluded the Delhi Pact with the Colonial Government and halted the Non-Cooperation Movement.
1930.6.30 All the Allied armies withdrew from Rhineland.
1930.8.25 Cerro, a Peruvian military officer, staged a coup and overthrew President Leguia.
1930.9 The Vietnamese Communist Party started uprisings in the two provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh, where they set up soviet governments of workers and peasants (Nghe An-Ha Tinh Soviet Movement. On ..12 of the same month the French Colonial Government suppressed the uprisings. On ..10 the Vietnamese Communist Party was renamed the Indochinese Communist Party.
1930.9.6 de Uriburu, an Argentine military officer, staged a coup and toppled the Government of the Radical Civic Union.
Vargas, Governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, started a revolt (Vargas Revolution) and overthrew the First Republic of Brazil on ..24 of the same month. Brazil then entered the Period of the "Transitional Republic". On .11.3 Vargas made himself President and carried out dictatorial rule.
1930.10.28 Saya San, a Burmese, rose against British rule and established the Burmese Kingdom. On 1931.8.2 Saya San was defeated and arrested. In 1933 the British Colonial Government crushed the rebellion.
1931.2.14 Ubico, a Guatemalan military officer, seized power in a coup and established a personal dictatorship.
1931.5.28 The Anti-Chiang factions within the Chinese Nationalist Party set up a Nationalist Government in Guangzhou in opposition to the Nanjing Nationalist Government. Wang Ching-wei was chosen as the Chairman. On .12.15 of the same year, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as Chairman of the Nationalist Government. On 1932.1.1 the position was succeeded by Lin Sen. But real power was still held by Chiang Kai-shek. On .1.5 the Guangzhou Nationalist Government was dissolved.
1931.7.16 Ethiopia promulgated a constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1931.9.18 Japan invaded northeastern China (the "September 18th Incident", also called the Shenyang Incident). On .2.5 of the next year, the Japanese army captured Harbin and occupied northeastern China.
1931.11 Britain formed the Pound Sterling Bloc with the member states of the British Colonial Empire and other countries closely associated with Britain. France and USA also formed the US Dollar Bloc and the Gold Bloc in 1933 and 1934, respectively. A situation of competition between the three currency blocs thus emerged.
1931.11.7 The Chinese Communist Party established China (Soviet Government) in Jiangsu to direct the local soviet governments. On .12.16 of the same year, the Nationalist Government started to attack the Soviet Government.
1931.12.3 Martinez seized power in a coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
1931.12.11 Britain passed the Statute of Westminster, which recognized the independent status of its dominions (except for Newfoundland). The British Colonial Empire was thus formally transformed to the British Commonwealth of Nations (also called the Commonwealth). Ireland, South Africa, Canada, Australia and New Zealand formally gained independence.
1932 Kim Il Song, a Korean Communist, started a guerilla warfare against Japanese colonial rule.
1932.1 The First National Uprising of el Salvador agaisnt President Martinez broke out. Martinez crushed the uprising.
1932.1.7 Stimson, Secretary of State of USA, stated that USA would not recognize Japanese invasion of northeastern China ("Stimson Doctrine"), but the statement could not halt the invasion.
1932.1.28 The Japanese army attacked Shanghai of China ("January 28th Incident", also called Shanghai Incident). On .5.5 of the same year China concluded the Shanghai Armistice, by which the Japanese army withdrew from the occupied territories.
1932.2.2 The Geneva Disarmament Conference was convened. Due to disagreement among the participating countries, no convention was made.
1932.3.1 Japan established the Manchurian Regime in northeastern China as its puppet state. On ..9 Japan installed Puyi, the former Qing Emperor, as the Consul of Manchuria and Concordia Association as the single ruling party of Manchuria. On 1934.3.1 Puyi changed his title to Emperor of Manchuria.
1932.5.8 The National Republican Party of Costa Rica came to power and carried out leftist policies.
1932.5.15 A Japanese ultrarightist group assassinted Prime Miniter Inukai Tsuyoshi in an attempt to seize power, but was suppressed ("May 15th Incident"). On ..26 of the same month, Saito Makoto succeeded as Prime Minister and formed a non-partisan cabinet, which marked the end of the Period of Party Cabinet of Japan.
1932.6 To contend for the northern Chaco region, Bolivia and Paraguay entered into the Chaco War (also called Gran Chaco War). On 1935.6.12 the war ended. On 1938.7.21 the two countries concluded the Buenos Aires Peace Treaty, by which Paraguay acquired the most territories of northern Chaco.
1932.6.4 Davila and Grove, leftist military officers of Chile, staged a coup and established the Socialist Republic of Chile, which was toppled by the rightist military men.
1932.6.24 The People's Party of Siam seized power in a coup (the 1932 Revolution of Siam) and established a Military Government. On ..27 of the same month King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) was forced to sign the Provisional Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1932.7.9 The Constitutionalists composed of the Brazilian agricultural plutocrats rebelled against President Vargas (the Constitutionalist War). On .10.2 of the same year the Constitutionalists surrendered.
1932.7.21 The British Commonwealth held the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa of Canada and decided to launch the Imperial Preference System, a system of trade protectionism.
1932.7.27 The anti-war activists of various countries held the International Anti-War Congress in Amsterdam, where they set up the International Anti-War Committee.
1932.9.22 Abdul-Aziz II, Kings of Najd and Hejaz, united the two countries as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
1932.9.26 The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden came to power. During their rule the Party established the welfare state system which became the model of the Western welfare state system.
1932.10.3 Britain declared that Iraq ceased to be a British mandate. But Iraq remained under British control.
1932.12.22 A constitution was granted in Maldives, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.
1933.1.1 Somoza Garcia, a Nicaraguan military officer, seized control of the government. Since then, Nicaragua was under the dictatorship of the Somoza Family. In the same month the USA army withdrew from Nicaragua.
Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, succeeded as Chancellor, which marked the end of the Period of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Third Reich Period. On .7.14 of the same year, the National Socialist German Workers' Party established one-party fascist rule in Germany.
1933.3.1 President Terra of Uruguay staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule. Democracy was not restored until 1938.
1933.3.4 Japan occupied Rehe of China. On .5.31 of the same year, China and Japan concluded the Tanggu Truce, by which China recognized Japan's occupation of northeastern China and Rehe. Chahar and northern Hebei were designated as a demilitarized zone.
Franklin Roosevelt became USA President. During his presidency he adopted the Keynesian Theory and carried out the "New Deal" to revive the economy. In foreign affairs he adopted the "Good Neighbour Policy" to improve the relationship between USA and the Latin American countries.
1933.4.3 King Prajadhipok of Siam declared suspension of the constitutional government. On .6.20 of the same year, Phraya Phahon, a a military officer of the People's Party, staged the "June 20th Coup and restored the constitutional government.
1933.4.14 Sheng Shicai, a miliatry officer of Xinjiang, China, seized power in Xinjiang. During his rule he adopted the pro-USSR policy and unified Xinjiang making use of the USSR army. Xinjiang thus became a sphere of influence of USSR.
1933.6.12 The nations in the world held the International Economic Conference in London to discuss the international agreement on the stablization of currencies. On .7.27 the Conference was adjourned without success.
1933.8.24 A revolution broke out in Cuba. President Machado was overthrown. After a coup staged by Batista, a military officer, on .9.5 of the same year, Grau San Martin succeeded as President. After Batista forced Grau San Martin to resign on .1.15 of the next year, Batista held real power and carried out dictatorial rule.
1933.11 Li Jishen and Cai Tingkai, military officers of the Chinese 19th Route Army, rebelled in Fujian. On ..22 of the same month they set up the Fujian People's Government. On .1.21 of the next year the rebellion was crushed by the Nationalist Government.
1933.12.12 Hoja Niyaz Hajji, head of the Uygurs in Xinjiang, China, began to rule Xinjiang and founded the Islamic Republic of East Turkestan, which was toppled by Ma Zhongying, a warlord in Xinjiang, in February of next year.
1934 Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria and leader of the Fatherland Front, proclaimed one-party rule. On .7.25 of the same year, Germany instigated a Nazi Coup staged by the National Socialist German Workers' Party of Austria. Dollfuss was killed. But the coup was soon suppressed.
1934.1.1 Italy united Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan as Libya.
1934.1.30 Britain abrogated the dominion status of Newfoundland because of the corruption and maladministration of the Newfoundland Government. Newfoundland reverted to the status of a British crown colony.
1934.2.2 Sandino concluded peace with the Nicaraguan Government and ceased the guerilla warfare. On ..21 of the same month USA induced President Somoza Garcia of Nicaragua to assassinate Sandino.
1934.2.9 Greece, Turkey, Romania and Yugoslavia Balkan Pact and formed the Balkan Entente.
1934.3.12 Pats, State Elder of Estonia, staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule. In 1935.2 he formed the Fatherland Union and established one-party rule.
1934.3.17 Hungary, Italy and Austria signed the Rome Protocols and formed a Bloc of Danube States in opposition to the Little Entente.
1934.5.15 Premier Karlis Ulmanis of Latvia staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
1934.5.19 The People's League of Bulgaria seized power in a coup and established one-party rule.
1934.6.30 Hitler arrested and killed Roehm, head of the Storm Troops, the armed forces of the National Socialist Workers' Party and purged the Storm Troops (Roehm Incident). Thereafter the Schutzstaffel replaced the Storm Troops as the main armed forces of the National Socialist Workers' Party.
Being besieged by the Nationalist Government, China (Soviet Government) was compelled to make a breakthrough and started the Chinese Communist Long March. In the Zunyi Conference held in January of the next year, Mao Zedong established his leadership role within the Party.
1935.1.13 In a plebiscite held in Saarland, the voters decided that Saarland was to revert to Germany. On .3.1 of the same year, the League of Nations returned Saarland to Germany.
1935.1.22 Emperor Boris III of Bulgaria staged a coup to overthrow the Government headed by the People's League. Boris III restored the absolute monarchy.
1935.3.21 Persia was renamed the Kingdom of Iran.
1935.9 In an attempt to acquire northern China, Japan induced five provinces in northern China (Hebei, Chahar, Suiyuan, Shandong and Shanxi) to launch an autonomous campaign (Northern China Incident). On .11.25 of the same year, Japan induced Yin Rugeng to establish the East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Government as a puppet government of Japan. On .12.9 the "December 9th Movement" against Japanese invasion broke out in Beiping. Thereafter the anti-Japanese movement spread throughout China.
1935.10.3 Italy started the Third Italo-Ehtiopian War and invaded Ethiopia. On 1936.5.2 Ethiopia (Solomonic Dynasty) was overthrown. On ..9 King Vittorio-Emanuele III of Italy assumed the title of Emperor of Ethiopia and established Ethiopia (Savoy Dynasty).
1935.10.10 Kondilis, former Premier of Greece, staged a coup and overthrew the Second Republic. Kondilis made himself Regent and Prime Minister and restored Greece (Danish Dynasty). On .11.4 of the same year Georgios II, the former King, was restored to the throne.
1935.11.15 Philippines became a commonwealth of USA and established self-rule.
1935.11.23 The Alliance of National Liberation of Brazil started a revolt in Rio Grande do Norte against President Vargas and established a People's Revolutionary Government ("November Revolution of 1935"). On ..27 of the same month the revolt was crushed by the Brazilian Government.
1936.1.15 The leftist parties of Spain formed the Popular Front in opposition to the rightist groups. On .2.19 of the same year, the Popular Front came to power. On .7.18 Franco, a rightist military officer, rebelled against the Government of the Second Republic. The Spanish Civil War broke out. On .7.23 Franco established Spain (Fascist Government). Later Germany and Italy dispatched armed forces to support the rightists, while USSR and the anti-Fascist strength in Europe formed the International Column to support the leftists. On .9.9 the countries concerned concluded an international convention by which the signatories promised not to intevene in the Spanish Civil War.
1936.2.6 Beginning of one-party rule of the Nationalist Union in Lithuania.
1936.2.17 The Paraguayan military forces staged the February Revolution of Paraguay and toppled the Government of the Liberal Party. On ..20 of the same month, Franco succeeded as President. In November he formed the Revolutionary National Union (commonly known as the February Revolutionary Party). After Franco was overthrown by the rightist military men on 1937.8.15, the Liberal Party returned to power.
1936.2.26 The Imperial Way Faction of the Japanese military forces staged a coup in an attempt to overthrow the Control Group, another faction of the military forces ("February 26th Incident". The coup failed on ..29 of the same month. Since then the Japanese army was controlled by the Control Group. On .3.9 Hirota Koki succeeded as Prime Minister and formed a cabinet which included members of the active army. Thereafter militarism started to gain ground in Japan.
1936.3.7 Germany dispatched a troop to reoccupy Rhineland.
1936.4.2 Saudi Arabia and Iraq concluded the Treaty of Non-Agression and Arab Brotherliness and launched the Pan-Arab Movement.
1936.4.13 Ioannis Metaxas became Prime Minister of Greece. After I. Metaxas staged a coup on .8.4 of the same year, he dissolved the Parliament and carried out dictatorial rule.
1936.6.1 Italy united Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia as Italian East Africa.
1936.6.22 The signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne held a conference in Montreux to discuss the issue of the Black Sea straits. With the signing of the Montreux Convention on .7.20, the International Straits Commission was dissolved and Turkey resumed control of the Black Sea straits.
1936.6.28 Japan induced Prince Demchugdongrub of Inner Mongolia to establish the Mongolian Military Government (commonly called the Mengjiang Government) as its puppet government. On 1937.11.22 the Mongolian Military Government was reorganised as the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government. In 1939.9 the Government was further reorganised as the Mongolian United Autonomous Government.
1936.8.27 Britain and Egypt concluded the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, by which Britain was to wtihdraw most of its armed forces. On .11.14 of the same year Egypt gained independence but continued to be under British control. Suez Canal Zone became a British colony.
1936.9.3 The anti-war activists in the world held the World Peace Congress in Brussels to promote the world peace movement.
1936.10 The Chinese Communists halted the Long March upon arrival in Gansu. On .1.1 of the next year, China (Soviet Government) moved the capital to Yan'an of Shaanxi.
1936.10.25 Germany and Italy concluded a pact and formed the Berlin-Rome Axix. On .11.25 of the same year, Germany and Japan concluded the Anti-COMINTERN Pact. On 1937.11.6 Italy joined the Pact. Germany, Italy and Japan thus formed the Axis Powers bloc.
1936.11 France abandoned the gold standard and the Gold Bloc disintegrated. Later France formed the Franc Bloc with its colonies to compete with the Pound Sterling Bloc and the US Dollar Bloc.
1936.12.5 USSR elevated Kazakh as Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic as one of its union republics.

USSR established the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic in eastern part of Central Asia as one of its union republics.

USSR dissolved Transcaucasus. Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic became a union republic of USSR. Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic became a union republic of USSR. Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic became a union republic of USSR.
1936.12.12 Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, twp Chinese military officers, took Chiang Kai-shek captive in Xi'an and forced Chiang to agree to stop fighting against the Communists to pave the way for a national united front against Japanese aggression (Xi'an Incident). On ..25 of the same month Zhang Xueliang released Chiang Kai-shek. But he was soon put under house arrest by Chiang.
1937.4.1 Britain reorganized its protectorates in Southern Yemen and established the Eastern Aden Protectorate (comprising of Kathiri, Qishn and Suqutra Mahri, Wahidi, ash-Shihr and al-Mukalla) and Western Aden Protectorate (comprising of Aqrabi, Lower Yafa, Lower Awlaqi, Upper Awlaqi, Fadli, Hawshabi, Upper Yafa, Dathina, Bayhan, Dali, Awdhali, Lahej, Alawi).
1937.5.28 Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. During his tenure he adopted the Appeasement Policy towards the Fascist regimes.
1937.7.7 Japan launched an offensive ("July 7th Lugouqiao Incident") and started an all-out invasion of China. The Second Sino-Japanese War broke out. On .8.13 Japan launched a campaign against Shanghai ("August 13th Incident").
1937.7.8 Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan concluded the Saadabad Pact. When the Pact took effect in June of next year, the Oriental Entente came into being.
1937.9.22 The Chinese Communists declared their submission to the authority of the Nationalist Government and the dissolution of the Soviet Government. On ..23 Chiang Kai-shek proclaimed recognition of the legal status of the Communist Party, which marked the formation of the united front against Japanese aggression and the end of the one-party rule of the Nationalist Party.
1937.12.13 The Japanese troops captured Nanjing, the capital of China and carried out the Nanjing Massacre. On ..14 Japan installed a Provisional Government in Beiping to govern northern China. On 1938.3.27 another Reformed Government was installed in Nanjing to govern eastern China.
1937.12.29 With a new constitution of [Southern] Ireland coming into force, the country's name was changed from Irish Free State to Ireland and the position of President was created. But Ireland retained the dominion status. A political system with two heads of state - a King (assumed by the British King) and a President was established.
1938.2.20 King Carol II of Romania promulgated a new constitution which restored the absolute monarchy. On .12.15 Carol II formed the National Renasisance Front, which carried out one-party rule.

The Radical Civic Union of Argentina returned to power.
1938.3.12 Germany directed Arthur Seyss-Inquart, head of the Austrian National Socialist Workers' Party to seize power. Germany annexed Austria on the next day.
1938.9.3 The Trotskyist groups of various countries formed the Fourth International.
1938.9.5 France separated Alexandretta from Syria and established the State of Hatay. On .7.23 of the next year Turkey annexed Hatay.
1938.9.12 Germany requested Czechoslovakia to grant autonomous rights to Sudetenland and led to the September Crisis. On ..29 of the same month Britain, France, Germany and Italy held the Munich Conference, on which Britain and France sacrificed the interests of Czechoslovakia. On ..30 the four powers concluded the Munich Agreement. On .10.1 Czechoslovakia ceded Sudetenland to Germany. On ..2 Czechoslovakia ceded Teschen to Poland.
1938.10.7 Germany induced Slovakia under Czechoslovakia to establish an autonomous government.
1938.10.11 Germany induced Ruthenia under Czechoslovakia (now under Ukraine) to establish an autonomous government. On ..28 of the same month Ruthenia was renamed Carpathian-Ukraine. On .11.2 Germany and Italy carried out the First Vienna Arbitration and decided that the southern part of Carpathian-Ukraine should belong to Hungary.
1939.3.14 Germany induced Carpathian-Ukraine to secede from Czechoslovakia and established the Carpathian-Ukraine Regime.

Germany induced Slovakia to declare independence and establish the Slovak Regime.
1939.3.15 Germany occupied Prague. On ..16 of the same month Germany annhilated Czechoslovakia and established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the remaining territory of Czechoslovakia (the Prague Incident).
1939.3.16 Hungary annexed Carpathian-Ukraine.
1939.3.22 Britain and France formed a mutual assistance military alliance against the Axis Powers. The Allied Powers bloc was thus reestablished.
1939.3.23 Germany annexed Klaipeda (i.e. Memel) under Lithuania.
1939.4.1 Spain (Fascist Government) annihilated the Second Republic and established the fascist rule of the Phalange Party in the whole country.
1939.4.7 Italy invaded Albania and deposed Zogu on ..8 of the same month. On ..11 the Fascist Party, with Italian support, established one-party rule in Albania. On ..16 King Vittorio-Emanuele III of Italy assumed the title of King of Albania and established Albania (Savoy Dynasty).
1939.5.22 Germany and Italy signed an agreement which came to be known as the "Pact of Steel" by historians.
1939.6.23 Siam was renamed the Kingdom of Thailand.
1939.8.23 Germany and USSR signed the German-Russian Non-Aggression Pact and delineated their spheres of influence in northeastern Europe.
1939.9.1 Germany launched the Blitzkrieg and invaded Poland and annexed Danzig. The Second World War broke out. The War subsequently developed into a war between the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers.
1939.9.3 Britain and France declared war on Germany without any military operation (the "Strange War").
1939.9.17 USSR invaded Poland and occupied Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia.
1939.9.28 Germany and USSR partitioned the territories of Poland. Some Polish government members fled overseas and formed a Government-in-Exile in Britain later.
1939.11.30 Finland and USSR entered into the Soviet-Finnish War(also called the "Winter War"). On .3.12 of the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Moscow, by which Finland leased Hanko Peninsula to USSR.
1940.1.1 British Dominica seceded from the British Leeward Islands and joined the British Windward Islands.
1940.3.30 Japan united the two puppet governments in Beiping and Nanjing as the Nationalist Government and installed Wang Ching-wei as the President of the Executive Yuan. On .11.28 of the same year, Wang Ching-wei became the Chairman of the Government concurrently.
1940.4.9 The German armies invaded Denmark. Denmark surrendered and bacame a German protectorate.

The German armies invaded Norway and installed Quisling as head of a puppet government. On .6.7 of the same year Norway (Oldenburg Dynasty) was overthrown.

Iceland suspended its relation with Denmark. On .5.17 of next year Iceland formally declared independence from Denmark.
1940.4.12 Britain occupied Faroe Islands.
1940.5.10 Germany invaded the Low Countries. Germany conquered Luxembourg.
1940.5.12 The German armies invaded France and started the Battle of France. A large area in northern France was swiftly occupied.

Churchill succeeded as the Prime Minister of Britain. During his tenure he led Britain in the war against the invasions of the Axis Powers.
1940.5.13 Germany conquered the Netherlands.
1940.5.28 Germany conquered Belgium.
1940.6.10 Italy joined the Second World War. The Italian armies intruded into the British dependencies in East Africa from Italian East Africa.
1940.6.15 USSR invaded the Baltic region and occupied Lithuania.
1940.6.16 Petain succeeded as Premier of France. On ..22 of the same month France and Germany signed the Compiegne Armistice, by which the northwestern part of France was ceded to Germany.
1940.6.17 USSR occupied Estonia and Latvia.
1940.6.18 de Gaulle, a French military officer, proclaimed the formation of the Free French Forces (renamed the Fighting French Forces on 1942.7) and called on the populace to resist the invaders. Anti-Fascist Resistance Movements began to arise in various European countries.
1940.6.22 The National Renasisance Front of Romania was re-established as the Party of the Nation, which carried out one-party rule.
1940.6.27 USSR compelled Romania to cede Bessarabia and northern Bukovina.
1940.7.10 The French Government moved the capital to Vichy (called the Vichy Government by historians) and governed southern France. The Third French Republic came to an end.
1940.7.21 USSR reorganised Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia as soviet socialist republics.
1940.8.2 USSR established the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in Bessarabia as one of its constituent republics. This constituent republic was renamed Moldova on 1990.6.23.
1940.8.3 Lithuania was incorporated into USSR.
1940.8.5 Latvia was incorporated into USSR.
1940.8.6 Estonia was incorporated into USSR.
1940.8.8 Germany launched an extensive air raid offensive against Britain (the Battle of Britain). From .6.22 of the next year onwards, Germany gradually stopped the air raids.
1940.8.30 Germany carried out the Second Vienna Arbitration and compelled Romania to cede northern Transylvania to Hungary and southern Dobruja to Bulgaria.
1940.9.4 Antonescu, a Romanian military officer, united with the Iron Guard and seized power in a coup. Antonescu became the Prime Minister. On ..14 of the same month, Iron Guard replaced the Party of the Nation as the only legal party. On .1.23 of the next year, Antonescu purged the Iron Guard and established a personal dictatorship.
1940.9.13 The Italian armies intruded into Egypt from Libya, which marked the beginning of the North African Campaign. On .2.11 of the next year, Germany dispatched troops to aid the Italian armies.
1940.9.22 The Japanese armies intruded into French Indochina. Thereafter French Indochina became a condominium of France (Vichy Government) and Japan.
1940.9.27 Germany, Italy and Japan concluded the Three-Power Pact by which the Axis Powers formally became a military alliance.
1940.10.12 The Japanese ultrarightists formed the Imperial Rule Assistance Association as a substitute of party politics and a means to carry out Fascist rule.
1940.11.20 Hungary joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
1940.11.23 Romania joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
1940.11.28 Thailand launched the Thailand-French War and occupied parts of the territories of Laos and Cambodia. On 1941.5.9, France and Thailand signed an agreement by which France recognized the occupation of the territories.

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