A Chronology of World Political History
(1851 - 1900 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
2nd Half of 19th Century The British colonists occupied the whole Australia.
1851.4 de Urquiza, Governor of the Argentine Province of Entre Rios, rose against de Rosas, Governor of Buenos Aires and overthrew de Rosas on .2.3 of the next year.
1851.12.2 President Louis Napoleon of France staged a self-coup and assumes dictatorial power. On .12.1 of the next year he changed his title to Emperor (called Napoleon III) and established the Second French Empire.
1852.4.1 Britain started the Second Burmese War and conquered Pegu on .12.20 of the same year. Britain divided Burma into two parts: the part ruled by the Burmese King was Upper Burma, while the part under British occupation was Lower Burma. Lower Burma officially became a British colony on 1862.1.31.
1852.10M Zhang Lexing, head of the Nian group in China, started a rebellion against the Qing Government in Anhui, China and formed the Nian Army. In 1855 the Nian Armies in various parts of China joined forces and elected Zhang Lexing as their common leader. In 1857 the Nian Army allied with the Taiping Kingdom against the Qing Government. After Zhang Lexing was killed by the Qing army in the second lunar month of 1863, Zhang Zongyu succeeded as leader.
1852.11.4 Cavour became Prime Minister of Sardinia. During his tenure he carried out the policy of unifying Italy.
1853.5.2 Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt Kothen were united as the Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Kothen.
1853.4 To seize control of the Black Sea, Russia entered into the Crimean War with the Osmanli Turks. Later Britain, France and Austria also joined the war against Russia.
1854 Okukenun, Chief of the Abeokutas, founded the Abeokuta Kingdom in southwestern Nigeria.

Beginning of a series of armed conflicts between the Native American Sioux People and the USA colonists in the central Great Plains, which were collectively called the Sioux Wars, being part of the American Indian Wars.
1854.2.23 Orange River Sovereignty, the Boer colony under the British Colonial Government, declared independence and established the Orange Free State.
1854.2.31 Japan and USA signed the Treay of Kanagawa, by which Japan opened two ports to American trade and granted the most-favoured-nation treatment to USA. Japan was thus forced to abandon its isolationist policy. Thereafter Japan gradually became a semi-colony.
1854.3 Alvarez, Governor of Guerrero under Mexico, drew up the Plan of Ayutla and rose against President de Santa Ana, who was overthrown on .8.12 of the next year.
1854.5.29 The USA colony of Maryland-in-Liberia in southeastern Liberia declared independence from USA and esablished the Independent State of Maryland-in-Liberia. On 1857.3.18 Maryland-in-Liberia was incorporated into Liberia.
1854.6.28 O'Donnell, a Spanish military officer, staged a coup, which marked the beginning of the Fourth Spanish Revolution. In 1855.1 a new liberal constitution was ratified in Spain.
1855 Agbu Manu I, King of Jukun, moved the capital to Wukari (in the eastern part of present-day Nigeria) and changed the name of the country to the Kingdom of Wukari.
1855.6 Walker, a USA adventurer, got involved in the Nicaraguan civil war and seized the supreme power in September of the same year.
1856 In contention for Herat of Afghanistan, Britain and Persia entered into the British-Iranian War. In the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Paris, by which Persia retreated its army from Afghanistan and recognized the latter's independence.
1856.3.4 Costa Rica started the War against Walker to resist Walker's invasion of Nicaragua. Later the Central American countries formed a coalition against Walker and overthrew Walker on .5.1 of the next year.
1856.3.30 The belligerents of the Crimean War signed the Treaty of Paris, thus ending the War. The powers guaranteed the independence and integrity of the Osmanli Regime. Russia guaranteed the neutralization of the Black Sea and the navigational safety of River Danube. Russia returned southern Bessarabia to Moldavia.
1856.7.14 O'Donnell became Prime Minister of Spain. When he abrogated the Constitution of 1855 in September of the same year, the Fourth Spanish Revolution failed.
1856.10.19 Upon death of King Said II of Muscat, his country was divided between his two sons: Thuwaini succeeded as King of Muscat, while Majid became ruler of the Zanzibar Island in East Africa and established the Zanzibar Regime.
1856.11.1 Britain began to build up colonies in Melanesia. Later its colonies included British New Guinea, British Solomon Islands, Fiji Islands, Norfolk, etc.
1856.12.16 The Boer colony of Dutch Africa in Southern Africa established the South African Republic.
1857 Tun Ali, Vassal King of Pahang died. In the next year the Pahang Civil War broke out as a result of the disputes over the succession issue. With Ahmad Muazzam Shah ascending to the throne in 1863, the Civil War ended.

Upon death of Sultan Adam of Banjarmasin, the Dutch colonists installed Tamjidullah II as the new Sultan, which was opposed by the royal members of Banjarmasin. The Banjarmasin War thus broke out. In 1859.12 the Dutch colonists seized control of the royal court of Banjarmasin. In 1863 the Dutch colonists suppressed the resistance of the royal members of Banjarmasin.
The War of the Reform broke out between the Liberal Party (led by Juarez and the Conservative Party of Mexico. On 1858.1.19 Juarez became the Interim President in Vera Cruz. (He became the President on 1861.6.11). On ..21 of the same month the Conservative Party set up another Government in Mexico City in opposition to Juarez.
1857.5.10 The Indian Rebellion (also called Indian Mutiny) against British rule broke out in India. Bahadur Shah, the Moghul Emperor, was chosen as the leader of the rebels. Tantia Topi, a minister of the former Peshwa Regime, also rose against British rule. Nana Sahib made himself Vassal King of Peshwa and restored the Peshwa Regime.
1857.8 A financial crisis in USA swiftly spread world-wide. This became the first world-wide economic crisis in modern history. The world economy was not stabilized until 1859.
1857.11M Britain and France invaded China and entered into the Second Opium War (also called the Arrow War) with the Qing Empire. In the fifth lunar month of 1858 the Qing Government signed the Treaties of Tianjin with Britain and France whereby the Qing Empire agreed to open more ports to foreign trade and granted the right of inland navigation to the two countries.
1858 The Dutch colonists started the Second Bone War and invaded Bone. The war ended in 1860.
1858.1.22 Andaman Islands became a British colony administered under Britain India. On 1868.10.15 Nicobar Islands also became a British colony administered under Britain India.
1858.3.15 With the support of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party of Venezuela, the army staged a coup and overthrew President J.D. Monagas, thus ending the "Monagas Dynasty".
1858.3.29 Britain deposed the Moghul Emperor Bahadur Shah and the Moghul Empire collapsed.
1858.4M Under the pretext of mediating in the Second Opium War, Russia forced the Qing Government to sign the Treaty of Aihun, by which Russia acquired part of Outer Manchuria of China.
1858.5.22 A new constitution was promlugated in New Granada, which then became the Granadine Confederation. The states (including Cundinarmaca, Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca, Cauca, Magdalena, Santander and Panama) gained independent status. In 1860 a civil war broke out between the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party of the Granadine Confederation.
1858.7.20 Sardinia and France reached the Plombieres Agreement, by which they allied with each other in opposition to Austria.
1858.7M France staged the First Franco-Vietnamese War and invaded Dai Nam. On 1862.5.5 the two countries signed the First Treaty of Saigon, by which Dai Nam ceded three provinces in the south to France and opened ports to foreign trade.
1858.8.2 Britain promulgated the Government of India Act, which transferred the government of India from the East India Company to the Viceroy appointed by the British Government.
1859 Upon annihilation of Dagestan, Russia conquered the North Caucasian-speaking, Turkic-speaking and Indo-Iranian-speaking peoples in Northern Caucasus and thus ended the Caucasian War.
1859.1 Being defeated by the British colonial army, Nana Sahib, the Peshwa Vassal King, fled to Nepal. Tantia Topi continued his guerilla warfare against the British in central India. After Tantia Topi was arrested in April of the same year, the Indian Rebellion finally failed.
1859.1.15 Geffrard, a Haitian military officer, staged a coup and overthrew Emperor Faustin. The republican form of government was restored in Haiti. However Haiti was torn by internal strife since then.
1859.2.20 The Liberal Party (also called the Federalists) of Venezuela rose against the Government of the Conservative Party (also called the Centralists). The Federalist War thus broke out. In 1863 the Liberals defeated the Conservatives and the war ended on .4.24.
1859.4.27 The Unification Movement arose in various parts of Italy. A popular uprising broke out in Tuscany. King Leopoldo II was expelled and replaced by a Provisional Government. On .5.10 of the same year Sardinia took over Tuscany. On .6.9 another popular uprising broke out in Parma and Duke Roberto was expelled. On ..13 Sardinia took over Modena. A popular uprising broke out in Romagna under the Roman Papal States. The rebels declared independence of Romagna from the Papal States, expelled the Austrian army and established the Romagna Regime. On ..17 Sardinia took over Parma.
1859.4.29 To unify Italy, Sardinia entered into the Austro-Sardinian War (also called the Second Italian War of Independence) with Austria. On .5.12 of the same year France joined the war against Austria.

Beginning of the construction work of the Suez Canal in Egypt. With the completion of the project on 1869.11.17, the Suez Canal was opened for navigation.
1859.5.2 The Maoris in New Zealand chose Potatau I as their King and founded the Maori Kingdom.
1859.5M The Second Opium War restarted.
1859.7.11 France and Austria secretly concluded the Villafranca Agreement, by which Austria was to retain Venetia, while Lombardy was to be ceded to France and would finally be handed over to Sardinia. The original monarchs in central Italy were to be restored and Sardinia was to give up central Italy.
1859.7.28 Farini, an Italian nationalist, reestablished the Modena Regime and made himself Dictator of the Regime. On .8.18 of the same year, Farini occupied Parma and reestablished the Parma and Piacenza Regime. Later Modena and Parma were taken over by Sardinia again on .8.21 and .9.12, respectively. In September Sardinia took over Romagna.
1859.9.17 Moreno, leader of the Ecuador Conservative Party, overthrew the de facto ruler Urvina and established his dictatorship.
1859.10.19 Brown, a USA anti-slavery activist, staged an uprising in Virginia. He was soon captured and killed.
1859.11 Spain started the Spanish Moroccan War and invaded the northern part of the Alawi Regime. On .4.26 of the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Tetuan, by which the Alawi Regime ceded Ifni to Spain.
1859.11.10 Sardinia and Austria signed the Treaty of Zurich, by which Austria ceded Lombardy to France. On .11.30 France incorporated Lombardy into Sardinia. The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia was only left with the region of Venetia.
1860s An armed conflict among the secret societies and a power struggle among the ruling class of Perak broke out. The British colonists seized the opportunity to intervene in the internal affairs of Perak.
1860.3 When the British colonists occupied the lands of the Maoris, the First Taranaki War broke out. On 1861.3.18 both parties ceased fighting. Thereafter the British colonists entered into two more Taranaki War with the Maories. The three Taranaki Wars were collectively called the Second Maori War.
1860.3.18 Sardinia formally annexed Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna.
1860.3.24 Sardinia signed the Treaty of Turin with France whereby Sardinia ceded Nice and Savoy to France.
1860.3M Warriors of the Satsuma Fief, a powerful fief in southwestern Japan, assassinated Ii Naosuke, a senior official of the Shogunate near Sakurada Gate of Edo. Since then the southwestern fiefs of Japan (headed by the Choshu and Satsuma Fiefs) started the "Sonno Joi" (= Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians) Movement in opposition to the dictatorship of the Shogunate and the invasion of the Western powers.
A rebellion broke out in Sicily. On .5.5 Garibaldi, an Italian revolutionary leader, led the Redshirts to attack Sicily and occupied the whole island on .5.27. On .9.7 of the same year, he captured Naples and overthrew Two Sicilies (Bourbon Dynasty). On .11.8 Garibaldi incorporated the Two Sicilies into Sardinia. The most territories of Italy were thus unified by Sardinia.
1860.9M The Qing Government signed the Beijing Conventions with Britain and France whereby the clauses of the Treaties of Tianjin were reiterated. The Second Opium War thus came to an end. The Qing Government signed the Beijing Convention with Russia by which Russia acquired the entire Outer Manchuria.
1860.10.1 Argentina abolished the confederation system.
1860.12.20 From this day onwards, 13 states in the southern part of USA (including South Carolina, Mississipi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Missouri and Kentucky) declared independence from USA. On .2.8 of the next year the southern states formed the Confederate States of America (commonly called the Southern Confederation). On .4.12 the American Civil War broke out.
1860.12M The Qing Empire set up the Zongli Yamen (Office for the Management of the Business of All Foreign Countries) and launched the Self-Strengthening Movement, which aimed to revive the power of the Empire.
1861 Tunisia promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.

Chile launched the "Occupation of Araucania" Campaign and intruded into Araucania.
1861.3.3 Russia abolished the serfdom, thus ending the history of serfdom in Europe.
Lincoln became President of USA. During his presidency he carried out policies to abolish slavery. On 1863.1.1 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
1861.3.10 Umar, head of the Tijaniyya Order, an Islamic sect, founded the Tukulor Amirate in West Sudan.
1861.3.17 Sardinia was renamed the Kingdom of Italy and adopted a constitutional form of government.
1861.3.18 For fear of civil disorder, President Santana of the Dominican Republic announced the reversion of his country to Spanish rule. The Dominican Republic was renamed Spanish Dominica.
1861.7.18 Mosquera, leader of the Granada Liberal Party, replaced the confederation system with the federal system and renamed the country as the United States of New Granada. On .9.20 of the same year, the country was further renamed the United States of Colombia.
1861.12.17 Britain, France and Spain jointly invaded Mexico and intervened in the Mexican civil war. In 1862.4 Britain and Spain withdrew their armies. On 1863.6.7 the French army captured Mexico City. On .7.11 they set up the Government of the Mexican Empire (commonly called the Maximiliano Empire), which was ruled by the Regency. Juarez continued to resist the invaders. On 1864.4.10 France installed Maximilian, Crown-Prince of Austria, as the Mexican Emperor (called Maximiliano).
1862.1.22 Wallachia and Moldavia were united as the Romanian Regime, which was an Osmanlu vassal state and a constitutional monarchy. Prince Alexandru XI of Wallachia as well as Prince Alexandru XVI of Moldavia changed his title to Prince of Romania (called Alexandru).
1862.3.5 Britain captured the port of Lagos under Kingdom of Lagos and established the Lagos Colony.
1862.5.12 Present-day Belize became a British colony named British Honduras.
Bismarck became Prime Minister of Prussia. During his tenure he carried out the policy of unifying Germany.
1862.10.21 USA recognized the independence of Liberia.
1862.10.23 Upon deposition of King Othon of Greece, the Bavarian Dynasty collapsed. On .10.30 of the next year Prince George of Denmark succeeded as King of Greece (called Georgios I) and established Greece (Danish Dynasty).
1863 Britain and Ashante entered into the Sixth Ashante War.

Maharero, Chief of the Hereros, unified the various tribes and founded the Herero Kingdom in present-day Namibia.

The British colonists invaded the Maoris (the Second Taranaki War). In the next year the Maoris were defeated.
1863.1.22 Outbreak of the Second Polish Insurrection. An Insurrectionist Government was established. In 1865.4 Russia crushed the Insurrection.
1863.8.6 Britain attacked the Satsuma Fief of Japan (the Anglo-Satsuma War). On .11.9 a peace was concluded between the two parties.
1863.8.11 France and Cambodia signed the Franco-Cambodian Treaty, by which Cambodia became a French protectorate.
1863.8.30 Duke Leopold IV of Anhalt-Dessau-Kothen unified the various parts of Anhalt and reestablished the Duchy of Anhalt.
1863.9.14 An anti-Spanish rebellion broke out in Spanish Dominica (the War of Restoration). The Dominican Republic was restored.
1863.11.13 Denmark ratified a new constitution and annexed Schleswig.
1864 The Qing Empire and Russia signed a convention by which the Qing Empire ceded the a large area in northwestern China to Russia.

Sipopa, the former Barotse Prince, overthrew Kololo and restored the Barotse Kingdom.
1864.2.1 Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark and the Prusso-Danish War broke out. On .10.30 of the same year the belligerents signed the Treaty of Vienna, by which Denmark abandoned Schleswig-Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg, which became the condominium of Prussia and Austria.
1864.4.14 Spain started the First War of the Pacific and invaded Peru again. Later Peru allied with Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador and defeated the Spanish army in 1866. In 1871 Spain concluded peace with the four countries. In 1879 Spain recognized the independence of Peru.
1864.8M The Qing Government suppressed the Taiping Rebellion.
1864.9 The Edo Shogunate of Japan declared war on the Choshu Fief. The First Tokugawa-Choshu War broke out. The navies of Britain, USA, France and the Netherlands bombarded the Choshu Fief. In the next year the Choshu Fief sued for peace and the Shogunate ceased the war.
1864.9.26 Marx formed the International Workingmen's Association (commonly called the First International) and started the international communist movement.
1864.10 Opposing Brazil's intervention in the factional struggle of Uruguay, Paraguay declared war on Brazil and the Paraguayan War broke out. Later Argentina and Uruguay also joined the war against Paraguay. On 1865.5.1 Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay formed the Triple Alliance and so the war was also called the War of the Triple Alliance. On 1870.3.1 Paraguay was defeated and lost large proportion of its population and territories.
1864.12.28 Melgarejo, a Bolivian military officer, seized power in a coup. During his tenure he exercised dictatorial power and was called the "Barbarian Caudillo".
1865.5.10 The USA Federal Government annihilated the Southern Confederation and the independent states were reincorporated into the USA, thus ending the American Civil War.
1865.8.14 Prussia and Austria reached the Convention of Gastein, and agreed that Holstein was to be governed by Austria, while Schleswig and Saxe-Lauenburg were to be governed by Prussia.
1866 Mirza Hussein Ali (Bahaullah), a follower of Babism, founded the Bahai Faith in Persia, which developed into a worldwide religion later.
1866.2.19 Britain once again united its colonies in West Africa (including Sierra Leone, Gambia, British Gold Coast and Lagos Colony) as West Africa. This super-colony was dissolved on 1888.11.28.
1866.2.23 The upper class of Romania staged a coup and forced Prince Alexandru to abdicate.
1866.3 The Choshu and Satsuma Fiefs of Japan allied and launched the Anti-Shogunate Movement against the Edo Shogunate. In July of the same year the Edo Shogunate declared war on the Choshu Fief again (the Second Tokugawa-Choshu War). In October the Shogunate army was forced to retreat. Since then the power of the Shogunate declined.
1866.6.14 In contention for the German leadership, Prussia and Austria entered into the Austro-Prussian War (also called the Seven Weeks' War).
1866.6.20 Italy joined the war against Austria (called the Third Italian War of Independence by historians). On .8.23 of the same year Austria ceded Venetia to France and the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia finally came to an end.
1866.6.24 Russia announced annexation of Abkhazia. On .7.29 of the same year Giorgi Mikhailovitch rose against Russia and made himself Prince of Abkhazia. In August the rebels were defeated and Abkhazia was annhilated.
1866.7.1 Romania promulgated a constitution and adopted a constitutional monarchical system.
1866.8.24 Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Prague, by which the German Confederation was dissolved. Austria, Liechtenstein and Luxembourg ceased to be German states.
1866.9.20 Hanover, Hesse-Kassel and Nassau were incorporated into Prussia.
1866.9M The Nian Army split into two branches: the Eastern Nian Army (led by Lai Wenguang) and the Western Nian Army (led by Zhang Zongyu). The two armies were finally annihilated by the Qing Government in the twelfth lunar month of 1867 and the sixth lunar month of 1868, respectively.
1866.10.3 Italy annexed Venetia.
1867 France occupied the whole of Cochinchina.
Mutsuhito (Meiji Emperor) succeeded as Emperor of Japan. Allying with the powerful fiefs in southwestern Japan, he forced the Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to hand back the power to the Emperor. On 1868.1.4 Mutsuhito abolished the position of Shogun and regained power. This marked the end of the Edo Shogunate (Meiji Restoration).
1867.3.12 The French army was forced to retreat from Mexico. With the collapse of the Government of the Mexican Empire On .5.27 of the same year, Juarez reunified Mexico and started to carry out reforms.
1867.3.19 The Netherlands intended to sell Luxembourg to France, which stirred up widespread protests in Germany in April of the same year (the Luxembourg Crisis) The London Conference held on .5.7 decided that France shall not purchase Luxembourg, which then became a perpetual neutral state.
1867.3.29 Britain passed the British North America Act, which took effect on .7.1 of the same year. The four colonies of British North America (i.e. Canada) (Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) united to form the Dominion of Canada, which became the first Self-governing Dominion of Britain. The King of Britain was nominally the chief of state of Canada. But in practice the functions of chief of state were performed by the Governor-General on behalf of the King. A parliamentary cabinet system was adopted under which real power was held by the Prime Minister.
1867.3.30 USA purchased Alaska from Russia. The Russian influence thus withdrew from North America.
1867.5M General Yaqub Beg of Khokand occupied Kashgar in Xinjiang of China. He made himself King (Khan) and founded the Zhedsar (= Seven Cities) Khanate.
1867.6.8 Ismail, Governor of Egypt under the Osmanli Regime, adopted the title of Vassal King (Khedive).
1867.7.1 Prussia and the north German states (including Saxe-Wittenburg, Anhalt, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Hamburg, Lubeck, Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Bremen) united to form the North German Confederation, with King Wilhelm I of Prussia being the President of the Confederation.
1867.8.15 The second Reform Bill that relaxed the restrictions on the suffrage was passed in Britain. Such is the Second British Parliamentary Reform.
1867.12.21 Austria and Hungary signed the Compromise of 1867 and formed the real union - Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Kingdom of Croatia under Hungary was renamed as Triune Kindgom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, which continued to be in personal union with Hungary.
1868 Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the former Japanese Shogun, formed an alliance with the northern fiefs and rose against the Central Government. The Boshin War broke out. On .7.4 of the same year the Central Government defeated the Tokugawa Clan.

Liechtenstein declared its permanent neutrality.

Britain invaded Ethiopia, which then entered a period of internal disorder again.

Britain united the Fante tribes as the Fante Confederacy.

The Singer Sewing Machine Company of USA started to set up factories in Britain and became the first multinational corporation in the world.

The peasants in northern Haiti rose against the Government and formed armed forces called "Cacos" (the Cacos Rebellion).
1868.3.12 Basuto became a British protectorate.
1868.4.6 Emperor Mutsuhito of Japan promulgated the Charter Oath which proposed reforms. This marked the beginning of the Meiji Reform.
1868.4.12 The Plan of Reform of Andorra took effect. A General Council vested with legislative and executive powers was established.
1868.6.27 J.T. Monagas, former President of Venezuela, staged the Blue Revolution and reestablished the "Monagas Dynasty".
1868.6.30 Russia and Burkhara signed the Russo-Burkharan Commerical Treaty, by which Burkhara became a Russian protectorate.
1868.7.12 Conflicts broke out between the British colonists and the Maoris (the Third Taranaki War). On 1869.2.2 the British colonists defeated the Maoris.
1868.9 Outbreak of the Fifth Spanish Revolution. On ..29 of the same month the revolutonaries set up the Revolutionary Government and overthrew the Bourbon Dynasty on ..30.
1868.9.12 Muhammad, Chief of the al-Thani Clan, rebelled against Bahrain, seized control of Qatar and founded the Qatar Regime.
1868.9.23 The Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico started an anti-Spanish revolution in Lares on Puerto Rico (the "Cry of Lares"). On ..24 the Republic of Puerto Rico was set up. The rebellion was crushed by the Spanish Colonial Government in the same month.
Chulalongkorn (Rama V) succeeded as King of Siam. During his reign he carried out reforms to revive the power of his country.
1868.10.10 de Cespedes, head of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, started an anti-Spanish revolution on the Carribean island of Cuba. He declared the independence of Cuba from Spain and established the Republic of Cuba (called the Republic in Arms by historians). This marked the beginning of the First Cuban War of Independence (also called the Ten Years' War). On 1878.5.28 Cuba reverted to Spanish rule.
1868.10.17 A constitution was granted in Luxembourg, which then adopted the parliamentary cabinet system.
1869 Russia started its invasion of the Turkmen in the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. In 1885 Russia conquered Turkmenistan.

Britain ceded Rupert's Land and Northwestern Territory, its dependencies in North America, to Canada. Riel, head of the Metis (a mixed-blood group of the Natives and Europeans) in the Red River Settlement under Rupert's Land, started the Red River Rebellion and established the Red River Settlement Regime on .11.24 of the same year. On 1870.5.20 Canada suppressed the Red River Rebellion and disbanded the Red River Settlement Regime.
1869.1.27 Enomoto Takeaki, an admiral of the Tokugawa Clan, seized control of Hakodate of Ezo Island and established the Ezo Regime. On .6.27 of the same year the Japanese Central Government suppressed the rebellion and ended the Boshin War. Subsequently Japan annexed Ezo Island and renamed it as Hokkaido.
1869.8 The German socialists Bebel and Liebknecht founded the Social Democratic Workers' Party in Eisenach. Since then there appeared socialist parties in the Western countries.
1870s Beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. This period saw the thriving development of the steel industry (and related industries). Electricy replaced steam as the main power source.
1870 Russia established a settlement on Novaya Zemlya. Since then Russia successively annexed the islands on the Arctic Ocean off the Siberian coast (which came to be collectively called Russian Arctic Islands).

Yusuf Ali rebelled against Majerteyn and founded the Obbia Sultanate in central Somalia.
1870.3.20 Blanco, a Venezuelan Liberal, staged a coup and overthrew the "Monagas Dynasty". During his rule Blanco carried out social reforms. But he exercised dictatorial power.
1870.4.27 Guardia Gutierrez, leader of the Costa Rican Liberal Party, seized power in a coup. During his tenure he carried out liberal reforms. Since then the political situation of Costa Rica was stablilized.
1870.7.15 Cananda officially annexed Rupert's Land and Northwestern Territory. Subsequently Britain also transferred British Colombia and Prince Edward Island to Canada.
1870.7.19 To prevent the unification of Germany, France entered into the Franco-Prussian War with Prussia. On .9.1 of the same year Prussia defeated France in the Battle of Sedan.
1870.9.4 The September Revolution of France broke out. After the overthrow of the Second Empire, the conservatives set up the Government of National Defence. On 1871.2.17 the imperial system was formally abolished and the Third French Republic was established.
1870.9.20 The Italian army captured Rome. Pope Pius IX retreated into the Vatican City. When Rome was formally annexed into Italy on .10.17, the Roman Papal States came to an end. The unification of Italy was finally completed.
Samori ibn Lafiya Ture, Chief of the Mandinkas, started a jihad and founded the Wassulu Kingdom in present-day Guinea in 1879.
1871 Mirambo-ya-Banhu, Chief of the Nyamwezis, founded the Nyamwezi Kingdom in present-day western Tanzania.
1871.1 Muscat was renamed the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman.
1871.1.2 Prince Amadeus of Italy succeeded as King of Spain and established Spain (Savoy Dynasty).
1871.1.18 The states of North German Confederation united with the southern German states of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt to form the German Empire. King Wilhelm I of Prussia changed his title to Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany.
1871.2.21 The Netherlands sold Dutch Gold Coast to Britain. Dutch Gold Coast was incorporated into British Gold Coast.
1871.3.18 The Central Committee of the National Guard in Paris initiated a workers' revolution. The revolutionaries sezied power and set up a Revolutionary Government. On ..28 of the same month the Government was reorganised as the Paris Commune and carried out revolutionary dictatorship. On .5.21 the Government army of the Third French Republic entered Paris to suppress the revolution (the Bloody Week of May). On ..29 the revolution was finally suppressed and the Paris Commune collapsed.
1871.5.10 France and Germany signed the Treaty of Frankfurt, by which France ceded Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.
1871.5M Taking advantage of the political turmoil in Xinjiang of China, Russia dispatched an army to occupy Ili, which was not recovered by the Qing Government until the first lunar month of 1881.
1871.6.5 The Western colonists installed Cakobau, Chief of the Bau Confederacy on the Fiji Islands, as King and established the Viti Kingdom, whose Government was organised by Westerners.
1872 The Osmanli Turks occupied North Yemen. The Qasim Regime became an Osmanli vassal state.
1873 France started the Second Franco-Vietnamese War and invaded Tonkin of Dai Nam. The royal court of Dai Nam allied with the Black Flag Army (a militia in southern China) in opposition to the French invaders. On 1874.3.15 Dai Nam signed the Second Treaty of Saigon with France whereby France recognized the independence of Dai Nam while the dilpomacy of Dai Nam was to be under supervision.

The Netherlands started the Aceh War and invaded Aceh.

Ashante and Fante entered into the Seventh Ashante War. After Ashante annihilated the Fante Confederacy, the British colonists launched an attack against Ashante. In 1874 Ashante was defeated and the territories of the Fantes were annexed by the British colonists.
1873.2.11 The republicans of Spain overthrew the Savoy Dynasty and established the First Spanish Republic. In the same month, Carlos Maria, head of the Carlists, crowned himself King (called Carlos VII) and set up a Government in opposition to the First Republic. The Second Carlist War broke out.
1873.5 A financial crisis in Austria swiftly spread world-wide. This financial crisis was followed by a number of crises that broke out frequently in the Western countries and a long-term agricultural depression, which together came to be known as the Long Depression by historians. The world-wide economy was not stabilized until 1896.
1873.6.6 Germany, Austria and Russia formed the First League of the Three Emperors. Thereafter the major Western powers formed military alliances among themselves. Yet Britain continued its isolationist policy (the "Splendid Isolation").
1873.8.24 Russia signed the Russo-Khiva Treaty with Khiva whereby Khiva became a Russian protectorate.
1874.1 The Japanese opposition groups initiated the Freedom and People's Rights Movement, which pursued the adoption of a constitutionalism.
1874.1.20 Britain convened a joint meeting to settle the internal disputes among different parties of Perak and deployed a Resident to act as an advisor of Perak, which then became a British protectorate. In February of the same year, Britain forced Selangor to accept a British Resident as its advisor whereby Selangor also became a British protectorate.
1874.10.10 King Cakobau of Viti transferred Fiji Islands to Britain, which marked the end of the Viti Kingdom. Fiji Islands became a British colony.
1874.12 Campos, a Spanish military officer, staged the Anti-Revolutionary Coup. After the overthrow of the First Republic on ..29 of the same month, Alfonso XII became King of Spain and restored the Bourbon Dynasty. This marked the end of the Fifth Spanish Revolution.
1875 Egypt invaded Ethiopia (the Egyptian-Ethiopian War). In 1876.3 Egypt was defeated. In June the two countries concluded peace by which Egypt recognized the suzerainty of Ethiopia over the northern region.
1875.2.24 The Law on the Organisation of the Senate was passed in France. On the next day the Law on the Organisation of the Public Powers was passed. On .7.16 the Law on the Relation of the Public Powers was also passed. France had thus completed the Constitution of 1875, which established the republican form of government and the parliamentary cabinet system.
1875.5.7 Japan and Russia signed the Treaty of Kuril-Sakhalin Exchange, which provided that the Sakhalin Island (i.e. Karafuto) was to belong to Russia while the Kuril Islands were to belong to Japan.
1875.11.4 Tupou I, Chief of the Tongas on the Tonga Islands of Oceania, made himself King and founded the Kingdom of Tonga. A constitutional form of government was adopted.
1876 Negri Sembilan was renamed the Kingdom of Sri Menanti.
1876.2.19 Russia annexed Khokand. Present-day Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were put under Russian rule.
1876.2.26 Japan forced Choson to sign the Treaty of Kanghwa, by which Japan recognized Choson as an independent state instead of a Qing vassal, while Choson was to open ports for doing trade with Japan.
1876.2.28 The Bourbon Dynasty of Spain defeated Carlos VII, who fled to France, thus ending the Second Carlist War.
1876.4 An anti-Osmanli rebellion broke out in Bulgaria and was suppressed by the Osmanli Government (Bulgarian Horrors).
1876.5.10 The New Osmanli Association seized power in a coup. On .12.19 of the same year Midhat, leader of the New Osmanli Association, became the Grand Vizier and a constitutional form of government was adopted. On .12.23 a Constitution was granted. The parliamentary system and election system were implemented.
1876.9.12 Belgium convened the International Geography Conference in Brussels and founded the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa, which started to intrude into the River Congo valley. The Western powers began to step up their scramble for colonies and delineation of their respective spheres of interest throughout the world. The world history entered a period of the partition of the world by imperialist powers.
1876.11.18 Going into bankruptcy, the Egyptian Government was forced to appoint a British and a French financial controller to control its finance. This was called the Dual Control System by historians.
1876.11.23 Diaz, a Mexican military officer, seized power. Since then Mexico was under the prolonged dictatorial rule of Diaz.
1877 Dent, a British colonist, occupied Sabah. On .12.29 he made himself King of Sabah and founded the Kingdom of Sabah. On 1881.8.26 Britain abolished the Kingdom of Sabah and set up the British North Borneo Provisional Association Limited to govern Sabah, which nominally recognized Sulu as its suzerain, but in practice became a British vassal. On 1888.5.12 Sabah was renamed the State of North Borneo and became a British protectorate.
1877.1.1 Queen Victoria of Britain assumed the title of Empress of India concurrently and established the Empire of India composed of British India and the princely states.
1877.2.15 Saigo Takamori, a warrior of the Satsuma Fief of Japan, rebelled against the Central Government in Kagoshima (the Southwestern War, also called the Satsuma Rebellion). The rebellion was crushed by the Government on .9.24 of the same year.
1877.4.12 The South African Republic was dissolved. It then became a British colony and was renamed Transvaal.
1877.4.24 Russia supported the rebellion of the Slavs under the Osmanli Regime and entered into the Eighth Russo-Turkish War with the Osmanli Regime.
1877.5.22 Romania unilaterally declared independence from the Osmanli Turks.
1877.8.13 Britain united its dependencies in Oceania as the British Western Pacific Territories. This administrative unit later included Tonga Islands, Nauru Island, Fiji Island, Solomon Islands, Ellice Islands, Gilbert Island, New Hebrides Islands, Pitcairn Island, Niue Island, Cook Islands and Tokelau Islands, etc.
1878 Britain invaded Afghanistan again (the Second Anglo-Afghan War).

The British colonists attempted to annex the lands of the Xhosas and aroused resistance of the Xhosas (the Ninth Kaffir War). In 1879 Britain defeated the Xhosas and annexed their lands.

Argentina launched the "Conquest of the Desert" campaign and intruded into Patagonia.
1878.1.7 The True Whig Party of Liberia began its long-time rule.
1878.2 The Bataks, under the leadership of their religious leader Sisingamangaraja XII, rose against the Dutch colonists who intruded into the northern part of Sumatra (the Batak War). The resistance was not finally suppressed by the Dutch until 1907.6.17.
1878.3.3 Russia and the Osmanli Turks signed the Treay of San Stefano, by which Russia acquired great benefit in the Balkan and a proposed "Greater Bulgaria" which included present-day Bulgaria and Macedonia was to be created. The arrangements was opposed by other Western powers and Balkan states.
1878.6.13 The Berlin Congress was convened to discuss the Near East problem. Russia was forced to abandon the Treaty of San Stefano and accept a new arrangement of the political situation of the Balkan Peninsula and Osmanli Regime.
1878.7.13 The participating countries of the Berlin Congress signed the Treaty of Berlin. The Osmanli Regime ceded part of Caucasus to Russia. The Osmanli Regime recognized the independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania. "Greater Bulgaria" was divided into three parts: in the northern part a Bulgarian Principality under Osmanli suzerainty but with autonomous power would be created; in the southeaster part an Autonomous Province of Eastern Rumelia would be created; Macedonia in the southwestern part remained under Osmanli rule. Southern Dobruja was given to Bulgaria. Northern Dobruja was given to Romania, who ceded southern Bessarabia to Russia. Austria acquired Bosnia and Herzegovina. Britain acquired Cyprus (which did not officially became a British colony until 1925.3.10). The First League of the Three Emperors was dissolved.
1879 Rabih, a former Egyptian military officer, started a rebellion in Chad. In 1890 he established the Rabih Regime and conquered the states in Central Sudan later.

Formation of the Standard Oil Trust in USA. Since then there appeared a number of monopolies and large syndicates in the Western countries.
1879.3.1 In contention for the nitrate mines in the Atacama Desert, Chile entered into the Second War of the Pacific with an alliance of Peru and Bolivia. On 1883.7.10 Chile defeated its opponents and the war was ended on .10.22.
1879.3.11 Japan annexed Ryukyu, which became the Okinawa Prefecture. Since then Japan began to expand its territories overseas. The Japanese Colonial Empire started to evolve.
1879.3.18 Present-day Guinea-Bissau separated from Cape Verde Islands and became a separate Portuguese colony named Portuguese Guinea.
1879.5.26 Afghanistan and Britain signed the Treaty of Gandamak. But an anti-British rebellion broke out in Kabul and the war between the two countries restarted. On .10.8 of the same year Britain defeated Afghanistan. On .10.12 Afghanistan became a British protectorate and its foreign policy was taken care of by India.
1879.7 Britain staged the Zulu War and invaded Zulu, which was defeated in the same year. On .9.1 the two countries concluded peace by which Zulu became a British protectorate.
1879.7.8 Establishment of the Bulgarian Regime, which adopted a constitutional form of government.
1879.10.7 Germany and Austria formed the Dual Alliance against Russia. On 1881.6.18 Germany secured a new alliance with Russia. The Second League of the Three Emperors was thus formed between Germany, Austria and Russia.
1880 Msiri, Chief of the Yekes (i.e. the Nyamwezis who had migrated to Katanga), rebelled against Lunda and founded the Garengaze Kingdom in the Congo region.

Kruger, head of the Transvaal Boers, rose against British rule, which marked the beginning of the First Boer War (also called the South African War). On 1881.8.8 Transvaal declared independence from Britain and established the Transvaal State. In 1884.8 the regime was renamed the South African Republic.
1880.1.1 Beginning of the construction work of the Panama Canal, which was not opened for navigation until 1914.8.15.
1880.6.29 France extinguished Tahiti. Thereafter France conquered the neighbouring islands.
1880.9 de Brazza, a French colonist, established the colonial base of Brazzaville in present-day [West] Congo. On ..11 of the same month, Stanley, a Belgian colonist, established the colonial base of Leopoldville in present day [East] Congo, thus creating an opposition relation between the French and Belgian colonists. Belgium began to build up colonies overseas. The Belgian Colonial Empire started to evolve.
1880.9.1 Britain transferred its dependencies on the Arctic Archipelago to Canada (thereafter called the Canadian Arctic Archipelago). The territory of Canada was thus expanded to the Arctic region.
1880.12.22 Bahrain became a British protectorate.
1881 Teuku Umar, a local ruler of Meuraboh under Aceh, rose against the Dutch colonists. In 1892 he surrendered to the Dutch colonist. But he rebelled again and made himself Sultan in 1896.3. On 1899.2.10 he was killed in a battle.
1881.2 Arabi, leader of the Eguptian National Popular Party, started a rebellion. On 1882.2.2 the National Popular Party formed the Nationalist Ministry and adopted a constitutional form of government, which threatened the Dual Control System. On .9.15 the British army captured Arabi and suppressed the National Popular Party. On .11.9 Britain abolished the Dual Control System and put Egypt under its sole control.
1881.3 France started the Tunisian War and invaded Tunisia. On .5.12 of the same year the two countries signed the Treaty of Bardo, by which Tunisia lost part of its sovereignty. In 1884 Tunisia became a French protectorate.
Muhammad Ahmad assumed the title of Mahdi (= Saviour) and started a rebellion against the British and Egyptian invaders in East Sudan, where he established the Mahdist State.
1881.7.23 By signing a treaty, Argentina and Chile partitioned Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America, with the eastern part coming under Argentine rule and the western part under Chilean rule.
1881.10.12 Ito Hirobumi, a conservative senior official of Japan, expelled Okuma Shigenobu, a liberal senior official, from the Government.
1881.12 The Osmanli Regime set up the Public Debt Administration to control national finance, and thus became a semi-colony.
c.1881 Muhammad Saman of Aceh initiated a rebellion against the Dutch colonists (the Tiro Rebellion) and established the Tiro Rebellious Regime, a theocratic regime. After Muhammad Saman was poisoned in 1891, the rebellion failed.
1882 Under the pretext of expelling the Black Flag Army in Dai Nam, France started the Third Franco-Vietnamese War and invaded Dai Nam. The Qing Empire dispatched an army into Dai Nam.

The marooners of Jabacala in the state of Sao Paulo in southern Brazil founded maroon colonies and established the Jabacala Republic. When the Brazilian Government abolished slavery on 1888.5.13, the marooners ended their struggle and dissolved the Republic.
1882.5.20 Germany, Austria and Italy formed the Triple Alliance.
1882.6M Yi Ha Ung, Regent of Choson, staged a coup against the Japanese. A Qing army entered Choson and captured Yi Ha Ung. Since then a Qing army was stationed in Choson. In the seventh lunar month of the same year, Japan forced Choson to sign the Choson-Japan Treaty of Chemulpo (also called the Treaty of Incheon), which allowed a Japan army to be stationed at the Japanese legation in Choson.
1882.10.24 The Boers founded the Republic of Stellaland in the northern part of present-day South Africa. On 1883.8.6 they also founded the State of Goshen.
1883 Chile conquered the Mapuche People in Araucania and annexed the region.
1883.5 France started the First Madagascar War (also called the First Franco-Malagasy War) and invaded Madagascar. In 1885.12 Madagascar signed the Treaty of Tamatave with France whereby Madagascar had to cede territories and pay reparations to France.
1883.8.25 France compelled Dai Nam to sign the First Treaty of Hue, by which Dai Nam became a French protectorate.
1883.10M France attacked the Qing army in Dai Nam. The Sino-French War broke out.
1884 Luong Van Nghia started an anti-French peasant uprising in Dai Nam. After Luong Van Nghia was assassinated in 1892, Hoang Hoa Tham (originally named Truong Van Nghia) succeeded as leader of the rebels.

The Dutch colonists invaded western Borneo and attacked the Lan Fang Company Regime, which was eliminated in 1888.

Argentina conquered the Mapuche and Tehuelche Peoples in Patagonia and annexed the region.
1884.4.24 Present-day Namibia, which was then called Southwest Africa, became a German colony. Germany began to build up colonies overseas. The German Colonial Empire began to evolve.
1884.6 France compelled Dai Nam to sign the Second Treaty of Hue, which reconfirmed Dai Nam's status as a French protectorate.
1884.7.5 Present-day Togo became a German colony named Togoland.
1884.7.14 Kamerun (i.e. present-day Cameroon) became a German colony.
1884.8 Ruanda and Urundi became German protectorates.
1884.10M Kim Ok Kyun, leader of the pro-Japanese Reform Party of Choson, staged a coup, which was crushed by the Qing army stationed in Choson. Japan compelled Choson to sign the Treaty of Seoul, by which Choson was to apologize and pay indemnity to Japan.
1884.11.3 Germany proclaimed occupation of the northeastern part of New Guinea (called German New Guinea).
1884.11.6 Britain proclaimed occupation of the southeastern part of New Guinea (called British New Guinea).
1884.11.15 On the Berlin Conference on African affairs and slavery, the Western powers partitioned the Congo region and agree upon the principle of the partition of Africa.
1885 A conflict with Venezuela arose when Britain tried to expand the boundary of British Guiana, which led to the First Venezuelan Crisis. In 1895.7 USA tried to mediate in the dispute, but led to even greater tension between the two countries. The territorial dispute was finally settled by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1899.10.
1885.2.5 France and Belgium delineated their respective spheres of interest in the Congo region: the area to the west of the Congo River was to be under French rule (called French Congo while the area to the east was to be under Belgian rule.
1885.3 Riel, head of the Metis in the Red River Settlement, started another rebellion (the Northwest Rebellion, which was crushed in May of the next year.
1885.3.23 The petty Tswana states (including: Ngwato, Kgatla, Lete, Rolong, Kwena, Ngwaketse, Tlokwa and Tawana) became British protectorates. Britain assigned Ngwato to be leader of the Tswana states. Britain established the Bechuanaland Protectorate to govern the northern part of the Tswana territories.

Britain conquered Goshen and Stellaland, which were incorporated into the Cape Colony.
1885.4 The northern Solomon Islands were made a German colony named German Solomon Islands.
1885.5.27 The continental portion of present-day Tanzania became a German colony and was named German East Africa.
1885.5M The royal Government and populace of Dai Nam staged an unsucessful uprising against the French invaders. Emperor Nguyen Phuoc Minh fled to Ha Tinh and initiated the Can Vuong (= Loyalty to the King) Movement.
1885.6.5 Britain organised the protectorates in the northern and southern parts of present-day Nigeria into the Niger Districts Protectorate (renamed Niger River Delta Protectorate on 1886.7.10) and the Oil Rivers Protectorate (renamed Niger Coast Protectorate on 1893.5.13).
1885.6.9 Qing and France signed the Sino-French Treaty whereby the Qing Government recognized the status of Dai Nam as a French protectorate. France conquered the whole of Dai Nam, which was divided into three parts: Cochinchina (the southern part) was a French colony while Annam (the central part) and Tonkin (the northern part) were French protectorates (nominally still under the rule of Dai Nam).
1885.7.1 King Leopold II of Belgium assumed sovereignty of the eastern Congo region, which was originally under the administration of the International Association of the Congo, and established the Independent State of the Congo, with Leopold II being the Sovereign of the state.
1885.9.1 Britain established the British Bechuanaland Colony to govern the southern part of the Tswana territories.
1885.9.18 An anti-Osmanli rebellion broke out in Eastern Rumelia. Bulgaria proclaimed annexation of Eastern Rumelia, which aroused discontent of Serbia and intervention of the Western powers (the Bulgarian Crisis). On .11.13 of the same year the Serbo-Bulgarian War broke out between Serbia and Bulgaria. On 1886.3.3 the two countries signed the Treaty of Bucharest and agreed to maintain the status quo of the borderline.
1885.10.22 Spain sold Marshall Islands to Germany.
1885.11 Britain launched the Third Burmese War. On ..29 of the same month they captured Mandalay, the caital of Burma.
1885.12.22 Japan abrogated the traditional government system and implemented the modern cabinet system on German line. Ito Hirobumi was appointed as the Prime Minister.
1885.12.27 The Indian nationalists convened a conference in Bombay and established the Congress Party, which pursued political reforms by peaceful means.
1886 Saidi Ali, local ruler of Bambao on the Grande Comore Island of the Comoros, unified the island and founded the Sultanate of Ngazidja. In the same year, the three Comoron kingdoms of Anjouan, Moheli and Ngazidja became French protectorates successively. On 1887.9.5 Comoros were made a French colony.
1886.1.1 Britain conquered Upper Burma and annihilated the Kingdom of Burma. On .2.26 of the same year Upper and Lower Burmas were united as the British dependency of Burma.
1886.4.27 Present-day [West] Congo and Gabon was made a single French colony named Gabon and Congo. On 1891.4.30 it was named French Congo.
1886.5.1 The labourers in New York and Chicago in USA went on strike for an eight-hour working day. This day was the origin of the "Labour's Day".
1886.8.21 A military uprising broke out in Bulgaria. On .9.7 of the same year Russia forced Prince Aleksandur of Bulgaria to abdicate and set up a Regency Council in an attempt to put Bulgaria under its control. Austria opposed Russia. The Second League of the Three Emperors was dissolved.
1887 The Italo-Ethiopian War broke out when Italy invaded Ethiopia. Italy began to build up colonies overseas. The Italian Colonial Empire began to evolve.
1887.2.12 Germany facilitated the conclusion of the First Mediterranean Agreement between Britain and Italy (later Austria and Spain also joined the Agreement), which provided for maintenance of the status quo of the Mediterranean Sea and the readjustment of the relationship between the powers. On .12.12 of the same year, Britain, Italy and Austria concluded the Second Mediterranean Agreement (also called the Near Eastern Entente), which provided for the maintenance of the status quo of the Osmanli Regime.
1887.4.6 Rio de Oro in the southern part of present-day Sahara became a Spanish colony. On 1904.10.3 Seguia el-Hamra in the northern part of present-day Sahara also became a Spanish colony.
1887.6.18 Germany concluded the Russo-German Reinsurance Treaty secretly with Russia in an attempt to maintain peace between the two countries and the status quo of the Balkan. Yet the relation between the two countries gradually became cool.
1887.7.20 Northern Somalia became a British colony and was called British Somaliland.
1887.8.14 Ferdinand, a German noble, succeeded as Prince of Bulgaria.
1887.10.16 Britain and France jointly occupied New Hebrides and formed a Joint Naval Commission to administer the islands.
1887.10.17 France united Dai Nam (composed of Tonkin and Annam), Cochinchina and Cambodia as the French Indochina Union. Later Laos was also included.
1887.10.21 Nauru became a German colony.
1887.10M The Qing Empire signed two treaties with Portugal and recognized Macau as a Portuguese colony.
1887.12.16 Maldives became a British protectorate.
1888.2.9 The northwestern tip of Somalia became a French colony and was called French Somaliland.
1888.2M Britain staged the First Tibetan War and invaded Tibet. In 1890.2 the Qing Government signed the Sino-British Treaty on Tibet and India with Britain whereby the borderline between Tibet and Sikkim was delineated and the Qing Government recognized the Sikkim as a British protectorate.
1888.4.15 Boulange, a French political aspirant, was elected to be a member of the Chamber of Deputies. Subsequently he initiated a campaign to amend the Constitution. On .1.27 of the next year Boulanger conspired a coup but failed. On .4.8 Boulanger fled to Belgium (the Boulanger Incident).
1888.6.14 Sarawak became a British protectorate.
1888.9.9 Chile annexed Easter Island in southeastern Pacific Ocean.
1888.9.17 Brunei became a British protectorate.
1889 A constitution was granted in Japan, which then adopted a constitutional form of government, with the executive and legislative powers being held by the Emperor.

Samoa became a tripartite protectorate of Germany, Britain and USA.
1889.1.10 Ivory Coast became a French colony.
1889.2.11 Britain passed the Children's Charter, which is the first legislation about child abuse and child labour in the world.
1889.3.9 King Sahle Mariam of Shoa became Emperor of Ethiopia (called Menelik II) and reunified Ethiopia.
1889.5.2 Italy and Ethiopia signed the Treaty of Uccialli, by which Ethiopia ceded part of its territories in the northern region to Italy, thus ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War. By tampering with the text of the treaty, Italy in effect made Ethiopia its protectorate and renamed it Abyssinia.
1889.6.29 The parliamentarians of nine countries convened a conference in Paris and formed an international organisation for the parliaments. In 1922 the organisation was renamed the Inter-Parliamentary Union.
1889.7.14 The socialists of various countries convened a conference in Paris and established the Socialist International (commonly called the Second International).
1889.10.2 The American nations convened the First International Conference of American States (also called the Pan-American Conference) in Washingto, the capital of USA and resolved to establish an international organisation composed of the independent countries in America. On 1890.4.14 the International Union of American Republics and the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (renamed International Bureau of the American Republics in 1901.10) were formally established.
1889.11.15 da Fonseca and Peixoto, military officers of Brazil, staged the Revolutionary Coup of Brazil. They overthrew the Second Empire and established the First Republic of Brazil.
1890.1.1 Eritrea became an Italian colony.
1890.7.1 Britain and Germany signed the Treaty of Heligoland-Zanzibar, by which Britain ceded Heligoland to Germany while Germany gave up its colonial rights in Zanzibar. The two countries also delineated their respective spheres of interest in Africa.
1890.11.7 Zanzibar became a British protectorate.
1890.12 The USA army killed Sitting Bull, Chief of the Sioux People and massacred the Sioux People in Wounded Knee Creek, thus ending the Sioux Wars. Up to this point the USA had suppressed the resistance of the Native Americans in various parts of the country and put an end to the American Indian Wars.
1891.1 Montt, a military officer of Chile, started a revolt and overthrew the Government of the Liberal Party on .8.28 of the same year. In December he changed the political system. Thereafter Chile was ruled by the Congress controlled by the Conservative Party (called the Period of the Parliamentary Republic by historians).
1891.3.20 Muscat and Oman became a British protectorate.
1891.5.9 Present-day Zimbabwe became two British colonies: Mashonaland and Matabeleland.
1892.3.6 Falkland Islands became a British colony.
1892.3.8 The Trucial States became British protectorates.
1892.8.18 France and Russia signed the Franco-Russian Military Convention. When the Convention was ratified by both countries on 1894.1.4, the Franco-Russian Alliance was formally established.
1892.8.27 Present-day Mali became a French colony named French Sudan.
1892.10 Gilbert Islands in Micronesia and Ellice Islands in Polynesia became British colonies and were united as the Gilbert and Ellice Islands.
1893 When the Abeokutas formed a united government, their independence was recognized by Britain. Abeokuta was then renamed the Egba Kingdom.

Conselheiro founded a herectic sect in Canudos in northeastern Brazil and organised anti-governmental activities. In 1896.11 he initiated a rebellion (the War of Canudos), which was suppressed by the Government on 1897.10.6.
1893.1.17 Dole, leader of the USA migrants in Hawaii, seized power in a coup and made Hawaii a USA protectorate. On 1894.7.4 Hawaii was reorganised as a republic, with Dole being the President.
1893.2.23 Present-day Malawi became a British colony named British Central Africa. On 1907.7.6 it was renamed Nyasaland.
1893.3.10 Present-day Guinea became a French colony named French Guinea.
1893.3.15 The southern Solomon Islands were made a British colony named British Solomon Islands.
1893.5 France invaded Siam. On .7.31 of the same year France imposed a blockade on Siam, which led to tension between France and Britain (the Siamese Crisis).
1893.5.20 Zelaya, leader of the Nicaraguan Liberal Party, initiated a revolution against the Government of the Conservative Party. On .7.11 of the same year the Conservative Government was overthrown. During his tenure Zelaya carried out liberal reforms.
1893.10.3 France and Siam signed the Franco-Siamese Treaty, by which Siam abandoned the suzerainty over its dependent state Luang Prabang Lanchang, which then became a French protectorate. France thus acquired Laos. French Laos was divided into three parts: Upper Laos (i.e. Luang Prabang Lanchang) was a French protectorate, while Central Laos and Lower Laos were French colonies.
1894.1 Chon Pong Chun and Choi Si Hyong, leader of the Tonghak Faction of Choson, initiated a peasant uprising (the Tonghak Rebellion). The Qing Empire and Japan dispatched armies to suppress the rebellion simultaneously and led to conflict between the two countries. On .4.25 of the same year the First Sino-Japanese War broke out.
1894.1.15 France conquered Dahomey, which was then renamed the Abomey Kingdom. On .6.22 of the same year France established the Dahomey Colony.
1894.6.18 Buganda became a British protectorate. On 1896.6.30 the other three kingdoms in present-day Uganda also became British protectorates. On 1905.4.1 Uganda was made a British colony.
1894.7.16 Japan modified the commercial treaty signed with Britain. From then onwards until 1897.12, by modifying the commercial treaties signed with the Western powers and abolishing the privileges enjoyed by the powers, Japan freed itself from the status of semi-colony.
1894.8 The Armenians initiated an anti-Osmanli rebellion in Sassun in western Armenia and was suppressed by the Osmanli Regime (the First Armenian Massacre).
1894.12 France started the Second Madagascar War (also called the Second Franco-Malagasy War).
1894.12.22 Dreyfus, a French military officer of Jewish origin, was falsely charged with treason and was sentenced to life imprisonment (the Dreyfus Affair). The Affair led to the emergence of and bitter struggle between two camps: the Dreyfusards initiated a campaign to rescue Dreyfus, while the Anti-Dreyfusards seized the opportunity to stir up an anti-Jewish sentiment. On 1899.9.19 Dreyfus was pardoned. On 1906.7.12 Dreyfus was finally acquitted of the charge.
1895 Birsa Munda, a religious leader of the Mundas in East India, started a resistance movement against the Indian colonial government and local nobles. The movement was suppressed when Birsa Munda was caught and killed in 1900.

Italy started the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and invaded Ethiopia. In the next year Italy was defeated. By the Treaty of Addis Ababa signed between the two countries on .10.26, Italy recognized the independence of Ethiopia.

Jose Marti, leader of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, initiated another revolution against Spanish rule (the Second Cuban War of Independence). On .9.18 of the same year, Cuba declared independence again and reestablished the Republic of Cuba in Arms.
1895.2.20 Present-day Burkina Faso became a French colony called Upper Volta.
1895.2.21 Swazi became a protectorate of the South African Republic.
1895.3 Britain and Russia concluded an agreement to partition the Pamir region in Central Asia.
1895.4.17 The Qing Empire and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The Qing Empire ceded Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan and Penghu Islands to Japan. The Qing Empire recognized the independence of Choson.
1895.4.23 Russia, France and Germany, discontented with the immense benefit acquired by Japan from the Qing Empire, compelled Japan to give up Liaodong Peninsula (the Triple Intervention).
1895.5.3 Present-day Zambia became two British colonies: Northeastern Rhodesia and Northwestern Rhodesia.
1895.5.25 Qiu Fengjia rose against Japanese invasion in Taiwan. He declared the independence of Taiwan and established the Democratic State of Taiwan, with Tang Jingsong being the President. On .10.21 of the same year Japan suppressed the resistance and conquered Taiwan.
1895.6.16 France united its West African colonies (including Senegal, French Guinea, Ivory Coast and French Sudan) as French West Africa. Later Niger, Mauritania, Upper Volta and Dahomey were also included.
1895.7.1 Present-day Kenya became a British colony named British East Africa. On 1920.7.23 British East Africa was renamed Kenya.
1895.10.1 Madagascar signed the Treaty of Tananarive with France whereby France seized control of Madagascar. In November of the same year an anti-French rebellion broke out in Madagascar. France conquered Madagascar.
1895.11.16 Britain incorporated British Bechuanaland into the Cape Colony.
1896 France suppressed the Can Vuong Movement in Dai Nam.

Britain started the Eighth Ashante War and conquered Ashante, which then became a British protectorate.
1896.1.15 Britain and France concluded an agreement that delineated their respective spheres of interest in Siam, which also became a buffer state between the two countries' dependencies in Indochina. Siam became a semi-colony.
1896.2 Greece instigated an anti-Osmanli rebellion in Crete, where the rebels demanded the annexation of Crete into Greece. In 1897 Greece entered into the First Greco-Turkish War with the Osmanli Turks. On 1898.3.20 the Western powers forced the Osmanli Turks to grant autonomy to Crete and established the Cretan State (which declared independence on 1908.10.6).
1896.4 The Olympic Games were restored in Greece. Later Olympic Games became an international sport event.
1896.6 The Armenians initiated another rebellion against Osmanli rule. On .8.26 of the same year, the Osmanli Government crushed the rebellion and massacred the Armenians (the Second Armenian Massacre).
1896.7.1 Britain united Pahang, Perak, Selangor and Sri Menanti as the Federated Malay States.
1896.8.6 Madagascar became a French protectorate. On 1897.2.28 France annihilated the Kingdom of Madagascar and Madagascar became a French colony. But the anti-French rebellion was not finally suppressed until 1904.
1896.8.26 Katipunan, a Filipino revolutionary organisation, initiated a revolution against Spanish rule, which marked the beginning of the Filipino War of Independence. On 1897.3.23 the Filipino Regime and the Revolutionary Government was established, with Aguinaldo being the Chairman of the Government. On .11.1 the revolutionaries ratified the Biac-na-Bato Constitution and established the Republic of the Philippines (commonly called the Biac-na-Bato Republic). On .12.16 the Revolutionary Government concluded peace with the Spanish Colonial Government and ceased the revolution.
1897 Sri Menanti was renamed the Kingdom of Negri Sembilan.
1897.2M The Western powers started the scramble for concessions and partition of spheres of interest in China.
1897.8 The Zionists all over the world convened the Zionist Conference in Basel and launched the Zionist movement.
1897.10.17 Japan caused Choson to be named the Taehan Empire.
1898.3 The social democratic organisations in various parts of Russia formed the Social Democratic Labour Party.
1898.4.25 In contention for colonies, USA and Spain entered into the Spanish-Cuban-American War (also called the Spanish-American War) in which Spain was defeated.
1898.4M Emperor Zaitian of the Qing Empire appointed Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to carry out the Hundred Days' Reform. In the eighth lunar month of the same year, Dowager Empress Nalalaner staged a coup and seized power. After imprisoning Zaitian, she abolished all reform measures.
1898.6.12 Aguinaldo restarted the Filipino Revolution and declared the independence of the Philippines from Spain. On 1899.1.20 the Malolos Constitution was promulgated and the First Republic of the Philippines (commonly called the Malolos Republic) was established.
1898.6.14 Britain and France signed the Paris Convention to delineate their respective spheres of interest in West Africa. The French possessions in West Africa became connected.
1898.8.12 USA annexed Hawaii.
1898.9.2 Britain destroyed the Mahdist State and conquered East Sudan.
1898.9.19 A conflict broke out in Fashoda of East Sudan between Britain and France in contention for Northeast Africa and led to the Fashoda Crisis. On .3.21 the two countries concluded a convention by which France withdrew from the River Nile valley but obtained the region around Lake Chad as a compensation. The Fashoda Crisis was thus settled.
1898.12.10 USA and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam to USA. USA officially occupied Cuba. USA began invading the Caribbean region. Since then Cuba, Puerto Rico, Panama Canal Zone and United States Virgin Islands became USA colonies successively.
1899.1.1 Britain united Trinidad and Tobago as one unit called Trinidad and Tobago.
1899.1.19 Britain compelled Egypt to sign the Anglo-Egyptian Convention, by which East Sudan nominally became an Anglo-Egypt Condominium called Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, but in practice was solely controlled by Britain.
1899.2.4 USA invaded the Philippines and the American-Philippine War broke out. On 1901.4.1 USA conquered the Philippines, which then became a USA colony. In 1902.4 the USA finally suppressed the Filipino Revolution.
1899.2.12 Spain sold Northern Mariana Islands (i.e. Mariana Islands excluding Guam) and Caroline Islands to Germany.
1899.5.18 26 countries held the First Hague Peace Conference in which they established the international laws of war and set up the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
1899.6.10 Germany, Britain and USA annihilated Samoa. On .12.2 of the same year the three countries reached an agreement whereby Britain was to withdraw from the Samoan Islands, which was then partitioned between Germany and USA. On 1900.2.17 the eastern part of te islands was occupied by USA and was the called American Samoa. On 1900.3.1 western part was occupied by Germany and was then called German Samoa.
1899.6.30 USA conquered Cuba.
1899.7.14 The Brazilians in Acre in present day western Brazil seceded from Bolivia and established the Independent State of Acre, which led to the Acre War. On .4.25 of the next year Bolivia reconquered Acre.
1899.8 Xasan, a Somali religious leader, launched the Xasan Jihad against British rule in British Somaliland. Later he retreated to Italian Somalia. On 1905.3.3, Xasan signed a treaty with the Italian Colonial Government whereby he obtained part of Italian Somalia and founded the Noogal Regime. In 1908 Xasan entered British Somaliland again, but was defeated by the British army in 1920. Upon death of Xasan on .12.21, the Noogal Regime came to an end.
1899.9.6 USA proposed the Open Door Policy to other Western powers and requested the powers not to interfere with the other powers' interests in the treaty ports. The policy was recognized by the other powers.
1899.10.12 In contention for the interests in Southern Africa, Britain and South Africa entered into the Second Boer War. The Orange Free State allied with South Africa and joined the war. On 1902.5.31 the combatanats signed the Treaty of Vereeniging whereby the Orange Free State and South Africa (thereafter renamed Transvaal) lost their independence and became British colonies.
1899.10.17 The Liberal Party of Colombia rose against the Government of the National Party. The War of a Thousand Days thus broke out. On 1902.11.21 the two parties concluded peace whereby the National Party promised to grant some of the political rights to the Liberal Party.
1899.11.14 Germany transferred the most of the islands of German Solomon Islands to Britain, but retained the two islands of Bougainville and Buka, which were incorporated into German New Guinea.
1899.12M Zhu Hongdeng and Benming, leaders of Yihequan, a Chinese boxing group, initiated a rebellion against the Qing Government and was engaged in anti-foreign activities. In the fourth luanr month of the next year the Qing Government summoned the members of Yihequan to Beijing, where it was reorganised as Yihetuan and became a tool to resist the Western powers.
1900 Asanntewa, a chieftain of a Ashante tribe, rose against the British colonists (the Ninth Ashante War) and was suppressed by the British colonists. On .6.23 the British colonists divided Ashante into 18 petty states.

The Pan-Africans convened the First Pan-African Conference in London, which marked the beginning of the Pan-Africanist Movement.
1900.1.1 Britain reorganised its protectorates in Nigeria as the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and the Southern Nigeria Protectorate. On 1906.2.16 Britain incorporated the Lagos Colony into the Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
1900.5.18 Tonga became a British protectorate.
1900.5M The Qing Government induced Yihetuan to attack the foreign embassies in Beijing (the Boxer Uprising). The coalition army of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, USA, Italy, Austria and Japan attacked Beijing. In the seventh lunar month the coalition army captured Beijing. In the eighth lunar month the Russian army occupied northeastern China. On 1901.9.7 the Qing Empire signed the Boxer Protocol, which allowed the Western powers to station their armies at their embassies as well as the important towns along the railway between Tianjin and Shanhaiguan.

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