A Chronology of World Political History
(1901 - 1925 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1901.1.1 The British colonies in Australia (including Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland) were united as the Commonwealth of Australia, a British dominion with a parliamentary cabinet system of government.
1901.1.24 Britain united Mashonaland and Matabeleland as Southern Rhodesia.
1901.3 USA passed the Platt Amendment, which granted to USA the right of intervening in the internal affairs of Cuba. In June of the same year, USA compelled Cuba to incorporate the Platt Amendment into its Constitution and made Cuba a dependent state of USA after independence.
1901.6.11 Britain transferred the suzerainty of Cook Islands and Niue to New Zealand.
1901.9.14 Theodore Roosevelt succeeded as USA President. During his tenure he adopted the "Big Stick Policy" and tried to establish USA's hegemony in America.
1901.12.23 Australia promulgated the Immigration Restriction Act to restrict non-white immigrants to Australia. This marked the commencement of the White Australia Policy.
1902 de Castro started a rebellion against Bolivia in Acre and restored the Independent State of Acre on 1903.1.15. On .11.17 Brazil and Bolivia signed the Treaty of Petropolis, by which Bolivia sold Acre to Brazil while Brazil undertook to provide Bolivia with an eastbound railway and a water outlet. On 1904.2.25 Brazil formally annexed Acre.
1902.1.30 Britain and Japan formed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
1902.5.20 The military rule of USA over Cuba ended with the establishment of the Republic of Cuba, which remained under American control.
1902.12.11 The German and British armed forces imposed a blockade of the Venezuelan coast to compel the latter to pay debts, which led to the Second Venezuelan Crisis. AFter the mediation of USA, the countries concerned signed a protocol was signed to end the crisis.
1903 The Qing Government began to carry out modernization reforms (the Manchu Reforms).

The Dutch colonists conquered Aceh. But the Aceh people continued the resistance, which was not completely suppressed until 1913, when the Aceh War finally ended.
1903.1.2 USA and Colombia signed the Hay-Herran Treaty whereby Colombia granted the right of construction of the Panama Canal to USA and allowed USA to set up a Panama Canal Zone. The Colombian Congress refused to ratify the treaty. On .11.4 of the same year, USA induced Amador to launch an independence movement in Panama. He declared the independence of Panama from Colombia and established the Republic of Panama.
1903.5.12 Mauritania became a French colony.
1903.5.19 France united its Polynesian possessions (including the Society Islands, Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago and Austral Islands) as French Oceania, which was renamed French Polynesia on 1957.7.22.
1903.6.11 King Aleksandar of Serbia was assassinated, which marked the end of Serbia (Obrenovic Dynasty). On ..15 of the same month Petar I succeeded to the throne and restored Serbia (Karadjordjevic Dynasty).
The Social Democratic Labour Party of Russia held the Second Congress in Brussels (moved to London later). The Party split into two factions: the Bolsheviks (= Majority; led by Lenin) and the Mensheviks (= Minority).
1903.8.3 The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization rebelled against Osmanli rule and founded the Krushevo Republic. On ..13 of the same month the rebellion was crushed by the Osmanli Turks.
1903.8.7 Swazi became a British protectorate.
1903.11.18 Panama signed the USA-Panama Treaty with USA whereby Panama became a dependent state of USA and ceded the Panama Canal Zone to USA.
1903.12 Britain started the Sceond Tibetan War and invaded Tibet. On .9.7 of the next year, Britain forced the local government of Tibet to sign theTreaty of Llasa and made Tibet a British sphere of interest, of which the Qing Empire denied recognition. On 1906.4.27 the Qing Empire and Britain signed the Sino-British Follow-up Treaty on Tibet and India, by which Britain recognized Qing Empire's sovereignty over Tibet but at the same time acquired a lot of benefits in Tibet.
1903.12.29 France split French Congo into two colonies: Middle Congo and Gabon.
1904.2.8 In contention for Manchuria and Taehan, Japan and Russia entered into the Russo-Japanese War. Russia was defeated in the next year. On .9.5 the two countries signed the Peace of Portsmouth, by which Russia ceded southern Sakhalin and parts of its interest in Manchuria to Japan and recognized Japan's supremacy in Taehan. Japan thus became a power in East Asia.
1904.4.8 Britain and France concluded the Anglo-French Entente to resolve their conflicts in their colonies all over the world.
1904.10.3 France and Spain signed the Franco-Spanish Treaty, which nominally assured the independence and integrity of the Alawi Regime (i.e. Morocco), but in practice delineate their respective spheres of interest in the Alawi Regime: the Mediterranean coastal area and the southwestern part belonged to Spain while the remaining parts belonged to France.
1905 Montenegro promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.

The Dutch colonists started the Third Bone War and invaded Bone. In 1906 the Dutch colonists suppressed the resistance of the Bugis and Makassars.

A revolution broke out in Persia. On .10.7 of the next year the Government promulgated a constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government.

A popular uprising (the Maji Maji Uprising) broke out in German East Africa against the German Colonial Government. The uprising was crushed in 1907.
1905.1.22 The Russian security force fired at a procession of petitioners (the Bloody Sunday). Thereafter revolutions broke out throughout Russia (the 1905 Revolution of Russia). On .10.30 Tsar Nikolai II issued the October Manifesto, in which he promised to grant a constitution, convene the State Duma and adopt a constitutional form of government. Depending on their attitude towards the October Manifesto the Liberals split into two factions: the moderate Octobrist Party and the radical Constitutional Democratic Party.
1905.3.16 The southern part of Somalia became an Italian colony and was called Italian Somalia.
1905.3.31 Germany announced that it would maintain the independence and integrity of the Alawi Regime, which led to tension between Germany and France (the First Moroccan Crisis). On .1.16 of the next year the powers convened the Algeciras Conference and passed the Act of Algeciras, which recognized the independence of the Alawi Regime. But the Alawi police force was to be controlled by France and Spain.
1905.6.7 Norway gained independence from Sweden. On .8.31 of the same year the Swedish-Norwegian Union was dissolved.
Sun Yixian founded the Alliance of Chinese Revolutionaries in Japan and launched the revolution against the Qing Government.
1905.10.16 India partitioned Bengal into the eastern and western parts. The Indian National Congress Party launched the Anti-Partition Movement.
1905.11.17 Japan and Taehan signed a treaty by which the foreign affairs of Taehan were to be guided by the Japanese Resident-General.
1905.11.25 Prince Hakon VII of Denmark became King of Norway and established Norway (Oldenburg Dynasty).
1906 Min Chong Sik of Taehan organised the Righteous Army to rebel against Japanese rule. Thereafter a number of Righteous Armies appeared throughout the country (the Righteous Army Movement). The Movement was crushed by the Japanese Colonial Government in 1910.
1906.2.11 Present-day Central Africa and Chad became a single French colony named Ubangi-Shari-Chad.
1906.7.4 Britain, France and Italy signed the Tripartite Pact to define their spheres of interest in Ethiopia: the western and northwestern parts belonged to Britain; the eastern part belonged to France and the northern part belonged to Italy.
1906.9 The Dutch colonists started the Fourth Bali War and subdued the states of Badung, Tabanan, etc. on Bali. The southern part of Bali was thus conquered.
1906.9.1 Britain transferred British New Guinea to Australia and renamed it as Papua.
1906.10.12 New Hebrides became an Anglo-French condominium.
1906.12.30 The Indian Muslims formed the All-India Muslim League. Since then the nationalist movement of India split into two camps: the Hinduists and the Muslims.
1907.3 France started the Second Franco-Moroccan War and invaded the Alawi Regime.
1907.6.1 Foundation of the Central Office of International Associations (renamed Union of International Associations in 1910) as a coordinating organisation of the non-governmental international organisations. Thereafter large number of non-governmental international organisations emerged in the world.
1907.6.15 44 countries held the Second Hague Peace Conference and signed the Hague Convention, which contained more provisions about the international laws on warfare.
1907.6.16 Tsar Nikolai II of Russia dissolved the second State Duma, increased the seats of representatives of the priviledged and suppressed the revolutionary movements. Such events were called the "June 3rd Coup" by historians.
1907.7.30 Japan and Russia signed the Russo-Japanese Agreement, by which both parties recognized the colonial interests of each other. Japan and Russia divided Manchuria into the southern and northern parts, which became the spheres of interest of Japan and Russia, respectively.
1907.8.31 Britain and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Entente, which settled their conflicts in Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet. Britain thus abandoned its policy of "Splendid Isolation" and formed the Triple Entente with France and Russia in opposition to the Triple Alliance. Britain and Russia defined their spheres of interest in Persia: a Russian zone in the north, a British zone in the southeast and a buffer zone in the remaining areas. part
1907.9.26 The British colony of Newfoundland gained dominion status and established the Dominion of Newfoundland (according to another source, Newfoundland gained the dominion status on 1931.12.11). The dominion adopted a parliamentary cabinet system of government.

The British colony of New Zealand gained dominion status and established the Dominion of New Zealand. The dominion adopted a parliamentary cabinet system of government.
1907.12 The Indian National Congress Party split. Tilak, leader of the Extremists, formed the Nationalist Party.
1907.12.17 Ugyen Wangchuk, head of the Wangchuk Clan of Bhutan, abolished the dual ruling system of the religious leader and temporal ruler. He made himself King with supreme political and religious powers and established Bhutan (Wangchuk Dynasty).
1908 The Dutch colonists annihilated Klungkung, the suzerain of the Bali states, and conquered the whole of Bali.

The Indian Colonial Government suppressed the Anti-Partition Movement.
1908.6 King Mohammad Ali of Persia staged a coup. He then abrogated the Constitution and restored the absolute monarchy.
1908.7.13 The Young Turks of the Osmanli Region launched a revolution and forced Sultan Abdul-Hamid II to restore the constitution.
1908.7.21 Britain claimed a part of Antarctica as its territory. Thereafter a number of countries (including New Zealand, France, Australia, Norway, Germany, Chile, Argentina, South Africa, Breazil) also laid territorial claims to different parts of Antarctica and led to disputes.
1908.10.5 Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria proclaimed complete independence from the Osmanli Regime. He changed his title to Emperor (Tsar) and established the Third Bulgarian Empire.
1908.10.6 Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, which stirred up nationalist sentiment among the Yugoslavs (the Bosnian Crisis).
Upon death of Zaitian, the Qing Emperor, Puyi succeeded to the throne. On the next day Dowager Empress Nalananer died.
1908.11.15 Belgium abolished the Independent State of the Congo, which then came under the administration of the Belgian Government and was renamed Belgian Congo.
1908.12.19 Gomez, a Venezuelan military officer, seized power in a coup and exercised dictatorial rule. He was nicknamed the "Tyrant of the Andes".
1909.4.6 Peary, a USA explorer, reached the North Pole.
1909.4.13 A coup opposing the rule of the Young Turks broke out in Constantinople. On ..24 of the same month the Young Turks suppressed the coup. On ..27 the Young Turks deposed Sultan Abdul-Hamid II and replaced him with Mehmed V. Real power was thus held by the Young Turks.
1910 A Monegasque Revolution broke out in opposition to Prince Albert I's rule. On 1911.1.5 Albert I promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.
1910.1.8 Bhutan became a British protectorate.
1910.1.13 The first radio broadcast in history took place in New York, USA.
1910.1.15 France united its colonies in Central Africa (including Gabon, Middle Congo, Ubanghi-Shari-Chad) as French Equatorial Africa.
1910.5.31 Britain united its four colonies in Southern Africa (Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State) as the Union of South Africa, a British dominion with a parliamentary cabinet system of government.
1910.6.22 Niger became a French colony.
1910.7.12 The American states held the Fourth Pan-American Conference, on which they resolved to reorganise the International Union of American Republics as the Union of American Republics. The International Bureau of the American Republics was also reorganised as the Pan-American Union.
1910.8.22 Japan and Taehan signed the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty whereby Emperor Yi Chok of Taehan was forced to abdicate. On ..29 of the same month Japan annexed Taehan, which was then renamed Chosen (Korea).
Madero, leader of the Mexican Liberal Party, launched the Mexican Revolution in opposition to President Diaz. In the same year Zapata and Villa also started peasant uprisings.
1910.10.4 The Republican Party of Portugal launched a revolt. On the next day, they overthrew King Manuel II and established the First Portuguese Republic.
1911 Britain annihilated Eri and conquered the southeastern part of present-day Nigeria.
1911.5.8 The Qing Empire abolished the traditional government system and adopted the modern cabinet system following the Western line. Yikuang was appointed as the Prime Minister. As the majority of the cabinet members were royal members, the cabinet was called the em>Royal Cabinet.
1911.5.21 A tribal revolt broke out in the Alawi Regime. A French army was dispatched to its capital Fez. Germany showed disapproval of the French military action by dispatching an army, which led to the Second Moroccan Crisis. On .11.4 of the same year, France and Germany concluded the Franco-German Convention whereby Germany agreed to leave France a free hand in the Alawi Regime while France ceded parts of the African dependencies to Germany.
1911.5.25 The Mexican revolutionary army overthrew President Diaz. But the civil war continued. On .11.6 of the same year Madero succeeded as President.
1911.8.17 Britain united Northeastern Rhodesia and Northwestern Rhodesia as Northern Rhodesia.
1911.9 To seize Libya, Italy started the Italo-Turkish War (also called the Tripolitan War). On .11.5 of the same year, Italy declared Libya to be its dependency. The Sanusi Order in Cyrenaica rose against the Italian invasion.
1911.10.10 The Alliance of Chinese Revolutionaries instigated an anti-Qing uprising in Hubei, which marked the beginning of the 1911 Revolution. Thereafter 15 provinces (including Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Guizhou, Jiangsu, Anhui, Guangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Shandong and Sichuan) declared independence from the Qing Empire successively. On .11.16 of the same year Yuan Shikai was appointed as the Prime Minister by the Qing Government.
1911.12 A Russian troop entered Outer Mongolia (also called Khalka Mongolia) and induced Bogdo-gegen (Jabzandamba Hutagt VIII), religous leader of Outer Mongolia, to declare independence of Outer Mongolia. He made himself King (Khan) of Mongolia and established the Mongolian Regime.
1911.12.14 Amundsen, a Norwegian explorer, reached the South Pole.
1912 Joao Maria, leader of a herectic sect in Contestado in southern Brazil, started a revolt (the Contestado Holy War. On 1915.3.31 the Brazilian Government suppressed the revolt.
1912.1.1 The Military Governments of the Chinese provinces jointly established the Provisional Government of the Republic of China and chose Sun Yixian as the Provisional President. On .2.12 of the same year, Yuan Shikai forced Puyi to abdicate. On .3.10 Yuan Shikai declared submission to the Republic of China and became the Provisional President, which marked the end of the Qing Empire.
1912.3.11 The Provisional Constitution of China was promulgated as a constitutional law prior to the enactment of the formal constitution.
1912.3.13 Bulgaria and Serbia formed an alliance against the Osmanli Turks. In the same year, Bulgaria also allied with Greece and Montenegro and thus formed the Balkan League. On .10.18 the First Balkan War broke out between the Balkan League and the Osmanli Turks.
1912.3.30 France compelled the Alawi Regime to sign the Treaty of Fez, by which the majority of Morocco became a French protectorate called French Morocco and Tangier became an international condominium. The Second Franco-Moroccan War thus ended. On .11.27 of the same year, Frane and Spain signed the Treaty of Madrid whereby Spain recognized French Morocco as a French protectorate while France recognized the Tetuan region in northern Morocco and the Tarfaya region in southern Morocco as Spanish protectorates, which were collectively called Spanish Morocco.
1912.8.25 The Alliance of Chinese Revolutionaries was reorganised as the Nationalist Party in opposition to Yuan Shikai. In 1913.7 the Nationalist Party launched the Second Revolution, but was crushed by Yuan Shikai in September. On .10.10 Yuan Shikai became the President and established the Beiyang Government.
1912.10.15 The Fezzan region of Libya became an Italian colony.
1912.10.18 Italy signed the Treaty of Laussanne with the Osmanli Turks whereby Italy acquired the region of Tripoli from the Osmanli Turks.
1912.10.28 Britain induced Tibet to secede from China and became a semi-independent polity since then.
1912.11.28 Albania declared independence from the Osmanli Regime and established the Albanian Regime. Kosovo was annexed into Albania.
1913.2 The Constitutional Nationalist Party and the Friends of Constitutional Government of Japan launched the First Constitution Protection Movement and joined hands to oppose the dictatorship of the former fief lords and warlords. On ..12 of the same month Prime Minister Katsura Taro was forced to resign.
1913.2.10 The French Colonial Government crushed the Dai Nam rebellion. Hoang Hoa Tham, head of the rebels, was killed.
1913.2.19 Huerta, leader of the Mexican Constitutionalist Party, overthrew President Madero in a coup and made himself Interim President. Carranza rose against Huerta and organised the Constitutionalist Army later.
1913.4.10 Albania ceded Kosovo to Serbia.
1913.5.24 Salim ibn Rashid al-Kharusi instigated an anti-Muscat rebellion among the tribes in the mountain areas of Oman and founded the Islamic Imamate of Oman in opposition to Muscat. In 1920 Britain, Muscat and Oman signed the Treaty of Seeb, which recognzied the independence of the Islamic Imamate of Oman.
1913.5.30 The belligerents of the First Balkan War signed the Treaty of London, thus ending the war. The Osmanli Turks gave up almost all its territories in the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria obtained the majority of Macedonia, which led to disputes with Serbia and Greece. Cleavages arose among members of the Balkan League.
1913.6.1 Serbia and Greece allied against Bulgaria. Later Romania also joined the alliance. On ..29 of the same month Bulgaria entered into the Second Balkan War with the other Balkan states.
1913.8.10 The belligerents of the Second Balkan War signed the Treaty of Bucharest, which ended the war. Romania obtained Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria. Macedonia was divided into three parts: Vardar Macedonia belonged to Serbia; Pirin Macedonia belonged to Bulgaria and Aegean Macedonia belonged to Greece.
1913.12.1 Greece annexed Crete.
1914.1.1 Britain united Southern Nigeria and Northern Nigeria as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.
1914.3.7 Wilhelm became Prince of Albania and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1914.5.12 Johore became a British protectorate and was called the Unfederated Malay States with the other four British protectorates (Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and Perlis). Britain thus conquered the entire Malay Peninsula. The Straits Settlement, Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States were collectively called British Malaya.
1914.6.28 Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Austria, was assassinated by a Serb in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia.
1914.7.1 Britain transferred the suzerainty of Norfolk to Australia.
1914.7.3 Britain signed the Treaty of Simla with the Tibetan Government whereby Tibet was divided into Inner Tibet and Outer Tibet and a large area of territory was ceded to Britain. The Chinese Government denied recognition of the Treaty.
1914.7.28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The First World War broke out. The War subsequently developed into a war between the Triple Alliance (renamed the Central Powers later, mainly comprising of Germany and Austria-Hungary initially) and the Triple Entente (renamed the Allied Powers later, mainly comprising of Britain, France and Russia initially).
1914.8.1 Russia joined the First World War. Germany joined the First World War.
1914.8.2 Germany occupied Luxembourg.
1914.8.3 France joined the First World War.
1914.8.4 Germany invaded Belgium and occupied the most of Belgium. King Albert I of Belgium retreated to the frontier area where he led the resistance movement against Germany.

Britain joined the First World War.
1914.8.13 The Mexican Constitutionalist Army overthrew the Government of the Constitutionalist Party. On ..20 of the same month, Carranza, Commander of the Constitutionalist Army, became Chief of State (he became the President on 1917.5.1).
1914.11.3 Kuwait became a British protectorate.
1914.11.5 The Osmanli Regime joined the First World War and sided with the Central Powers.
1914.12.18 Britain declared the secession of Egypt from the Osmanli Regime. Egypt formally became a British protectorate. On the next day Britain deposed Abbas II, Khedive of Egypt and installed Kamil as King (Sultan).
1915 Britain and Russia concluded another agreement on the partition of Persia and occupied the southern and northern parts of Persia, respectively.

By signing a treaty with Britain, Najd accepted Britain's assistance and protection and in essence became a semi-colony.
1915.1 Sam, leader of the Cacos rebels in northern Haiti, seized power and led to civil disorder. In July of the same year, USA occupied Haiti.
1915.1.18 Japan presented the Twenty-One Demands to China and requested to succeed the German rights in the Shandong Province and exercise control over various aspects of the Chinese internal affairs. On .5.9 of the same year, the Beiyang Government decided to accept the Twenty-One Demands.
1915.5 Germany occupied the Baltic region.
1915.5.23 Italy joined the First World War and sided with the Allied Powers.
1915.8.5 Germany and Austria occupied Poland and overthrew Russian rule over Poland. On 1917.1.14 the two countries installed a Provisional Government.
1915.9 A New Culture Movement took place in China.

The left wings of the Socialist Parties of various countries held a conference in Zimmerwald of Switzerland to oppose the First World War. They became known as the Zimmerwald Left. The International Socialist Movement started to split into factions.
1915.10.14 Bulgaria joined the First World War and sided with the Central Powers.
1915.11 Austria and Germany jointly conquered Serbia.
1915.12.11 President Yuan Shikai organised the National Conference to support his monarchist campaign. On ..25 of the same month, Cai E, a military officer in Yunnan, rebelled against Yuan Shikai. On 1916.1.1 Yuan Shikai formally assumed the title of Emperor and adopted the reign title of Hongxian (Hongxian Empire). Cai E formed the Nation Protection Army against Yuan Shikai (the Nation Protection Movement). On .3.23 Yuan Shikai renounced his imperial title and resumed the presidency. On .6.6 Yuan Shikai died. Thereafter the Beiyang warlords split into three cliques: the Zhili Clique (headed by Feng Guozhang), the Anhui Clique (headed by Duan Qirui) and the Fengtian Clique (headed by Zhang Zuolin), which contended for the control of the Central Government.
1916.4.12 France split Ubangi-Shari-Chad into two colonies: Ubangi-Shari and Chad.
1916.4.24 The Irish Republican Brotherhood launched the Easter Uprising and established the Irish Regime. On ..29 Britain crushed the uprising.
1916.4.26 Britain, France and Russia concluded an agreement on the partition of the Osmanli territories in Asia.
1916.6.10 The Emirate of Mecca was renamed the Kingdom of Hejaz (Hashimite Dynasty).
1916.7.17 An anti-Russian national revolt broke out in Central Asia. The revolt was suppressed in October of the same year.
1916.9.1 The plutocrats of the Commercial and Agricultural Bank of Ecuador started to control the political scene of Ecuador.
1916.10.12 Beginning of the rule of the Radical Civic Union in Argentina. During their rule the party carried out democratic policies.
1916.11.3 Qatar became a British protectorate.
1917 Kuchik started an anti-British revolt in the Gilan region of Persia and organised the Jangal Movement.
1917.1 With the ratification of a democratic constitution in Mexico, the Mexican Revolution came to an end.
1917.3.8 The February Revolution of Russia broke out. On ..12 of the same month, the Bolsheviks formed the Soviet (i.e. Council) of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies in the captial Petrograd. When Tsar Nikolai II was forced to abdicate on ..15, the Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp Dynasty collapsed. On ..16 the Mensheviks, Constiutional Democratic Party and Octobrist Party jointly formed the Provisional Government. But the Soviet denied recognition of the Provisional Government. A situation of dual governments thus appeared in Petrograd.
1917.3.26 Finland established a National Government and formally declared independence from Russia on .12.6 of the same year.
1917.4.6 USA joined the First World War and sided with the Allied Powers.
1917.5 A power struggle occurred between President Li Yuanhong and Premier Duan Qirui of China. On ..29 of the same month Duan Qirui induced several provinces to rebel against Li Yuanhong. On .7.1 Zhang Xun, a military officer of Anhui, and Kang Youwei put the former Qing Emperor Puyi back to the throne and restored the Qing Empire (Zhang Xun Restoration). On ..12 of the same month Duan Qirui defeated Zhang Xun and overthrew the Qing Empire again. Thereafter the Anhui Clique warlords seized control of the Beiyang Government. On .9.1 Sun Yixian, leader of the Chinese Revolutionary Party (formerly the Nationalist Party), launched the First Constitution Protection Movement in opposition to the Beiyang Government and established the Military Government for Constitution Protection in Guangzhou.
1917.7.17 The Bolsheviks organised a large scale anti-governmental demonstration. The Provisional Government suppressed the Bolsheviks and purged the Bolshevik elements in the Soviet (the "July Incident").
1917.9.7 Kornilov, a Russian military officer, rebelled in an attempt to seize power. The Bolsheviks organised a popular campaign to oppose Kornilov. On ..12 of the same month, Kornilov was arrested.
1917.11 The Azerbaijani Bolshevils launched a revolution in Baku and established the Baku Commune, which was overthrown by the Equality Party in 1918.
1917.11.6 The Bolsheviks launched the October Revolution of Russia. On ..8 of the same month, they overthrew the Provisional Government and established the Soviet Government, which promulgated a Decree on Peace to propose ending the war and implemented the policy of mationalization and collectivization (the "Militant Communism" Policy). In the same month Kornilov fled to the Caucasian region, where he oganised the White Army with Denikin in opposition to the Bolsheviks.
1917.11.8 Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, issued the Balfour Declaration, which agreed to build up a Jewish national home in Palestine, and thus lent support to the Zionist Movement.
1917.11.20 The Ukrainian nationalists convened the Central Rada (i.e. Council), on which they declared the independence of Ukraine from Russia and established the Ukrainian Regime (Rada Government). On .12.25 of the same year, the Bolsheviks in Eastern Ukraine established Ukraine (Soviet Government) in opposition to the Rada Government.
1917.12.10 Khokand seceded from Russia and established the Turkestan Republic (commonly called the Khokand Autonomous Government).
1917.12.13 The Alash Party in Kazakh rebelled against Russia and formed the Alash Autonomous Government in Kazakh.
1917.12.15 Bessarabia seceded from Russia and established the Moldavian Democratic Republic. On 1918.12.10 Bessarabia was annexed into Romania.
1918 Peasant riots broke out throughout Japan in opposition to the rice vendors who stockpiled the rice and led to sharp increase of the price of rice (the Rice Riot) In the same year the Government enacted law to regulate the supply of rice and pacify the riots.
1918.1.8 USA President Wislon presented the "Fourteen Points", which set forth certain principles of the post-war international relation. The principles were called the New Diplomacy.
1918.1.28 The Finnish Communist Party launched a revolution in the capital Helsinki and established Finland (Soviet Government) in opposition to the National Government. On .4.13 of the same year, the National Government recaptured Helsinki. On ..25 it annihilated the Soviet Government. On .5.15 the revolution was suppressed.
1918.2.4 Omsk and Tomsk in Siberia declared independence from Russia and established the Siberian Republic.
1918.2.16 Lithuania declared independence and established the First Republic of Lithuania.
1918.2.19 Russia captured Khokand and annihilated the Turkestan Republic. Thereafter the Basmachi feudal armed forces united with the White Army in the rebellion against Russia and the various soviet republics (Basmachi Movement), which was not completely suppressed until 1933.
1918.2.24 Estonia declared independence from Russia and established the First Republic of Estonia.
1918.3 The Bolsheviks were reorganised as the Communist Party (Bolshevik) and carried out one-party rule in Russia.
1918.3.3 Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers whereby Russia recognized the occupation of Poland and the Baltic Region by Germany and withdrew from the First World War.
1918.3.9 The Allied army landed in Mormansk of Russia and started to intervene in the Russian Revolution. The Russian Civil War thus broke out. On .4.5 of the same year Japan invaded the Far East region of Russia. On .5.24 the Allies instigated an anti-Soviet revolt of the Czechoslovak Legions in Russia.

The Byelorussian nationalists convened the Rada, on which they declared the independence of Byelorussia and established the Byelorussian Regime (Rada Government). On .1.1 of the next year the Communist Party toppled the Rada Government and established Byelorussia (Soviet Government).
1918.4.12 Germany occupied Livonia, Estonia, Riga, Osel and Kurland and united these regions as the Baltic State. In November of the same year the German army withdrew from the Baltic Region.
1918.4.22 The Equality Party of Azerbaijan, the Social Democratic Worker's Party of Georgia and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation united to establish the Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia.
1918.4.30 Russia established the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, an autonomous republic under Russia which governed the southern part of Central Asia, including the present-day Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
1918.5.4 Sun Yixian, Generalissimo of the Chinese Military Government for Constitution Protection, was edge out by the Guangxi warlords and was forced to leave Guangzhou. The First Constitution Protection Movement thus failed.
1918.5.26 Transcaucasia was disintegrated. The Social Democratic Worker's Party of Georgia founded the Georgian Regime.
1918.5.28 The Equality Party of Azerbaijan founded the Azerbaijani Regime.
1918.5.30 The Armenian Revolutionary Federation founded the Armenian Regime.

Conflicts over Qarabagh and Nakhichevan began to arise between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
1918.6 Abkhazia was annexed into Georgia.
1918.7.19 The name of Russia became Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, which was nominally a federative republic but in practice under the tight control of the Central Government monopolized by the Communist Party. Thereafter the left wings of the Western socialist parties were renamed Communist Parties successively.
1918.9 Britain occupied Palestine.

Daskalov, leader of the Bulgarian Peasant People's League, revolted in Radomir and established the Radomir Republic on ..27 of the same month. The revolt was suppressed by the Bulgarian Government on ..29.
1918.9.30 Syria declared independence from the Osmanli Regime and established the Syrian Regime.
1918.10 Britain occupied Iraq.

France occupied Syria.
1918.10.28 The Czechoslovak National Council declared the independence of Bohemia from Austria and the annexation of Bohemia with Moravia, Austrian Silesia and Slovakia (under Hungarian rule) to form the Czechoslovak Regime.
1918.10.29 The Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia declared independence from Hungary and established the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, which covered the present-day Croatia, part of Slovenia and Bosnia.
1918.10.30 The Osmanli Regime signed the Armistice of Mudros and surrendered to the Allies. Thereafter the Allies occupied the territories of the Osmanli Regime.

The Qasim Regime declared independence from the Osmanli Regime.

A revolution broke out in Hungary. On ..31 of the same month Hungary declared independence from Austria, which marked the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On .11.16 the monarchy was abolished and the First Hungarian Republic was established.
1918.11.1 Western Ukraine seceded from Austria and established the Western Ukrainian Regime. On .1.22 of the next year Western Ukraine was annexed by Ukraine (Rada Government).

The Austrian and German armies were expelled from Serbia. The Kingdom of Serbia was thus restored.
1918.11.3 The November Revolution of Germany broke out. On ..9 of the same month, Emperor Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate. On ..10 the right wing and left wing (including the Independent Social Democratic Party and the Spartacist Group) of the Social Democratic Party set up two Governments in opposition to each other.
1918.11.7 Establishment of the Republic of Poland.
1918.11.11 Estonia regained independence.

Germany surrendered to the Allies, which marked the end of the First World War.

Emperor Karl of Austria was forced to abdicate. On ..12 of the same month, the Republic of German-Austria was set up. On 1919.10.21 the name of the country was changed to the Republic of Austria.

The German armies withdrew from Belgium and Luxembourg.
1918.11.12 Bukovina in northern Romania declared independence from Austria and established the Bukovina Regime, which was annexed into Romania on .12.31 of the same year.
Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist, launched a nationalist movement. In the next year Zaghlul founded the Nationalist Party (also called the Wafd Party).
1918.11.16 The chieftains and nobles of the tribes in Tripoli revolted against Italian rule and established the Tripolitanian Republic.
1918.11.18 Kolchak, a former Russian military officer, seized power in Siberia. Since then he became the main force in the resistance against the Russian Communist Party.

Livonia, Riga, Osel and Kurland were united as the First Republic of Latvia. On ..28 of the same month the Baltic State was disintegrated.
1918.11.29 The Estonian Communists established Estonia (Soviet Government).
1918.12.1 Transylvania declared independence from Hungary and established the Transylvanian Regime, which was annexed into Romania on .1.11 of the next year.

Serbia, Montenegro, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and Carniola united to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which adopted a constitutional form of government. King Petar I of Serbia became King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Denmark implemented the Act of Union and established the Icelandic Regime, with the King of Denmark being the King of Iceland concurrently. A constitutional form of government was adopted. Iceland remained under Danish control.
1918.12.16 The Lithuanian Communists established Lithuania (Soviet Government).
1918.12.17 The Latvian Communists established Latvia (Soviet Government).
1919 Liechtenstein began to enter into a close tie with Switerzland, which offered protection and diplomatic representation for Liechtenstein. Later the two countries formed an econmic and monetary union.
1919.1.18 The Allies convened the Paris Peace Conference to discuss the peace settlements after war.
1919.1.19 de Paiva Couceiro, leader of the Portuguese royalists, started a revolt in Porto and restored the Kingdom of Portugal. On .2.13 of the same year, the Government of the Portuguese Republic suppressed the revolt.
1919.1.21 The Sinn Fein Party of Ireland unilaterally declared the independence of Ireland from Britain and reestablished the Irish Regime.
1919.2.6 The Government of the German Leftist Social Democratic Party collapsed.
1919.2.27 Lithuania (Soviet Government) and Byelorussia (Soviet Government) united to form the Lithuania-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, which was centred in Lithuania. Later the Soviet Governments of Estonia, Lithuania-Byelorussia and Latvia collapsed successively.
1919.2.28 Amanullah Khan became Amir of Afghan. Real power was held by the Young Afghan Party, who launched an independence movement. On .5.8 of the same year, Britain started the Third Anglo-Afghan War. On .8.8 the two countries signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi, by which Britain recognized the independence of Afghanistan.
1919.3.1 Mass campaigns opposing Japanese rule broke out throughout Korea. Later the mass campaigns developed into rebellions (the "March 1st Rebellion"), which were suppressed by Japan in April of the same year.
1919.3.2 The Communist Parties of various countries formed the Communist International (COMINTERN; also called the Third International) in Moscow.
1919.3.4 The Allies induced Siberia to attack the Soviet Government from the Ural region of Russia (the First Armed Intervention). In August of the same year, the Soviet Government occupied the Ural region. The First Armed Intervention failed.
1919.3.8 The Egyptian Colonial Government arrested Zaghlul, leader of the Nationalist Party, which led to the March Rebellion of Egypt. Britain suppressed the rebellion.
1919.3.21 The Hungarian Communist Party seized power in a revolution and set up Hungary (Soviet Government) in conjunction with the Social Democratic Party, with real power held by the Communists. Romania intervened in the Hungarian Revolution and installed a Governing Council in opposition to the Soviet Government. On .8.1 the Interventionist Army toppled the Soviet Government. On ..6 the Governing Council was reorganised as Hungary (Regency), which marked the end of the First Hungarian Republic.
1919.4.7 The German Communist Party started a rebellion in Munich and established the Bavarian Soviet Republic in conjunction with the Leftist Social Democratic Party. On .5.1 the German Government crushed the rebellion.
1919.4.13 In a mass demonstration in Amritsar of India, the British colonial army massacred the demonstrators (the Amritsar Massacre). Since then anti-British movements spread all over India.
1919.4.28 The Paris Peace Conference ratified the Covenant of the League of Nations. On .1.10 of the next year the League of Nations was founded.
1919.5.4 Opposing the Allies' decision to pass the German rights in Shandong to Japan, the Chinese populace launched the "May 4th Movement".
1919.5.15 With the support of the Allies, Greece invaded the Osmanli Regime, which led to the Second Greco-Turkish War.
1919.5.17 Cyrenaica became an Italian colony. In 1929 Italy annihilated the Sanusi Order Regime and conquered the entire Cyrenaica.
1919.5.17 Tripolitania nominally became an Italian colony. In 1922.11.12 Italy annihilated the Tripolitanian Republic and conquered the region.
Kemal, an Osmanli military officer, launched a nationalist movement (called the Kemalist Revolution by historians) in opposition to the Allied occupation. On .9.4 of the same year he founded the Nationalist Party. On 1920.4.23 the Nationalist Party convened the Grand National Assembly in Ankara and established the Provisional Government.
1919.6.16 The Hungarian Red Army established the Slovak Soviet Republic in Presov of Czechoslovakia. On .7.7 of the same year, the Republic was toppled by Czechoslovakia.
1919.6.28 The Allies signed the Treaty of Versailles with Germany. The Versailles System was thus formed. Germany returned Alsace and Lorraine to France. Saarland was to be governed by the League of Nations. Rhineland was to be under Allied occupation and a part of it was to be demilitarized.
1919.7.3 The Allies induced Denikin, head of the White Army in the Caucasian region, to attack Russia (Soviet Government) (the Second Armed Intervention). In early 1920 the Soviet Government defeated Denikin and conquered the Caucasian region. On .3.13 the Soviet Government captured Mormansk. The Second Armed Intervention failed.
1919.7.4 Leguia, former President of Peru, seized power in a coup and established dictatorial rule.
1919.8.9 Britain and Persia signed the Anglo-Iranian Agreement, by which Britain nominally recognized the independence of Persia. But Britain retained the right to interfere with the internal affairs of Persia.
1919.8.11 Germany implemented a new constitution (commonly called the Weimar Constitution), which adopted the parliamentary cabinet system. Beginning of the Period of Weimar Republic of Germany.
1919.9.10 The Allies signed the Treaty of Saint-Germain with Austria. Austria ceded southern Tyrol, Trieste and Istria to Italy. Austria ceded Bukovina to Romania.
1919.9.14 D'Annunzio, an Italian nationalist, occupied Fiume (i.e. present day Rijeka of Croatia) and established the Fiume Regime. On 1924.3.16 Italy and Serbia signed a treaty whereby Fiume was annexed to Italy.
1919.10 Prince Faysal of Hejaz occupied Syria. On 1920.3.8 he made himself King and established Syria (Hashemite Dynasty). On .7.28 France overthrew Faysal.
1919.11.27 The Allies signed the Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria whereby Bulgaria was to cede territories and pay reparations.
1919.12.13 The Byelorussian Rada restored Byelorussia (Rada Government), which was toppled by Russia on 1920.7.11. On .8.1 the Byelorussian Communists restored Byelorussia (Soviet Government).
1920 Siam signed a new treaty with the USA. From then onwards until 1926 by signing new treaties with the Western powers and abolishing the privileges enjoyed by the powers, Siam freed itself from the status of semi-colony.

The USA army suppressed the Cacos rebels in northern Haiti.
1920.1.2 Mongolia was re-annexed into China.
1920.1.6 Russia annihilated the Siberian Republic. On .4.6 of the same year, Russia established the Far Eastern Republic in eastern Siberia as its vassal state as well as buffer zone between Russia and Japan.
1920.1.10 Memel, originally under East Prussia of Germany (now under Lithuania), came under Allied administration.
1920.2.1 Russia toppled Khiva (Inak Dynasty). On the next day the Young Khiva Party (reorganised as the Communist Party later) was put to power. On .4.30 Khiva was reorganised as the Khwarizm Regime.
1920.3.1 Horthy became Regent of Hungary and exercised dictatorial power.
1920.3.13 Kapp, head of the German royalists, started a revolt and established Germany (Royalist Government) in an attempt to restore the monarchical system (Kapp Putsch). On ..17 of the same month the Government of the Weimar Republic crushed the royalist revolt. On ..19 the Spartacist Group started an uprising in the Ruhr mining districts. On .4.3 the German Government crushed the uprising.
1920.3.19 The USA Congress refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and prevented USA from joining the League of Nations, which marked the rise of Isolationism in USA.
1920.4 The Allies induced Wrangel, leader of the White Army in Crimea, to attack the Soviet Government (the Third Armed Intervention). When the Soviet Government defeated Wrangel on .11.11 of the same year, the Third Armed Intervention failed.
1920.4.9 The Zhili and Fengtian Cliques of the Chinese warlords formed a league against the Anhui Clique. On .7.12 the league started the Zhili-Anhui War with the Anhui Clique. After the Anhui Clique was defeated on ..18 of the same month, its power was weakened.

Obregon, a Mexican military officer, revolted against President Carranza, who was overthrown on .5.21 of the same year. On .12.1 Obregon succeeded as President. Thereafter the Mexican political situation was stabilized.
1920.4.25 The Allies induced Poland to attack Russia, which led to the Soviet-Polish War.
1920.4.28 Russia toppled Azerbaijan (Equality Party Government) and installed Azerbaijan (Soviet Government).
1920.5.17 South Ossetia was annexed into Georgia.
1920.6 The Allies signed the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary whereby Hungary was to cede territories and pay reparations.
1920.6.4 Opposing British rule, the Iraqi populace started the Iraqi Revolt, which was crushed in October of the same year.
1920.6.5 The Persian Jangal Movement and Communist Party jointly established the Gilan Soviet Republic in Gilan. Later internal struggle arose between the two factions. In 1921.10 the Persian Government toppled the Republic.
1920.8 Sun Yixian, leader of the Chinese Revolutionary Party, directed Chen Jiongming, a Guangdong warlord, to launch the Guangdong-Guangxi War against he Guangxi warlords. In October of the same year, Chen Jiongming captured Guangzhou. On .11.9 Sun Yixian reestablished the Military Government for Constitution Protection and launched the Second Constitution Protection Movement. On .12.1 the Chinese Revolutionary Party was reorganised as the Nationalist Party.
Gandhi, leader of the Indian National Congress Party, launched the First Non-Cooperation Movement against British colonial rule. Later the movement developed into riots. On 1922.2.10 Gandhi proclaimed suspension of the movement.
1920.8.10 The Allies signed the Treaty of Sevres with the Osmanli Royal Government whereby the Osmanli territories were divided. The Osmanli Provisional Government denied recognition of the Treaty of Sevres.
1920.8.26 Russia toppled the Alash Autonomous Government and established the Kirghiz Automomous Soviet Socialist Republic in Kazakh as its automomous republic. (At that time Russia mistakenly called the Kazakhs as "Kirghiz". Kirghiz was not renamed Kazakh until 1925.6.15).
1920.9.1 France began to partition Syria and separated the State of Great Lebanon from Syria.
1920.9.2 Russia supplanted Bukhara (Haidar Dynasty) with Bukhara (Soviet Government).
1920.10.12 Poland occupied Vilnius of Lithuania and established the Central Lithuanian Regime. On 1922.3.24 Poland annexed Vilnius and annihilated Central Lithuania.
1920.11.11 Iraq became a British mandate. The Iraqi Regime was established. On 1921.8.23, Britain installed faysal, the former King of Syria, as King of Iraq (called Faysal I) and established Iraq (Faysal Dynasty).
1920.11.15 The League of Nations declared that Danzig of Poland was to be under its protection and established the Free City of Danzig.
1920.11.17 Russia united several areas in northern Caucasus (including Alan (also called North Ossetia), Kabardin-Balkar, Chechen, Ingush, Dagestan and Karachay-Cherkess as the Mountain People's Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which was an autonomous republic under Russia. On 1924.6.7 USSR dissolved the Republic. Thereafter a number of national autonomous units were established in northern Caucasus.
1920.11.20 Russia installed Armenia (Soviet Government) and toppled Armenia (Government of the Revolutionary Federation) on .12.2 of the same year.
1920.12.1 France divided the remaining part of Syria into the State of Aleppo and State of Damascus. Subsequently the State of Souaida (renamed Jebel Druze State later) and the Alawite State (renamed the State of Latakia later) were also separated from Syria.
1920.12.17 The League of Nations started to place the former German colonies all over the world under the mandates of other nations, thus establishing the Mandate System. Southwest Africa became a mandate of South Africa. Northern Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands and Marshall Islands became a Japanese mandate called South Sea Islands. German New Guinea (together with the islands of Bougainville and Buka) became an Australian mandate and was renamed New Guinea. Nauru became a mandate of Britain, Australia and New Zealand and was adminstered by Australia on behalf of the other two countries. German Samoa became a mandate of New Zealand and was renamed Western Samoa. Since then American Samoa was also called Eastern Samoa.
1921 12 tribes in the region of Riff in the northern part of Spanish Morocco rose against Spanish rule. On 1923.2.1 they founded the Federal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif. On 1926.5.27 the rebellion was jointly suppressed by France and Spain.
1921.2.15 Russia induced the Mongolian People's Party to launch a revolution in Outer Mongolia and declared the independence of Mongolia from China again. The People's Party carried out one-party rule.
1921.2.21 Reza Khan, Vizier of Persia, seized power in a coup. In March of the same year, Persia nullified the Anglo-Iranian Agreement and freed Persia from the status of semi-colony. In May the British army withdrew from Persia. In June the USSR army also withdrew from Persia.
1921.2.22 The centrist socialists of various countries held a conference in Vienna and founded the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (commonly called the Second and a Half International).
1921.2.25 Russia toppled Georgia (Government of the Social Democratic Worker's Party) and installed Georgia (Soviet Government).
1921.3.17 The Russian Government launched the New Economic Policy, which reinstalled some elements of private economy and free trade with a view to reviving the economy.
1921.3.18 Russia and Poland signed the Treaty of Riga, thereby ending the Soviet-Polish War. Western Ukraine and Western Belarus came under Polish rule.
1921.4.11 Britain installed Prince Abdullah I of Hejaz as Amir of Transjordan and established the Amirate of Transjordan to govern the eastern part of Palestine.
1921.5.5 Sun Yixian became the Extraordinary President of China (Military Government for Constitution Protection).
1921.5.7 Ukraine (Soviet Government) annihilated Ukraine (Rada Government).
1921.6.7 Czechoslovakia, Serbia and Romania formed the "Little Entente" to jointly protect their interests under the Versailles System.
1921.7 The Communist Party of China was founded.
1921.11.12 Nine countries held the Washington Conference to rearrange the powers' spheres of interest in the Pacific region. On .2.6 of the next year the powers concluded the Nine-Power Treaties, which recognized the sovereignty and independence of China and reiterated the Open Door Policy. On the same day, Britain, USA, Italy, France and Japan signed the Five-Power Treaty, which stipulated the ratios of the naval armaments of the five countries. USA gained an advantageous position in the Pacific region. The Washington System was thus formed.
1921.12.6 Britain and Ireland signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, by which the southern part of Ireland was to gain dominion status while the northern part remained the status quo.
1921.12.14 Zogu seized power in Albania and carried out dictatorial rule.
1922.2.28 Britain unilaterally proclaimed end of the protectorate of Egypt, but did not grant full independence to Egypt.
1922.3.12 Russia united three of its vassal states (Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia) to form the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1922.4.29 The Zhili Clique and Fengtian Clique warlords of China entered into the First Zhili-Fengtian War. After the defeat of the Fengtian Clique, the Beiyang Government was under the complete control of the Zhili Clique.
1922.6.16 Chen Jiongming, a Guangdong warlord of China, staged a coup. Sun Yixian was forced to flee to Shanghai. The Second Constitution Protection Movement failed.
1922.6.28 France reunited Aleppo and Damascus as the Syrian Regime.
1922.7.20 The German colony of Kamerun was paritioned into the eastern and western parts, which became a French and a British mandate, respectively (called French Cameroons and British Cameroons). The German colony of Togoland was paritioned into the eastern and western parts, which became a French and a British mandate, respectively (called French Togo and British Togoland). German East Africa became a British mandate and was renamed Tanganyika. Ruanda and Urundi became Belgian mandates and were united into one unit called Ruanda-Urundi.
1922.9.18 The Osmanli Provisional Government expelled all the Greek armies from Turkey. On .10.11 of the same year the Provisional Government signed the Convention of Mudania with the Allies and ended the Second Greco-Turkish War.
1922.10.25 Russia expelled the Japanese invaders from the Far Eastern region, thus ending the Russian Civil War. On .11.15 of the same year Russia annexed the Far Eastern Republic.
Mussolini, head of the Italian National Fascist Party, launched the "March on Rome" and occupied Rome on ..28. On ..31 Mussolini was appointed as Prime Minister. On .11.25 he was granted dictatorial power and carried out fascist rule in the whole country.
1922.11.1 The Osmanli Provisional Government abolished the monarchical system and established the Turkish Regime. The Osmanli Regime collapsed.
1922.12.6 Ireland was formally divided into the southern and northern parts: the 26 counties in Southern Ireland became the Irish Free State, a British dominion; while the 6 counties in Northern Ireland remained under Britain and exercised self-rule.
1922.12.30 Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Transcaucasus united to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR for short), which was under the one-party rule of the Russian Communist Party.
1923 Afghanistan promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchiacal system.

Lukacs, a Hungarian Communist, published History and Class Consciousness, which marked the birth of the Western Marxism (also called the Neo-Marxism).

Egypt promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchiacal system.
1923.1 The Chinese Nationalist Party defeated Chen Jiongming, the warlord in Guangdong, and reoccupied Guangzhou. On .3.2 of the same year, Sun Yixian reestablished the Military Government for Constitution Protection and resumed the position of Generalissimo.
1923.1.11 As Germany delayed paying the reparations, France and Belgium despatched armies to occupy the Ruhr mining districts (the Ruhr Crisis). On ..19 of the same month the German Government launched a resistance movement to resist the occupation armies. On .9.27 Germany stopped the resistance movement, thus ending the Ruhr Crisis.
1923.2.19 Lithuania annexed Memel. On .3.15 of the same year Lithuania renamed the district as Klaipeda.
1923.4.1 Sammarinese Fascist Party started its long-time rule. By banning all other parties in 1926, it established one-party rule in San Marino.
1923.5.21 Cao Kun, head of the Zhili Clique warlords of China, was elected President by bribery. He ascended to the presidency on .10.10 of the same year.
1923.6.9 Tsankov, head of the Bulgarian ultra-rightists, seized power in a coup. On .9.23 of the same year, Georgi Mihailov Dimitrov, leader of the Communist Party, launched the "September Uprising of Bulgaria" and set up the Supreme Military Revolution Committee. The uprising was suppressed by the Bulgarian Government on ..29.
1923.7.7 USSR put Qarabagh under the administration of Azerbaijan and renamed it as Nagorno-Karabakh. On 1924.2.9 it also put Nakhichevan under the administration of Azerbaijan.
1923.7.24 Turkey signed the Treaty of Lausanne with the Allies whereby Turkey gave up its territories outside Asia Minor but regained Eastern Thrace in return. Turkey freed itself of the status of semi-colony. An International Straits Commission was set up to administer the Black Sea straits.
1923.9.15 de Rivera, a Spanish military officer, seized power in a coup and established a military dictatorship.
1923.9.29 Syria (including Lebanon) became a French mandate.

Palestine (including Transjordan) became a British mandate.
1923.10.5 The Second International and the Second and a Half International held a conference in Hamburg, where they merged to form the Labour and Socialist International.
1923.10.23 Thalmann, leader of the German Communists, started the Workers' Uprising in Hamburg, but failed on..25 of the same month. On .11.8 Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (commonly known as the Nazi Party), plotted the Beer Hall Putsch, but was suppressed on ..11.
1923.12.19 The Greek army overhtrew King Georgios II. The Danish Dynasty collapsed. On .3.16 of the next year the Second Greek Republic was established.
1923.12.21 Nepal gained independence from Britain.
1924.1 The Friends of Constitutional Government, Association for Constitutional Politics and the Reform Club of Japan formed the "Three Pro-Constitution Factions". They launched the Second Constitution Protection Movement and requested for constitutional reform. In May of the same year, the three factions won the parliamentary elections. On .6.11 Kato Takaaki became the Prime Minister and formed the Cabinet of the Three Pro-Constitution Factions. Beginning of the Period of Party Cabinets.
Upon death of Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of USSR, Stalin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party. A power struggle ensued between Stalin and Trotsky.
1924.1.20 The Chinese Nationalist Party adopted the policy of cooperating with USSR and the Communist Party of China in the struggle against the warlords.
1924.1.22 MacDonald, leader of the British Labour Party, succeeded as Prime Minister. Since then the Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party as one of the main ruling parties (the other being the Conservative Party) of Britain.
1924.4.9 An expert committee of the Allies proposed the "Dawes Plan" to help Germany pay the reparations. On .7.16 of the same year, the Allies ratified the Dawes Plan. On .9.1 the French and Belgian armies withdrew from Ruhr.
1924.6.10 In a revolution that broke out in Albania, the revolutionaries overthrew the dictator Zogu and established a democratic government. In December of the same year, Zogu seized power again and resumed dictatorial power.
1924.6.15 The Socialist Party and Liberal Party of Italy formed the Aventine Group in opposition to the Fascist Party.
1924.7.5 Lopes, a military officer of Sao Paulo, Brazil, revoited. On .10.28 Prestes, head of the tenentes (lieutenants), started an insurrection in Rio Grande do Sul and formed the Prestes Column. In 1925.3 the two groups of rebels joined forces and started a long campaign throughout the country (the Long March of the Prestes Column). In 1927.2 the rebels were driven out of the country by the Brazilian army.
1924.9.17 The Fengtian Clique and Anhui Clique warlords of China united against the Zhili Clique and led to the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. On .10.23 Feng Yuxiang, a general of the Zhili Clique, staged the Beijing Coup. He organised the Nationalist Army and imprisoned President Cao Kun, who resigned on .11.2. On .11.24 the Nationalist Army united with the Fengtian Clique and established the Provisional Consulate, with Duan Qirui being the Provisional Consul.
1924.10.27 USSR dissolved Turkestan and reorganised the administrative division in Central Asia. USSR established the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in the southwestern part of Central Asia.
1924.11.26 Choibalsan assumed the leading role of the Mongolian People's Party and started his prolonged rule.
1924.12.1 The National Revolutionary Party of Mexico started its prolonged rule.
1924.12.5 USSR established the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in the central part of Central Asia.
1925 Atrash Sultan, head of the Druzes in Syria, started the Druze Rebellion against French rule. In September of the same year Atrash Sultan set up a Rebellious Government in conjunction with the People's Party. In 1926.4 France toppled the Rebellious Government. The rebellion was finally crushed in 1927.
1925.1.1 The Conservative Party and Liberal Party of Nicaragua concluded an agreement by which the two parties formed a coalition government to share powers. Early next year the coalition government was overthrown by military officers of the Conservative Party.
1925.3 The Organic Law of Iraq came into effect. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted in Iraq.
1925.3.12 Sun Yixian died. Thereafter the Nationalist Party split into the leftist (headed by Wang Ching-wei), centrist (headed by Chiang Kai-shek) and rightist (headed by Hu Hanmin) factions. On .7.1 of the same year, China (Military Government for Constitution Protection) was reorganised as China (Nationalist Government).
1925.5.13 Uzbek was incorporated into USSR.

Turkmen was incorporated into USSR.
1925.5.20 Machado succeeded as President of Cuba and carried out dictatorial rule.
1925.5.30 The British police in Shanghai foreign concession suppressed the mass movement ("May 30th Massacre") and led to the anti-imperialist "May 30th Movement" throughout the country.
1925.7.9 The Ecuadorian military officers staged a coup to overthrow the plutocrats of the Commercial and Agricultural Bank.
1925.8.14 Svalbard Archipelago (also called Spitzbergen Archipelago) became a Norwegian dependency.
1925.10.5 The Locarno Conference was convened to discuss the security issue of the neighbouring countries of Germany. On .12.1 of the same year, the countries signed the Locarno Treaties, which provided that any border disputes between Germany and its neighbours were to be settled by arbitration.
1925.10.31 Reza Khan, the Persian Vizier, overthrew the Qajar Dynasty. He crowned himself and established Persia (Pehlevi Dynasty).
1925.11 Guo Songling, a general of the Fengtian Clique warlords of China, united with Feng Yuxiang, head of the Nationalist Army, in opposition to Zhang Zuolin, head of the Fengtian Clique. He reorganised his army as the Northeastern Nationalist Army. The Anti-Fengtian War broke out. In December of the same year, Guo Songling was defeated and killed.
1925.12.18 The Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) held a conference on which it was decided that the party's name shall be changed to the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik). On the conference Stalin destroyed Trotsky's influence and gained supreme power.
1925.12.19 Najd overthrew Hejaz (Hashimite Dynasty). On .1.8 of the next year, King Abdul-Aziz II of Najd assumed the title of King of Hejaz concurrently and established Hejaz (Saudi Dynasty).

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