A Chronology of World Political History
(1801 - 1850 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1801 Russia annexed the Ossetian region in Caucasus.
1801.1.1 Britain enacted the Act of Union whereby Britain and Ireland were formally united as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (called "Britain" in short; commonly called "England").
1801.2.9 France and Austria signed the Treaty of Luneville, which confirmed the supremacy of French influence in northern Italy. Austria withdrew from the Second Coalition. Tuscany was ceded to Parma.
1801.3.23 The Russian nobles staged the "March 11th Coup" (it was March 11th according to the Russian calendar) and overthrew Tsar Pavel. On the next day Aleksandr I was installed as Tsar.
1801.7.1 Toussaint l'Ouverture, leader of the Haitian Revolution, conquered the Spanish dependency of Santo Domingo on the eastern part of Hispaniola and unified the whole island. He made himself Governor for life and proclaimed self-rule of the island.
1801.8.3 France installed Lodovico I, a royal member of Parma, as King of Etruria and renamed Tuscany as the Kingdom of Etruria.
1802.3.27 Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens, by which Britain returned the French colonies it occupied to France. The Second Coalition was thus dissolved.
1802.4.24 Russia conquered the eastern part of Georgia and annexed the Kingdom of Georgia. Later Russia also conquered the small kingdoms in the western part of Georgia.
1802.5.31 Nguyen Phuoc Noan, former King of Dai Viet, founded the Viet Nam Empire. In the same year he annihilated the Tay Son Regime and reunified Vietnam.
1802.6 France captured Toussaint l'Ouverture and suppressed the Revolution. But Dessalines started another revolt in the same year.
1802.6.26 The Cisalpine Republic was renamed the Italian Republic, with Napoleon being the President.
1802.8.2 France promulgated the Constitution of 1802, which provided life tenure and the right of designating successor for the First Consul.
1802.11.1 France annexed Parma.
1803 Britain staged the Second Maratha War and attacked the Maratha states. By 1805 Britain had defeated Nagpur, Indore and Gwalior and acquired large area of territories.

In the case Marbury v. Madison, Marshall, Chief Justice of the USA Supreme Court, declared a section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional, thus establishing the principle of judicial review.
1803.2 Germany promulgated the Enactment of the Delegates of the Empire, by which most ecclesiastical states and free cities were abolished and incorporated into other states.
1803.2.11 Ferdinando III, the former Grand Duke of Tuscany, acquired the Archbishopric of Salzburg and crowned himself as Duke Ferdinand of Salzburg. He secularized the archbishopric and established the Salzburg Regime.
1803.3.10 The cantons of the Helvetic Republic regained independence and restablished the Swiss Confederation.
1803.4.30 USA purchased Louisiana from France and thus doubled the area of the US territory.
1803.9.11 Tasmania (called Van Diemen's Land at that time) became a British colony under the administration of New South Wales. It became a separate colony in 1825.
1804 Iltazar Inaq, Chief of the Kungrate Tribe of Khiva, overthrew the Arab-Shahid Dynasty and established Khiva (Inak Dynasty).

Russia began to invade Azerbaijan and conquered the small Azerbaijani kingdoms successively.
1804.1.1 Saint-Domingue declared independence from France and established the Haitian Regime, with Dessalines being the Governor-General for life.
1804.2.14 Karadjordje Petrovic started the First Serbian Uprising against Osmanli rule and founded the Serbian Regime (Karadjordjevic Dynasty).
1804.2.21 Imam Usuman, Chief of the Fulanis, founded the Sokoto Sultanate in northwestern Nigeria. Imam Usuman started the Hausa Jihad and conquered the Hausa city-state of Zaria. In 1805 he conquered Katsina, Daura, Biram and Rano. In 1807 he conquered Kano. In 1808 he conquered Gobir. The Hausa-Fulanis were thus formed. Sokoto became the suzerain of the Hausa-Fulani states.
1804.5.18 Napoleon abolished the First French Republic. He crowned himself Emperor (called Napoleon I) and established the First French Empire.
1804.8.11 Archduke Franz I of Austria changed his title to Emperor and established the Austrian Empire.
1804.9.22 Governor-General Dessalines of Haiti made himself Emperor (called Jacques).
1805 Ranjit Singh, leader of the Sikhs in northern India, founded the Kingdom of Punjab in Lahore.

Britain, Austria and Russia formed the Third Coalition against France. On .12.2 of the same year Napoleon I defeated the coalition army of Russia (led by Tsar Aleksandr I) and Austria (led by Emperor Franz I) in the Battle of Austerlitz (also called the Battle of the Three Emperors). On .12.26 France and Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg whereby Austria was forced to cede territories. The Third Coalition dissolved.

With British support, the Fantes, a tribe subordinate to the Ashantes, rebelled against the Ashantes (the First Ashante War). In the next year Ashante defeated the Fantes and forced Britain to recognize Ashante's suzerainty over the Fante territory.
1805.6.24 Napoleon I renamed Lucca as the Principality of Lucca and Piombino and crowned his sister Elisa and the latter's husband Felice as the Prince and Princess of Lucca and Piombino. Thereafter Napoleon I crowned several of his relatives as the monarchs of certain dependent states.
An anti-Osmanli revolt broke out in Egypt. Muhammad Ali, a military officer, seized power in Egypt and established Egypt (Muhammad Ali Dynasty), which was a vassal state of the Osmanli Turks. During his reign, Muhammad Ali carried out reforms and unified Egypt by eliminating the Mamluk warlords.
1805.12.27 France occupied Naples. Napoleon I crowned his brother Joseph as Lieutenant General of Naples. On .3.30 Joseph changed his title to King (called Giuseppe II).
1806 A war broke out between Britain and Spain. Britain occupied Buenos Aires, capital of Rio de la Plata. When de Liniers rose against the British invaders, the populace of Buenos Aires dismissed the Viceroy of Rio de la Plata and replaced him with de Liniers.
1806.6.5 Napoleon I crowned his brother Louis as King of Holland (called Lodewijk I) and renamed the Batavian Republic as the Kingdom of Holland.
1806.7.12 France reorganized the German states as the Confederation of the Rhine (composed of Saxe-Wittenburg, Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Kothen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Nassau-Weilburg, Westphalia, Wurzburg, Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Liechtenstein) under French control. Napoleon I made himself Protector of the Confederation.
1806.8.6 France put an end to the German Kingdom. The title of Holy Roman Emperor ceased to exist.
1806.9 Britain, Russia and Prussia formed the Fourth Coalition against France. In October of the same year France defeated Prussia. On .11.21 France proclaimed the Berlin Decree, which was intended to impose a blockade of Britain by prohibiting trade between Continental Europe and Britain. The decree inaugurated the Continental System.
1806.10.17 Emperor Jacques was assassinated. Christophe succeeded and abolished the monarchical system. On .12.28 of the same year, Petion, leader of the mixed-blood Haitians, seized control of southern Haiti. Haiti thus split into [Northern] Haiti (ruled by Christophe) and [Southern] Haiti (ruled by Petion).
1806.12 As Russia supported the Serbian Uprising, the Osmanli Turks declared war on Russia (the Sixth Russo-Turkish War).
1807 Dan Kasawa, Prince of the former Katsina, founded the Kingdom of Maradi in southern Niger.

The first passenger steamboat in the world designed by the American Fulton set sail. Since then the technologies of transport and communication have been progressing.
1807.5.29 Opposing Sultan Selim III's reforms, the conservatives of the Osmanli Janissaries staged a coup and overthrew Selim III.
1807.7.7 France and Russia signed the Treaty of Tilsit, by which Russia ceded the Ionian Islands to France. On .9.13 of the same year France annexed the Septinsular Republic.
1807.7.9 France signed the Treaty of Tilsit with Prussia, which was forced to cede a large area of territories. The Fourth Coalition was dissolved.

France established the Grand Duchy of Warsaw from the lands that Prussia took from Poland.
1807.8 France established the Kingdom of Westphalia on the western territories of Prussia. Napoleon I crowned his brother Jerome as King of Westphalia (renamed as Hieronymus).
1807.10 vom Stein became Minister of State of Prussia. During his tenure he carried out reforms and restored the power of his country.
1807.10.22 France invaded Portugal. Queen Maria I of Portugal fled to Brazil. Resistance movements broke out throughout the country. In 1808 Britain dispatched an army to Portugal to fight against the French army. The Peninsular War broke out.
1808 Intending to acquire Finland, Russia started the Fourth Russo-Swedish War. On .2.20 of the same year Russia occupied Finland.

Malam Musa, Chief of the Fulanis, invaded Zaria. Zaria (Hausa Dynasty) was forced to move to Zuba. In the same year Malam Musa established Zaria (Fulani Dynasty) in Zaria. Zaria thus split into two dynasties.
1808.3.19 France interfered with the succession issue of the Spanish throne. King Carlos IV was forced to pass his throne to Fernando VII. On .5.6 of the same year, France forced Fernando VII to abdicate, thus ending Spain (Bourbon Dynasty). On .6.6 France crowned King Giuseppe II of Naples as King of Spain (called Joseph). Resistance movements broke out throughout Spain (the First Spanish Revolution) On .9.25 a Revolutionary Government was established.
1808.5.24 France annexed Etruria.
1808.9.28 Robles staged the First Montevideo Independence Revolution in Montevideo. The revolution was suppressed in the next year. Thereafter revolutions broke out in the Spanish colonies in Latin America. The Latin American Independence Movements began.
1809 Modibo Adama, a Fulani, started a jihad and founded the Kingdom of Adamawa in eastern Nigeria, which was a vassal state of Sokoto.
1809.1 Austria and Britain formed the Fifth Coalition against France. In the same year France defeated Austria. On .10.14 France and Austria signed the Treaty of Schonbrunn whereby Austria was to ceded territories and pay reparation. The Fifth Coalition was thus dissolved.
1809.3 The Swedish constitutionalist military officers staged a coup. On .5.10 they deposed King Gustav IV. On .6.6 Karl XIII succeeded to the throne. He enacted a new constitution and restored the constitutional monarchical system in Sweden.
1809.3.3 France installed Princess Elisa of Lucca as Grand Duke of Tuscany and restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
1809.3.29 The Russian Tsar assumed the title of Grand Duke of Finland concurrently. On .9.5 of the same year Sweden and Russia signed the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, by which Sweden ceded Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia, thus ending the Fourth Russo-Swedish War.
1809.5.17 France annexed the Roman Papal States.
1809.6.25 Jurgensen, an armed officer on board a British commerical vessel, occupied Iceland and declared the independence of Iceland from Denmark and the establishment of the Icelandic Regime. On .8.22 of the same year a British army was dispatched to suppress the revolt.
1809.7.12 Murillo staged the Upper Peru Independence Revolution in the provinces under Upper Peru. He proclaimed Fernando VII, the deposed Spanish King, as King of Upper Peru and established the Kingdom of Upper Peru. In November of the same year the Spanish Colonial Government suppressed the Revolution.
1809.8.9 Manuela rose against Spanish rule and declared self-rule in Quito (the First Quito Independence Revolution) On .10.28 the Spanish Colonial Government suppressed the revolt.
1809.10.8
Metternich became Chancellor of Austria. During his tenure he carried out reactionary policies in an attempt to maintain the European absolute monarchies and suppress the revolutionary movements.
1810.4.19 The First Venezuelan Independence Revolution broke out in Venezuela. The revolutionaries set up a Junta and exercised self-rule. On 1811.7.14 the revolutionaries declared independence from Spain and established the Venezuelan Regime (called the First Republic of Venezuela by historians) In 1812 the Spanish Colonial Government launched an attack against Venezuela. On .7.25 Venezuela concluded peace with Spain whereby the Spanish colonial rule was resumed in Venezuela. This marked the end of the First Republic.
1810.5.17 Britain seized Seychelles Islands from France.
1810.5.25 The May Revolution of Rio de la Plata broke out. The provinces of Rio de la Plata declared independence and united to form the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, a confederation composed of Entre Rios, Buenos Aires, la Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, Tucuman, San Juan, San Luis, Cordoba, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Corrientes and Jujuy.
1810.6.22 Abkhazia became a Russian protectorate.
1810.7.20 Torres staged an anti-Spanish revolt in Santa Fe de Bogota Province of New Granada and declared self-rule New Granada Independence Revolution. On .4.4 of the next year the revolutionaries declared independence from Spain. They established the Cundinamarca Regime and proclaimed Fernanado VII, the deposed King of Spain, as the King. Thereafter the other provinces of New Granada also declared independence from Spain.
1810.9 Hidalgo started a revolution in Dolores of New Mexico (the Cry of Dolores). After Hidalgo was captured and killed by the Spanish Colonial Government in the next year, his followers continued the revolution.

de Montufar staged the Second Quito Independence Revolution in Quito. On .12.11 of the next year, Quito declared independence from Spain and established the Quito Regime.
1810.9.18 A revolution broke out in Chile. The revolutionaries established the Chilean Regime (the First Chilean Independence Revolution). On 1814.10.2 the Spanish Colonial Government suppressed the Revolution.
1810.10.2 The USA migrants in the Spanish colony of West Florida in North America rebelled against the Spanish Colonial Government and founded the Republic of West Florida. On .12.10 of the same year West Florida was annexed into USA.
1810.12.3 Britain seized Ile de France from France and renamed it as Mauritius.
1811 In contention for Southern Caucasus, Russia and Persia entered into the First Russo-Iranian War. On 1813.10.12 the two countries signed the Treaty of Gulistan, by which Persia ceded the Caucasian region in northern Armenia to Russia.

After the Anglo-Portuguese joint forces expelled the French armies, the Portuguese King stayed in Brazil. Portugal was thus under British control.

With the support of Britain, the Fantes rebelled against Ashante again (the Second Ashante War). Ashante defeated the coalition army of Britain and the Fantes.

Tecumseh, Chief of the Native American Shawnees, revolted against the USA colonists and led to the Tecumseh's War, which was part of the American Indian Wars. The war ended in 1813 when Tecumseh was killed in a battle.
1811.5.15 The Paraguayan Independence Revolution broke out in Paraguay. Paraguay declared independence from Spain and became part of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata.
1811.12.10 Artigas staged the Second Montevideo Independence Revolution. In 1813 he founded the Province of Oriental del Rio de la Plata and joined the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata.
1812 The British colonists staged the Fourth Kaffir War in Southern Africa and defeated the Xhosas.
1812.2.15 Quito proclaimed Fernando VII, the deposed Spanish King, as King of Quito. In the same year a civil war broke out between the Republicans and the Constitutionalists. On .12.9 the Spanish Colonial Government toppled the Quito Regime and suppressed the revolt.
1812.5.8 The Spanish Revolutionary Government promulgated the Constitution of 1812, which provided for a parliamentary cabinet system.
1812.5.28 Russia and the Osmanli Regime signed the Treaty of Bucharest, thus ending the Sixth Russo-Turkish War. Russia acquired the eastern part of Moldavia (which was called Bessarabia, part of present-day Moldova). The Osmanli Regime recognized the autonomy of Serbia.
1812.6 France launched the Invasion of Russia.
1812.6.18 The Anglo-American War (also called the Second War of American Independence) broke out between Britain and USA. On 1814.12.24 the two countries signed the Treaty of Ghent whereby both parties gave up the territories they occupied during the war.
1812.6.22 The British colonists invaded Jogjakarta. They installed Prince Paku Alam I of Jogjakarta as King and established the Kingdom of Paku Alaman.
1812.7.1 The French army occupied Lithuania, where they set up the Provisional Government Commission and restored the Lithuanian Regime.
1812.10.4 The independent provinces of New Granada (including Cartagena de Indias, Tunja, etc.) were united as the United Provinces of New Granada . Cundinamarca refused to join and a war broke out between Cundinamarca and New Granada. On 1814.12.12 Cundinamarca was annexed into New Granada.
1812.11 When the winter of Russia set in, the French army suffered serious casualties. Russia then launched a counteroffensive and defeated the French army, which marked the failure of the French invasion.
1812.12.8 Russia toppled the Lithuanian Regime.
1813 The Russians invaded Northern Caucasus, where they met the resistance of the Chechens and Dagestans. The Caucasian War started.

USA and Britain made territorial claims to the Pacific Northwest successively. Disputes arose between the two countries.

The provinces of Rio de la Plata split into the Centralist provinces and the Federalist provinces. In 1815 the Federalist provinces formed the Federal League and entered into a civil war with the Centralist provinces. After the Centralist provinces were defeated on 1820.2.11, the Central Government collapsed. Since then there was no central government in Rio de la Plata and the provinces became independent entities.
1813.2 A civil war broke out among the Native American Creeks (split into the Upper Creeks and the Lower Creeks), which came to be known as the Creek War (part of the American Indian Wars). The Lower Creeks allied with the USA against the Upper Creeks. On 1814.3.27 USA defeated the Upper Creeks. On .8.9 USA forced the Creeks to sign a treaty and cede land to USA.
1813.3.14 Russia annihilated the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
1813.8.8
General Bolivar of New Granada started the Second Venezuelan Independence Revolution and captured Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, where he declared the independence of Venezuela and established the Second Republic of Venezuela. Bolivar became the General-in-Chief of Venezuela. On .9.8 of the next year the revolution was suppressed by the Spanish Colonial Government again.
1813.6.15 Britain, Russia and Prussia formed the Sixth Coalition against France. On .10.16 of the same year, the Coalition defeated the French army in the Battle of Leipzig (also called the Battle of the Nations). Thereafter the former feudal regimes in Europe were restored successively.
1813.10.3 The Osmanli Turks annihilated Serbia.
1813.10.12 Paraguay seceded from the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata and established the Republic of Paraguay.
1813.11.6 New Mexico declared independence from Spain and established the Mexican Regime. On 1815.11.5 the Spanish Colonial Government suppressed the revolution.
1813.11.21 The Dutch Independence Revolt broke out. Willem VI declared the independence of the Netherlands from France and restored the Dutch Regime and the rule of the Orange House. On .3.29 of the next year the Netherlands promulgated a constitution which provided for a constitutional system.
1813.12.11 The Spanish Revolutionaries overthrew the rule of Joseph and expelled the French from their country. After Fernando VII, the deposed Spanish King, returned to the throne and restored the Bourbon Dynasty on .3.22 of the next year, he abolished the Constitution of 1812 and suppressed the liberals and guerilla leaders.
1814 Britain started the Napalese War and invaded Nepal, which became a British protectorate on 1816.3.15.

Ashante attacked the Fantes and led to the Third Ashante War. In 1817 Ashante negotiated peace with Britain. Britain recognized Ashante's suzerainty over the coastal region of Gold Coast.
1814.1.14 Denmark signed the Treaty of Kiel with Britain and Sweden. Denmark ceded the Heligoland Island to Britain. Sweden ceded Western Pomerania to Denmark. Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden. The Norwegian dependencies of Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland officially became Danish dependencies.
1814.2.16 King Frederik VI of Denmark gave up his Norwegian throne. The Norwegians started the independence movement.

Sardinia recovered Piedmont, which became the political centre of Sardinia again. Thereafter Sardinia was called the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
1814.3.24 Pius VII, the former Roman Pope, restored the Roman Papal States.
1814.4.11 Napoleon I abdicated. On .5.2 of the same year, the Coalition installed Louis XVIII as King of France and restored the Bourbon Dynasty. The members of the Coalition signed the First Treaty of Paris with France whereby France retained the boundaries of 1792.

Former Empress Mary Louise of France became Duchess of Parma (called Maria Luigia) and restored Parma, which was an Austrian vassal state.
1814.4.27 Ferdinando III, the former Grand Duke of Tuscany, was restored to the throne. Tuscany became a vassal state of Austria.
1814.5.19 Norway promulgated a constitution which provided for a constitutional monarchy. Regent Christian Frederik was elected as King of Norway and an Independent Government was set up.
1814.5.30 France installed Honore IV as Prince of Monaco and restored Monaco.
1814.7 Sweden invaded Norway. On .11.4 of the same year the Norwegian Parliament was forced to accept King Karl XIII of Sweden as King of Norway. The Norwegian independence movement failed.
1814.8.13 The Netherlands officially ceded the Cape Colony to Britain.
1814.9 The members of the Coalition convened the Congress of Vienna (France was also invited to the Congress later) to discuss the peace settlement after the Napoleonic Wars. On .6.8 of the same year the participants of the Congress signed the Act of the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the borderlines of the European countries.
c.1814 Mohammad el Amin al-Kanemi, head of the Kuburi Family of Bornu, seized power. Thereafter the royal court of Bornu was controlled by the Kuburi Family. During his tenure, Mohammad el Amin al-Kanemi carried out reforms and revived the power of the country.
1815 The Congress of Vienna recognized Switzerland as a perpetual neutral state.
1815.3.1 Napoleon I returned to France (the Hundred Days). On ..23 of the same month Louis XVIII fled from Paris. On ..25 the European countries formed the Seventh Coalition against France. On .6.18 the Coalition defeated Napoleon I in the Battle of Waterloo. On .6.22 Napoleon I abdicated again. On .7.8 the Bourbon Dynasty regained control of France. The First French Empire came to an end. On .11.20 the members of the Coalition signed the Second Treaty of Paris, by which the borderline of France reverted to that of 1790 and France was to cede territories and pay reparations.
1815.3.16 Netherlands acquired Austrian Netherlands.

In the Second Partition of Luxemburg, the western part of Luxemburg was acquired by the King of the Netherlands, who assumed the title of Duke of Luxembourg concurrently and established the Luxembourg Regime; while the eastern part was acquired by Prussia.
1815.4.7 Austria occupied Lombardy and Venetia, which were then united as the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, with the Austrian Emperor being the King of Lombardy-Venetia.
1815.5.2 The European powers reached an agreement on the territories of Poland. It was agreed that a Republic of Cracow under the protection of Russia, Austria and Prussia was to be set up in Cracow. On .6.20 Russia restored the Kingdom of Poland, with the Russian Tsar being the King of Poland.
1815.5.22 Austria restored Naples (Bourbon Dynasty).
1815.6.9 Denmark obtained Saxe-Lauenburg.
1815.6.20 The German states signed the Act of Confederation and formed the German Confederation (whose members included Saxe-Wittenburg, Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Kothen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Holstein-Oldenburg, Nassau-Weilburg, Hamburg, Prussia, Lubeck, Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Hanover, Bremen, Bavaria, Austria, Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Liechtenstein and Luxembourg). Austria became the chairman of the German Confederation.
1815.8 Sweden and Norway ratified the Act of Union, by which they formed the real union - Swedish-Norwegian Union. Norway was given a high degree of autonomy, but Sweden was to be responsible for its military and foreign affairs.
1815.9.26 Ruusia proposed the formation of the Holy Alliance by Russia, Prussia and Austria to maintain the monarchical system of the European countries and to suppress revolutionary movements. A Congress System (also called the Concert of Europe) was thus formed. On .11.20 of the same year, Britain formed the Quadruple Alliance with the Holy Alliance and agreed to hold regular meetings to discuss European security.
1815.10.23 Denmark ceded Western Pomerania to Prussia.
1815.11.5 Britain established the United States of the Ionian Islands, which was nominally under the joint protection of the powers, but was in practice a British vassal state.
1815.11.20 The Netherlands ceded Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo to Britain.
1815.11.21 Milos started the Second Serbian Uprising and established Serbia (Obrenovic Dynasty).
1815.12.16 Portugal was renamed the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
1816
Shaka, Chief of the Zulus in Southern Africa, founded the Zulu Kingdom. During his reign the power of Zulu rose to its apex. In 1819 Shaka started the Mfacane War (also called the Defaqane War), in which he defeated Zwide, Chief of the Ndwandwes, and conquered Southern Africa. His conquest triggered a general war among the Bantu tribes in Southern Africa and their migration.
1816.3.24 Nassau-Weilburg reunified Nassau and was renamed the Duchy of Nassau, which adopted a constitutional system of government.
1816.6.1 Supported by Haiti, Bolivar returned to Venezuela and started the Third Venezuelan Independence Revolution. He declared the third independence of Venezuela and the establishment of the Third Republic of Venezuela.
1816.7 Spain reconquered New Granada.
1816.7.9 Rio de la Plata formally declared independence from Spain.
1816.10.16 The super-colony of British Leeward Islands was dissolved.
1816.12.8 King Ferdinando III of Sicily (who was also King Ferdinando IV of Naples) formally united the two countries as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Ferdinando III was then called Ferdinando I.
1817 Britain and the Maratha Confederacy entered into the Third Maratha War, in which the Maratha states were defeated. When Britain annexed the Peshwa Regime on 1818.6.3, the Maratha Confederacy collapsed.

Prince Abd Allahi of Sokoto made himself Amir in Kebbi in northwestern Nigeria and founded the Gwandu Amirate.

Afonja, a general of Oyo, rebelled and seized control of Ilorin in southwestern Nigeria, where he founded the Kingdom of Ilorin.

Merina was renamed the Kingdom of Madagascar.
1817.2.10 Sikkim became a British protectorate.
1817.2.12 The army of Rio de la Plata attacked Chile and defeated the Spanish colonial army. With the support of Rio de la Plata, O'Higgins, a Chilean revolutionary leader, staged the Second Chilean Independence Revolution and seized control of Chile. On .1.12 of the next year Chile declared independence from Spain again.
1817.3.7 The locally born whites (mainly priests) in Pernambuco of Brazil rebelled against the Portuguese Colonial Government and established the Republic of Pernambuco. On .5.20 of the same year the Republic was toppled by the Portuguese.
1817.7 King Doraisami of Udarata rose against the British colonists. Having suppressed the uprising, Britain annihilated Udarata and conquered the whole island of Ceylon.
1818 Constitutions were granted in Bavaria and Baden, which started to implement a constitutional form of government.

A constitution was granted in Liechtenstein, which started to implement a constitutional form of government.

Ahmadu I, religous leader of the Sise Tribe of the Fulanis in Massina, started the Massina Jihad against the Kingdom of Massina. He unified the various Fulani tribes and founded the Dina Amirate in West Sudan.
1818.9.20 The Quadruple Alliance convened the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle to discuss the issue of France fulfilling its treaty obligations. Since France had paid off the reparations, the powers agreed to withdraw their armies from France and admit France into the Alliance, which then became the Quintuple Alliance.
1818.10.20 Britain and USA concluded a convention which agreed upon part of their borders in North America and established the Oregon Country in Pacific Northwest as a condominium of the two countries.
1819 A constitution was granted in Wurttemberg, which started to implement a constitutional form of government.

The British colonists interfered with the internal conflict among the Xhosa tribes and supported the pro-British factions. This led to the Fifth Kaffir War.
1819.1.6 Husain Muadzam, Vassal King (Temmggong) of Johore under Riau-Lingga, began to make Johore a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Johore Regime.
1819.10 Prussia began to form the Zollverein (Customs Union) with the other German states. This laid the foundation for the future unification of Germany.
1819.12.17 The provinces of New Granada declared independence from Spain again and united with Venezuela to form the Republic of Greater Colombia.
1820 Britain invaded the Gulf Region of the Arabian Peninsula and signed the perpetual maritime truce with Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman and Ras al-Khaimah in the northern part of the Gulf Region. The true made these states (Umm al-Qaiwain and Fujairah were also included later) become British vassal states. Thereafter the states in this region were collectively called the Trucial States and the region was called Trucial Oman.

Quito (made up of the provinces of Guayaquil and Cuenca) declared independence from Spain and was incorporated into Greater Colombia in 1822.
1820.1 Riego, a Spanish military officer, staged a coup, which marked the beginning of the Second Spanish Revolution. In March King Fernando VII was forced to restore the Constitution of 1812.
1820.3.3 The northern and southern states of USA reached the Missouri Compromise, which provided that whenever a slave state was admitted to join USA in future, a free state must also be admitted and slavery could only exist in the south.
1820.7.2 Pepe, a Neapolitan military officer of the Carbonari, started a revolution and forced King Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies to grant a constitution and adopted constiutionalism on ..6. This marked the beginning of the Italian Risorgimento. In 1821.3 Austria suppressed the revolution and restored the absolute monarchy.
1820.8.29 A Constitutional Revolution against Britain broke out in Oporto of Portugal. The revolutionaries expelled the Regency controlled by the British. Portugal regained independence.
1820.10.8 [Southern] Haiti annexed [Northern] Haiti and reunified Haiti.
1820.10.25 The Quintuple Alliance convened the Congress of Troppau to discuss the revolutions in Italy and Spain. The Congress ratified the Troppau Protocal and decided to dispatch armies to intervene in the revolutions.
c.1820 Sobhuza I, Chief of the Swazis (also called the Ngwanes), founded the Swazi Kingdom in the eastern part of Southern Africa.
1821 Britain adopted the Gold Standard as its monetary system. Later other countries in the world also adopted the Gold Standard.

Mzilikaze, Chief of the Matabeles (one group of the Bantus migrating northwards), founded the Kingdom of Matabele in present-day Zimbabwe.

Spain ceded Florida to USA.
1821.1.8 The Quintuple Alliance convened the Congress of Laibach, which decided that Austria should dispatch an army to suppress the Italian Revolution.
1821.2.10 Minangkabau signed the Minangkabau-Dutch Treaty with the Netherlands whereby Minangkabau became a Dutch protectorate. Muhammad Sahab, leader of the Paderi Sect, started an anti-Dutch rebellion (the Paderi War, also called the Minangkabau War). In 1838 the Dutch colonists suppressed the rebellion.
1821.2.24 Iturbide, a military office of New Spain, revolted against Spain. He made the Iguala Plan with the guerillas and declared the independence of New Spain from Spain again.
1821.3.6 Hypsilanti, leader of the Philike Hetairia (a Greek revolutionary organisation), started an anti-Osmanli rebellion in Moldavia, which marked the beginning of the Greek War of Independence. On .1.24 of the next year Greece declared independence and established the First Greek Republic.
1821.3.10 The Carbonari staged a revolution in Piedmont. On ..12 of the same month King Vittorio-Emanuele I was forced to abdicate. After Carlo-Felice became the Regent, he granted a Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government. On .4.8 Sardinia allied with Austria and suppressed the revolution. On .4.25 Carlo-Felice succeeded as King of Sardinia.
1821.7.18 Portugal occupied the Province of Oriental del Rio de la Plata, which was then incorporated into Brazil and was renamed the Cisplatine Province.
1821.7.28 General de San Martin captured Lima, capital of Peru in South America. He declared the independence of Peru and established the Peruvian Regime.
1821.9.15 Gainza, Acting Captain-General of Guatemala, declared the independence of Guatemala. Thereafter the Spanish colonies in Central America (including San Salvador, Guatemala, Comayagua, Tegucigalpa, Costa Rica, Leon, Granada) declared independence successively and were annexed into Mexico.
1821.9.28 A constitutional monarchy was established in Mexico. Iturbide became the President of the Regency. On 1822.5.21 Iturbide changed his title to Emperor (called Agustin). de Santa Ana, leader of the Republicans, started a revolt agains Agustin.
1821.10.17 Britain united three of its colonies in West Africa - Sierra Leone, British Gold Coast and the Gambia as British West Africa. This super-colony was dissolved on 1850.1.13.
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain and was incorporated into Greater Colombia on 1822.2.9.
1821.11.30 de Caceres started a rebellion in Santo Domingo (i.e. present day Dominican Republic). He declared the independence of Santo Domingo from Spain and established the Santo Domingo Regime. In December of the same year the Regime was incorporated into Greater Colombia.
1821.12.15 The American Colonization Society purchased Cape Mesurado from a chieftain in the Liberian Coast for establishing a colony for liberated black slaves. Since then the USA established a number of colonies in present-day Liberia. The USA began to build up colonies in various parts of the world. The American Colonial Empire began to evolve.
1822 Prince Olimi I of Bunyoro revolted and founded the Kingdom of Toro in present-day western Uganda.

Moshoeshoe I, Chief of the Basutos, unified the various tribes and founded the Basuto Kingdom in the southeastern part of Southern Africa.
1822.2.9 Haiti conquered Santo Domingo and unified the Hispaniola Island.
1822.9.7 Pedro, a Portuguese Prince and ruler of Brazil, declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal in Ypiranga (the Cry of Ypiranga) and established the Brazilian Regime. Pedro became the Defender of Brazil.
1822.9.23 A constitution was granted in Portugal, which then adopted a constiutional form of government. When the Constitution was abolished in May of the next year, the Portuguese Revolution failed and the absolute monarchy was restored.
1822.10.12 The Quintuple Alliance convened the Congress of Verona, which decided that France should dispatch an army to suppress the Spanish Revolution.

Pedro, Defender of Brazil, made himself Emperor (called Pedro I) and established the First Brazilian Empire.
1823 The Barakzai Clan of Afghanistan seized power. Thereafter members of the Barakzai Clan inherited the position of Afghan Regents.

Britain started the Fourth Ashante War and invaded Ashante. In the next year the British army was defeated by Ashante.

San Salvador, Guatemala, Comayagua, Tegucigalpa, Costa Rica, Leon, Granada seceded from Mexico successively. On .7.10 of the same year Guatemala, San Salvador and Nicaragua (formed by merger of Leon and Granada) were united as the United Provinces of Central America.
1823.3.29 Emperor Agustin of Mexico abdicated. A republican government was established in Mexico.
1823.8.31 The French army defeated the Spanish Revolutionary Army and crushed the Spanish Revolution. King Fernando VII of Spain resumed absolute rule.
1823.12.2 President Monroe of USA presented his annual message to Congress (commonly called the Monroe Doctrine, which warned the European powers against intervening in the independence movements in Latin America.
1824 The Dutch colonists staged the First Bone War and invaded Bone. The war halted in the next year.
1824.3 Britain staged the First Burmese War and invaded Burma. On 1826.2.24 the two countries signed the Treaty of Yandabu, by which Burma ceded Assam, Arakan and Tenasserim to Britain.
1824.3.4 Costa Rica joined the United Provinces of Central America.
1824.3.17 Britain and the Netherlands signed the Treaty of London to delineate their respective spheres of interest in Southeast Asia: Malay Peninsula was included in the British sphere of interest while the East Indies (i.e. present day Indonesia) were included in the Dutch sphere of interest.
1824.4.22 San Salvador under the United Provinces of Central America was renamed the State of Salvador.
1824.7.2 The republicans of the northern provinces of Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco and Ceara) declared independence from Brazil and founded the Confederation of the Equator. On .11.29 of the same year the Confederation was dissolved by Brazil.
1824.8.15 USA expanded the Cape Mesurado Colony into Liberia Colony.
1824.9.16 Comayagua and Tegucigalpa were united as the State of Honduras. On .11.22 of the same year Honduras joined the United Provinces of Central America.
1825
Prince Diponegoro of Jogjakarta started an anti-Dutch rebellion (the Java War). In October of the same year, he founded the Javanese Sultanate. In 1830.3 the Dutch colonists captured Diponegoro and suppressed the rebellion.

Lavalleja started a revolt in the Cisplatine Province (the War of the Thirty-three Immortals). On .8.25 of the same year the Cisplatine Province declared independence from Brazil. After reverting to the name Province of Oriental del Rio de la Plata, the Province joined the United Province of Rio de la Plata.
1825.4.10 The United Provinces of Central America was renamed the Federal Republic of Central America.
1825.5.13 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves was renamed the Kingdom of Portugal.
1825.6.1 The Netherlands ceded Dutch India to Britain. Dutch India was annexed to British India.
1825.8.11 Upper Peru declared independence from Spain and established the Republic of Bolivia, which was named after Bolivar. All the major colonies in Latin America gained independence, thus ending the Latin American War of Independence.
1825.12.26 The Northern Society of Russia staged a military uprising (Decembrists' Uprising), which was soon crushed by the Government.
c.1825 An internal conflict broke out between Soshangane and Zwangendaba, the two chiefs of the Ngonis (a branch of the Zulus). After Soshangane defeated Zwangendaba, he made himself King and founded the Kingdom of Gaza in present-day Mozambique. Later his tribesmen were called the Shanganas. Zwangendaba fled northwards.
1826 Outbreak of the Second Russo-Iranian War between Russia and Persia.

Kebbi was renamed the Argungu Amirate.

The Fifth Ashante War broke out when Ashante attacked the Fantes, who formed a coalition with the Akan states (including Akwamu, Akim and Denkera) and defeated Ashante. In 1831 Ashante concluded peace with the British colonists and gave up its suzerainty over the Akan states and the Fantes.
1826.1 Paez, a Venezuelan military officer, started the Venezuelan Independence Movement, which aimed at securing the independence of Venezuela from Greater Colombia.
1826.8.14 Britain united Pinang, Singapore and Malacca as the Straits Settlements.
1827.2.27 John Clunies-Ross, a British explorer, made himself King (Ross I) on Cocos Islands (also called Keeling Islands) on eastern Indian Ocean and founded the Cocos Kingdom. On 1857.3.31 Cocos Islands became a British colony, but continued to be administered by the Clunies-Ross family.
1828 Ghazi Mohammed, an imam in Dagestan, founded the Dagestan Imamate in Dagestan in the eastern part of Northern Caucasus.

King Jatau of Zaria (Hausa Dynasty) changed his title to Amir of Abuja and founded the Abuja Amirate.

The Netherlands united Dutch Sint Maarten, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Bonaire, Curacao, Aruba, etc. as Dutch West Indies, which was renamed Curacao and Dependencies on 1848.1.27.
1828.2.22 Russia and Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmanchai, which ended the Second Russo-Iranian War. Persia ceded Eastern Armenia to Russia. Russia and Persia partitioned Azerbaijan, with Northern Azerbaijan under Russian rule and Southern Azerbaijan under Persian rule.
1828.4.26 In contention for the Balkan area, Russia and the Osmanli Turks entered into the Seventh Russo-Turkish War.
1828.7.11 Miguel succeeded as King of Portugal and exercised absolute power. A civil war broke out between the Absolutists (headed by Miguel) and the Constitutionalists (headed by the fomer Queen Maria II and the former King Pedro IV). The civil war was called the Miguelite Wars by historians.
1828.8.24 The western portion of Papua (also called New Guinea) became a Dutch colony which was called Dutch New Guinea and administered under Dutch East Indies.
1828.8.27 Rio de la Plata and Brazil signed the Treaty of Montevideo, by which they halted the war between each other and recognized the independence of the Province of Oriental del Rio de la Plata.
1828.12.1 The Province of Oriental del Rio de la Plata seceded from the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata and established the State of Montevideo. On 1830.7.18 the country's name was further changed to the Oriental Republic of Uruguay.
1829.5.24 de Santa Cruz became President of Bolivia. During his tenure he tried to establish his hegemony in the central part of South America.
1829.5.28 Holstein-Oldenburg was renamed the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg.
1829.9.14 Russia and the Osmanli Regime signed the Treaty of Adrianople, by which Russia acquired important interests in Balkan, Caucasus and Turkey, thus ending the Seventh Russo-Turkish War.

The Osmanli Regime recognized the autonomy of Serbia and Greece. The Greek War of Independence came to an end.
1830 Sayyid Ahmad founded the Kingdom of Asir ([South] Asir) in the Arabian Peninsula.

Outbreak of the Belgian Revolution. On .10.4 of the same year, the revolutionaries declared the independence of Belgium from the Netherlands and established the Belgian Regime.

France started the Algerian War and conquered Algeria on .7.5 of the same year.

The migrants from Madagascar founded the Moheli Sultanate on the Moheli Island of the Comoros.
1830.1.13 Venezuela declared independence from Greater Colombia and established the Venezuelan Regime.
1830.5.13 Quito declared independence from Greater Colombia and established the State of Southern Colombia (on .9.22 the country was renamed the Ecuador Regime). Only the region of present-day Colombia remained in Greater Colombia. On 1831.11.21 it was renamed the New Granada Regime.
1830.5.28 The USA enacted the Indian Removel Act. Thereafter, the USA, through persuasion or brutal force, made the "Five Civilized Tribes" move away from southeastern USA to present-day Oklahoma.
1830.7 The Centralist provinces of Rio de la Plata formed the Interior League and entered into a civil war with the Federalist provinces. On .1.4 of the next year the Federalist provinces united to form the Coastal League and established the Argentine Confederation. In December the Coastal League defeated the Interior League and compelled the Centralist provinces to join the Argentine Confederation. The United Provinces of Rio de la Plata was thus dissolved.
1830.7.28 Outbreak of the July Revolution of France. On .8.2 of the same year, the Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown. On .8.9 the Liberals installed Louis-Philippe as King of France and established France (Orleans Dynasty).
1830.11.29 Outbreak of the First Polish Insurrection. An Insurrectionist Government was established. On .9.26 of the next year, Russia crushed the Insurrection.
1831 The Osmanli Turks destroyed Iraq (Mamluk Dynasty) and conquered Iraq.

The Carbonari staged revolutions in Modena, Parma and Rome, which were suppressed by Austria in March of the same year. Thereafter the Carbonari gradually lost its influence. Mazzini, former member of the Carbonari, formed the Young Italy as a new revolutionary organisation.


Large groups of Whites migrated from USA to the east bank of River Mississipi and drove away the Natives living there. In 1832 Black Hawk, Chief of the Native American Sauks, led his people to return to the east bank. Conflict broke out between the Sauks and the USA army (the Black Hawk War, part of the American Indian Wars). In September the Sauks were defeated and were forced to give up large parts of their settlements.
1831.1 A constitution was granted in Hesse-Kassel, which then adopted a constiutional form of government.
1831.2.7 A constitution was granted in Belgium, which then adopted a constiutional form of government.
1831.4.7 The Brazilian populace rose against Emperor Pedro I, who was forced to abdicate. The First Brazilian Empire came to an end. Pedro II succeeded to the throne and established the Second Brazilian Empire.
1831.7.13 Wallachia promulgated an Organic Regulation which set up a modernised government. On 1832.1.13 Moldavia also promulgated an Organic Regulation which set up a modernised government.
1831.7.21 Britain united Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo as one colony named British Guiana.
1831.9.4 A constitution was granted in Saxe-Wittenburg, which then adopted a constiutional form of government.
1831.11 Outbreak of the First Workers' Insurrection in Lyons of France, which was soon suppressed by the Government. Thereafter the socialist movements arose in France. There emerged a number of secret societies such as Amis de Peuple, Families, etc.
1832 In contention for Syria, Egypt and the Osmanli Turks entered into the First Turko-Egyptian War. On .4.8 of the next year, the two countries signed the Convention of Kutahia, by which the Osmanli Turks ceded Syria to Egypt.

A constitution was granted in Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, which then adopted a constiutional form of government.

Abd al-Qadir rose against the French colonists. On .11.22 he estalished the Mascara Emirate in northwestern Algeria.
1832.6.4 Britain enacted the Parliamentary Reform Bill, which disfranchised certain "rotten boroughs" and enfranchised some industrial towns. The suffrage was also extended. Such is the First British Parliamentary Reform.
1832.7 The Osmanli Turks recognized the independence of Greece.
1833 A constitution was granted in Hanover, which then adopted a constiutional form of government.

Britain reunited the islands of Antigua, Montserrat, Sanit Kitts, Nevis, British Dominica and British Virgin Islands as the British Leeward Islands. Britain united Saint Vincent Island and Grenada Island as the British Windward Islands. Later the islands of Barbados, British Dominica, Saint Lucia and Tobago also joined the British Windward Islands.
1833.2.6 Othon became King of Greece and established Greece (Bavarian Dynasty), thus ending the First Greek Republic.
1833.5.16 de Santa Ana became President of Mexico. Thereafter de Santa Ana ascended to the Presidency of Mexico for several times. During his tenure he carried out dictatorial rule.
1833.8.28 Saint Helena Island became a British colony.
1833.9.29 Upon death of King Fernando VII, Isabel II succeeded to the throne. A power struggle emerged between two factions of the royal members: the Cristinos (headed by the Regent Cristina) and the Carlists (headed by Prince Carlos). On .10.1 of the same year, Carlos crowned himself King (called Carlos V) and the First Carlist War broke out between the Carlists and the Cristinos.
1834.4 Cristina, Regent of Spain, promulgated the Estatuto Real. A constitutional form of government was adopted, but with stringent restrictions on the suffrage, which aroused popular discontent. In July of the same year the Third Spanish Revolution broke out.
1834.4.9 Outbreak of the Second Workers' Insurrection in Lyons of France, which was suppressed by the Government in the same month.
1834.4.22 Britain and France formed the Quadruple Alliance with the Constitutionalists of Spain and Portugal in opposition to the Absolutists of Spain and Portugal.
1834.5.26 The Portuguese Constitutionalists defeated the Absolutists, thus ending the Miguelite War. In September of the same year, Portugal readopted the Constitutional of 1826 and reestablished the constitutional monarchical system.
1834.12.25 The Xhosas rose against the British colonists (the Sixth Kaffir War). In the next year the British colonists attacked the Xhosas and forced them to cede large areas of territories.
1835 Abdullah I founded the Jebel Shammar Amirate in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

A constitution was granted in Serbia, which then adopted a constiutional form of government.

Chief Zwangendaba of the Ngonis founded the Ngoni Kingdom in present-day Zambia.

Oppressed by the British Colonial Government, the Boers in Cape Colony migrated northwards to the north and west banks of the Orange River (the Great Trek of the Boers. In 1837 the Boers started to build up a number of new colonies in Southern Africa, including the Free Province of New Holland in Southeast Africa, Transorangia (later developed into the Orange River Sovereignty), Winburg, Potchefstroom (later renamed Dutch Africa), Zoutpansberg, Ohrigstad (later developed into Lijdenburg), Utrecht, Klipdrift, New Republic of South Africa (also called Vijheid), Upingtonia (later renamed Lijdenrust) and the Commonwealth of the Little Republic, etc.

Pinto started the Farrapos Rebellion in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. On .11.6 of the next year Rio Grande do Sul seceded from Brazil and established the Rio Grande Republic.

Bolivia invaded Peru. On .3.17 of the next year Bolivia partitioned Peru into two parts and established the Southern Peruvian State in the southern part. On .8.11 the Northern Peruvain State was established in the northern part.
1835.4 de Rosas became Governor of Buenos Aires. During his tenure he controlled the Argentine provinces and carried out dictatorial rule.
1835.5.26 The Osmanli Turks destroyed Tripoli. In 1842 they also destroyed Fezzan, thus reconquering Libya.
1835.9 Three cities of Costa Rica - Heredia, Alajuela and Cartago formed a league in opposition to the Government in San Jose. The War of the League thus broke out. In October of the same year San Jose defeated the army of the league and put an end to the war. San Jose was then established as the capital of Costa Rica.
1835.12.28 Refusing to migrate, the Seminoles in Florida rose against USA. The Seminole War broke out. In 1842 the Seminoles were defeated.
1836 Dost Mohammad, Regent of Afghanistan, made himself Amir and established Aghanistan (Barakzai Dynasty).

Lovett, leader of the British workers' movement, formed the London Workingmen's Association and demanded for democratic reforms. This marked the beginning of the Chartist Movement. On 1838.5.8 the London Workingmen's Association presented the People's Charter.

Prince Djibril Dodo of Sossebaki started to rule Badjia in southern Niger and founded the Kingdom of Badjia.
1836.3.2 USA induced the American migrants in Texas of Mexico to secede from Mexico and established the Republic of Texas.
1836.5.19 Conflict arose between the native Comanches, Kiowas in the Southern Plains of USA and Texas. Since then a number of armed conflicts broke out between the Algic-speaking, Uto-Aztecan-speaking, Kiowa-Tanoan-speaking peoples and the Republic of Texas (as well as the later State of Texas under USA), which were collectively called the Texas-Indian Wars, being part of the American Indian Wars. In 1875.6 the tribal peoples surrendered and were subsequently forced to migrate into the Indian Reservations.
1836.9.9 The leftist Portuguese Constitutionalists staged the September Revolution of Portugal and overthrew the Government of the rightist Constitutionalists. Thereafter the Portuguese Constitutionalists split into the radical Septembrists and the conservative Chartists.
1836.10.28 Bolivia formed the Peru-Bolivian Confederation with Northern Peru and Southern Peru, with President de Santa Cruz of Bolivia being the Protector of the Confederation. The establishment of the Confederation was opposed by Chile and Argentina.
1837 Kenesary, former Prince of Kazakh, rose against Russian rule and restored the Kazakh Khanate in 1841. After Kenesary was killed by the Kirgizs in 1847, the rebellion was crushed by Russia.

Sayyid Muhammad founded the Sanusi Order, an Islamic religious order, in Hijaz. In 1843 he established zawiyas (monasteries) in Cyrenaica of Libya as his bases and formed the Sanusi Order Regime.
1837.6.20
Victoria became Queen of Britain. During her reign the power of Britain rose to its apex. As the British colonies spread all over the world, Britain claimed to be the "Empire without Sunset".
1838 Britain dispatched an army to help Shoja al-Molk, the former Afghan Amir, to attack the capital Kabul in an attempt to restore him to the throne. The First Anglo-Afghan War broke out. On 1839.5.8 Shoja al-Molk was restored to the throne and restored Afghanistan (Durrani Dynasty). On .8.2 the British army toppled the Barakzai Dynasty.

Sebetwane, Chief of the Kololos, overthrew Barotse and founded the Kololo Kingdom. The Mfacane War thus came to an end.

Carrera, leader of the Guatemalan Conservative Party, rebelled against the Federal Government of Central America.
1838.4.30 Nicaragua declared independence from Central America and established the Nicaraguan Regime.
1838.8.25 The Republic of Peru was restored. In 1839 it reunified Peru.
1838.10.12 The Free Province of New Holland in Southeast Africa, a Boer colony, established the Republic of Natalia.
1838.10.26 Honduras declared independence and established the Honduran Regime.
1838.11.15 Costa Rica declared independence and established the Costa Rican Regime.
1838.11.29 Britain began to build up colonies in Polynesia. Later its colonies included New Zealand, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Tokelau Islands, Tonga, Niue, Cook Islands, Pitcairn, etc.
c.1838 Jonker, Chief of the Oorlands founded the Oorland Kingdom in present-day Namibia.
1839 Argentina intervened in the power struggle between the National Party and the Colorado Party. In 1843 Argentina started to beseige Montevideo, which was under the control of the Colorado Party. Such is the Great War of Uruguay. In 1851 the Colorado Party allied with Brazil against Argentina. In 1852 the coalition army expelled the Argentine army.
1839.2 The British Chartists convened the National Convention of Chartists. On .5.13 they presented the first petition to the Parliament, but was rejected by the Parliament. Later the movement developed into riots and was suppressed by the Government.
1839.2.15 Viet Nam was renamed the Dai Nam Empire.
1839.2.20 President de Santa Cruz was defeated by Chile and was forced to step down. The Peru-Bolivian Confederation was dissolved.
1839.4 Outbreak of the Second Turko-Egyptian War between the Osmanli Turks and Egypt. On .11.27 of the next year the two countries signed the Convention of Alexandria, by which Egypt gave up Syria and recognized the Osmanli Regime as its suzerain, while the Osmanli Regime recognized the hereditary rule of the Muhammad Ali Family over Egypt.
1839.4.5 USA united several of its colonies in Liberia as the Commonwealth of Liberia, which was granted self rule.
1839.4.17 Guatemala declared independence and established the Guatemalan Regime. Only the state of el Salvador remained in Central America, which was then renamed the el Salvadoran Regime.
1839.4.19 The Netherlands divided Limburg into two parts: one part was annexed into Belgium while the other part became the Duchy of Limburg, with the Kings of Netherlands being the Dukes of Limburg concurrently.
1839.5.12 Blanqui, leader of a French socialist organisation, plotted an uprising. He was arrested after the plot was uncovered.
1839.7.1 Abdul-Mecid I succeeded as Osmanli Sultan. On .11.3 of the same year, he decreed the Hatt-i Sherif of Gulhane and started the Tanzimat (= Reform) Movement to restore the power of his country.
1839.8.31 Carlos V, head of the Spanish Carlists, was defeated and fled to France. The First Carlist War was thus ended.
1839.9 Britain established the Aden Colony in South Yemen. Subsequently the native states in South Yemen became British protectorates successively.
1840.1 The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico unilaterally declared independence from Mexico and established the Yucatan Regime.
1840.1.30 New Zealand became a British colony.
1840.5M The disputes over commerce and opium trade between the Qing Empire and Britain led to the First Opium War (also called the Anglo-Chinese War). In 1842 the Qing Empire was defeated. In the seventh lunar month the two countries signed the Treaty of Nanjing, by which the Qing Empire was forced to open ports to foreign trade and cede Hong Kong to Britain. China started to become a semi-colony.
1840.7 The British Chartists formed the National Charter Association and restarted the Chartist Movement. On 1842.4.12 they presented the second petition to the Parliament and were rejected again.
1840.11.18 Panama seceded from New Granada and established the Panama Regime. On .3.20 of the next year the regime was renamed the State of the Isthmus. It was reincorporated into New Granada on .12.31.
1841 Akbar Khan, a former Afghan Prince, rose against British rule. In 1842.12 he expelled the British army and overthrew the Durrani Dynasty. Dost Muhammad, the former Amir, restored the Barakzai Dynasty. The Firs Anglo-Afghan War was thus ended.
1841.9.24 Brunei installed James Brooke, a British colonist, as Provisional Raja of Sarawak and founded the Kingdom of Sarawak in northern Kalimantan.
1842.1.16 The Osmanli Regime annhilated the Lebanese Regime and divided Lebanon into two to be ruled by the Islamic Druze Sect and the Christian Maronite Sect.
1842.7.17 el Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala formed the Confederation of Central America in an attempt to reunify Central America. On 1844.12.1 the Confederation was dissolved. Thereafter the Central American states formed confederations again in 1852, 1898 and 1921. But all were dissolved after existing for a brief period.
1842.9.9 Tahiti became a French protectorate. Since then France began to build up colonies in Oceania. Later its colonies included New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna Islands, French Polynesia, etc.
1843 Siam installed Sayyid Husain as King of Perlis and founded the Kingdom of Perlis in the northern part of Malay Peninsula.

The Greek constitutional soldiers staged a military uprising. King Othon was forced to promulgate the Fundamental Law and adopted a constitutional form of government.

After the French army captured Mascara, Abd al-Qadir, leader of the Algerian rebels, fled to the Alawi Regime and continued his guerilla warfare. In 1847 France suppressed the rebellion of Abd al-Qadir.

The Maoris in New Zealand rose against the British colonists (the Maori War). In 1847 Britain suppressed the uprising.
1843.2.12 Britain conquered Sind.
1843.7.30 Narvaez, a Spanish military officer, staged a coup and seized power. He abrogated the democratic reforms and carried out dictatorial rule. The Third Spanish Revolution failed.
1843.9.28 Natalia was conquered by Britain and became the Natal Colony.
1844 Sayyid Ali Mohammed, a Persian religious leader, founded Babism.
1844.2.27 Mella and Sanchez, leaders of the Trinitaria of Santo Domingo, rose against Haitian rule. They declared the independence of Santo Domingo from Haiti and established the Dominican Republic.
1844.6.4 Outbreak of the Silesian Weavers' Insurrection in Prussia, which was soon suppressed by the Government.
1844.8.6 France started the First Franco-Moroccan War and invaded the Alawi Regime. In September of the same year Alawi signed the Treaty of Tangier with France and ended the war.
1845 Britain started the First Sikh War and invaded Punjab. In 1846 Britain signed the Treaty of Lahore with Punjab whereby Punjab became a British protectorate and abandoned the Kashmir region.

Seven Swiss Catholic cantons formed the Sonderbund and attempted to secede from Switzerland. In 1847 the Sonderbund and the Protestant cantons entered into the War of the Sonderbund, in which the Sonderbund was defeated and was forced to dissolve.
1845.2.28 The Rio Grande Republic concluded peace with Brazil and was reincorporated into Brazil.
1846 An anti-Austrian rebellion broke out in Cracow. On .2.22 of the same year Cracow was renamed the Polish Republic. On .3.3 Austria suppressed the rebellion and annexed Cracow.

Two German socialists, Marx and Engels, set up the Communist Correspondence Committee and started the international socialist movement. In 1847 Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just, which was renamed the Communist League in June. In 1848.2 Marx and Engels published the Communist Manifesto, which laid the theoretical foundation of Communism (also called Scientific Socialism or Marxism).

To seize the Xhosas' lands, the British colonists started the Seventh Kaffir War. In the next year the Xhosas were defeated.
1846.2.19 USA annexed Texas, of which Mexico denied recognition. In March of the same year, the American-Mexican War broke out between USA and Mexico. On .6.14 USA induced the American migrants in Upper California of Mexico to secede from Mexico and established the California Republic, which was annexed by USA on .7.9.
1846.3.15 Britain passed the Kashmir region to Gulab Singh, a senior official of Punjab and a local ruler of Jammu, who founded the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
1846.6.15 Britain and USA concluded the Oregon Treaty whereby they partitioned the Oregon territory and determined the borderline between the two countries in Pacific Northwest.
1846.6.27 The Netherlands started the First Bali War (also called the Beleleng War) and invaded the two states of Beleleng and Karang Asem on the Bali Island. On .7.9 the two states were forced to recognize the suzerainty of the Netherlands.
1846.9.17 Jung Bahadur Rana, a Nepalese military officer, seized power in a coup and made himself Chief Minister. Thereafter the Rana Family monopolized the position of Chief Ministers of Nepal and held real power.
1847.3.1 Jose Tadeo Monagas became President of Venezuela. Thereafter the Monagas Family held power for a long period and was called the "Monagas Dynasty".
1847.7 The Native Americans and Mestizos (i.e. people of combined European and Native American descent) in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico started a rebellion (the Yucatan War, also called the Caste War). In 1905 the Mexican Government suppressed the rebellion.
1847.7.26 The American Colonization Society unilaterally declared the independence of Liberia from USA and established the First Republic of Liberia.
1847.12.17 Carlo III succeeded as Duke of Parma, which was then transferred from a dominion of the Austrian Habsburg House to the Spanish Bourbon House.
1848 The Sikhs in Punjab of India rose against the British colonists (the Second Sikh War). On .2.22 of the next year Britain annihilated Punjab and thus conquered the whole of India.

Sayyid Ali Mohammed, head of Babism, started the Babist Rebellion in Persia, which was suppressed in 1851.

The British Chartists launched the signature campaign for the third petition. Thereafter the Chartist Movement petered out.

The first Women's Rights Convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York of USA, which marked the rise of the Women's Rights Movement and Feminism.
1848.1.12 With the outbreak of a rebellion in Sicily, the 1848 European Revolution started. In the same year King Ferdinando II of the Two Sicilies was forced to adopt a constitutional form of government. On .4.13 the Sicilian rebels broke away from the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and established the Sicilian Regime. On .5.15 Ferdinando II suppressed the revolution in Naples. On 1849.5.5 the rebellion in Sicily was finally crushed.
1848.1.24 A gold mine was discovered in Sacremento, capital of California of USA. The discovery led to the Gold Rush among the Americans. Thereafter a large number of USA populace migrated westward.
1848.2.2 USA and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, by which Mexico ceded large areas of its territories in present-day southwestern USA to USA, thus ending the American-Mexican War.
1848.2.3 Outbreak of the February Revolution of France. When King Louis-Philippe was forced to abdicate on ..24 of the same month, the Orleans Dynasty collapsed and the Second French Republic was established. On .6.23 the workers in Paris staged the Insurrection of June. Cavaignac, a military officer, suppressed the insurrection and carried out dictatorial rule. On .12.20 Louis Napoleon became the President and the Government was controlled by the Monarchists (also called the Order Party).
1848.2.17 A constitution was granted in Tuscany, which then adopted a constiutional form of government. In October of the same year, a revolution broke out. Montanelli seized power. After the revolutionaries were suppressed on 1849.4.12, the absolute monarchy was restored.
1848.3 A revolution broke out in Denmark. On .6.5 of the next year, a constitution was granted and a constitutional form of government was adopted.
1848.3.1 A constitution was granted in the Roman Papal States, which then adopted a constiutional form of government. On .11.16 of the same year a rebellion broke out in Rome. On 1849.2.9 the revolutionaries established the Roman Republic. On .7.4 France dispatched an army to Rome to topple the Revolutionary Government and restore the absolute monarchy. Since then Rome was occupied by France.
1848.3.4 A constitution was granted in Sardinia, which then adopted a constiutional form of government. On ..23 of the same month a war broke out between Sardinia and Austria (the First Italian War of Independence). Sardinia was defeated on .3.23 of the next year.
1848.3.13 Outbreak of the March Revolution of Austria. Chancellor Metternich was forced to step down. On ..20 of the same month Emperor Ferdinand I was forced to adopt a constiutional form of government. On .10.31 Ferdiand I suppressed the Revolution.
1848.3.15 An anti-Austrian revolution broke out in Hungary. On ..22 of the same month a Revolutionary Government was set up. In September Austria dispatched an army to suppress the revolution. Under the leadership of Kossuth, the Hungarians rose against the Austrians. After the Hungarians expelled the Austrian army, Russia intervened in the Hungarian Revolution, which was finally suppressed on .8.13.
1848.3.18 Outbreak of the March Revolution of Prussia. On ..19 of the same month King Friedrich Wilhelm IV was forced to adopt a constiutional form of government. On .12.5 Friedrich Wilhelm IV dissolved the Constituent Assembly and the Revolution failed.

An anti-Austrian revolution broke out in Milan of Lombardy (the "Five Days of Milan"). On ..22 of the same month the Lombardy Regime was established. On .6.8 Sardinia annexed Lombardy, which was reoccupied by Austria on .8.6.
1848.3.22 A revolution broke out in Venetia, where the revolutionaries set up the Venetian Regime. On .8.7 Sardinia annexed Venetia. On .8.11 Manin started another revolution in Venetia and restored the Venetian Regime. On 1849.8.24 Austria crushed the revolution and reincorporated Venetia into the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.
1848.5.18 A National Assembly was convened in Frankfurt of Germany (commonly called the Frankfurt Parliament) to discuss the issue of German unification. The members of the Assembly split into two factions: the Greater Germans (who advocated the unification of Germany by Austria) and the Small Germans (who advocated the unification of Germany by Prussia). On .7.12 the Provisional Central Authorities were set up.
1848.6.8 Alleging that the Bali states violated the agreement, the Dutch colonists started the Second Bali War (also called the First Jagaraga War) and attacked the states. On ..20 of the same month the Dutch colonists were defeated.
1848.11.21 When a new constitution took effect in Switzerland, a federal system under which the cantons were annexed into a federation was adopted. (But the country's name remained "Swiss Confederation".)
1849 Beginning of a series of armed conflicts between the native Apache People and the USA colonists in southwestern USA, which were collectively called the Apache Wars, being part of the American Indian Wars. The wars came to an end in 1886 when the Apache People surrendered.
1849.3.28 The National Assembly in Frankfurt ratified the Constitution of the German Empire, which was not supported by the monarchs of the German states. In 1849.5 a popular campaign for the protection of the Constitution arose in Saxe-Wittenburg, Rhine and Baden. On .6.18 the National Assembly was dissolved. On .12.20 the Provisional Central Authorities collapsed.
1849.4.15 The Dutch colonists started the Third Bali War (also called the Second Jagaraga War) and defeated the Bali states on the next day. The Dutch colonists conquered Beleleng and Karang Asem and partitioned their territories.
1849.5.14 A revolution broke out in Baden, where a Revolutionary Government was set up. On .6.25 of the same year the revolution was crushed.
1849.8.26 President Soulouque of Haiti crowned himself Emperor (called Faustin).
c.1849 France resettled the freed black slaves in the coastal area of present-day Gabon and founded the city of Libreville.
Mid-19th Century Emergence of Mafia, a secret criminal organisation in Sicily. Thereafter Mafia became the main secret criminal organisation in the Western countries.

Britain adopted the free trade policy. Thereafter other Western European countries also followed suit.

France conquered the Tuaregs in Algeria. In early 20th Century, France also conquered the Tuaregs in present-day Mali and Niger successively. The Tuareg confederacies in these regions were gradually dismantled.
1850.6.10 Urvina, leader of the Ecuador Liberal Party, seized power in a coup. During his tenure he carried out liberal reforms.
1850.12 The Xhosas rose against the British rule (the Eighth Kaffir War). In 1853.2 Britain suppressed their revolt.
1850.12M.10D
Hong Xiuquan, head of the Chinese God Worshippers Sect, started a rebellion against the Qing Empire and established the Taiping Kingdom.

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