A Chronology of World Political History
(1701 - 1800 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
18th Century Beginning of the Enlightenment in Western Europe, which was marked by emergence of liberal-democratic thoughts.

The Tuaregs formed several confederacies in the Saharan parts of present-day Algeria, Niger and Mali.

Mbegha founded the Kingdom of Shambalai in present-day Tanzania.
1st Half of 18th Century Russia expanded its influence to the Russo-Mongolian frontier and conquered the Khakas and Buryat peoples there.
1701 The first mechanical seeder was invented in England. Thereafter England continued to improve its agricultural technology, which resulted in massive increase in agricultural output. This phenomenon was called the Agricultural Revolution by historians. Later the Agricultural Revolution also took place in other Western European countries.

Tutu I, King of Kumasi, unified the Ashanti tribes and renamed the country as the Ashanti Kingdom.
1701.1.18 Friedrich III, Elector of Brandenburg, changed his title to King of Prussia (called Friedrich I) and annexed Brandenburg into Prussia, when then became a powerful state in north Germany (commonly called Brandenburg-Prussia).
1701.3.8 Mecklenburg split into Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1701.6.12 England enacted the Act of Settlement, which stipulated that the King shall be Protestant, the ministers shall be responsible for the King's acts and the judges shall hold office for life. This legislation became one of the constiutional laws of England.
1701.8.4 The Iroquoian Confederacy signed the Great Peace of Montreal with the French colonists and other Native American tribes, thus ending the Iroquois-French War.
1701.9.7 England, the Netherlands and Austria formed the Second Grand Alliance. The War of the Spanish Succession broke out in the same year.
1702 The Mangyt Tribe seized control of the Bukhara royal court.

In contention for the colonies in North America, England and France entered into the Queen Anne's War, which was part of the War of the Spanish Succession.

ash-Sharif, officer of the Tunisian Janissary, overthrew the Murad Dynasty.
1702.7.16 England annexed French Saint-Christophe and thus occupied the entire Saint Kitts Island.
1702.12.24 Prince-Bishop Danilo I of Montenegro massacred the Muslims in Montenegro (the "Montenegrin Vespers").
1703 Murshid Quli Jafar, Vassal King (Nawab) of Bengal under Moghul Empire, began to make Bengal a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Bengali Regime.

Ferenc Rakoczy, a Transylvanian noble, staged a revolt against Austria (the Second Cruciati Revolt. On 1704.7.8 he overthrew the Austrian rule in Transylvania. He crowned himself Prince (called Ferenc II) and established Transylvania (Cruciati Government). On 1705.9.18 Ferenc II occupied most territories of Hungary and established Hungary (Cruciati Government).
1704 Sebestyanos Negasi Krestos, a member of the Ethiopian royal family, started to rule Shoa in central Ethiopia and founded the Kingdom of Shoa.
1705 Sangye Gyatso, Regent of Tibet, plotted to overthrow Lhabzang Khan of Qosot. Lhabzang Khan killed Sangye Gyatso and solely controlled Tibet.

With the support of the Dutch colonists, Sunan Puger, a royal member of [Later] Mataram, overthrew Sultan Amangkurat III and made himself Sultan (called Pakubuwono I). Amangkurat III fled to Pasuruan and allied with the latter against the Dutch colonists (the First Javanese War of Succession).
1706 The Caribbean pirates occupied Nassau of Bahamas and established a Bahamas Pirate Regime (commonly called the Pirates' Republic).
1706.10 Surapati, the Pasuruan ruler, was defeated by the Dutch colonists. The Surapati War ended after his death. But Amangkurat III and his successors continued the resistance against the Dutch colonists.
1707 Prince Kingkitsarad of Lanchang rebelled and founded the Kingdom of Luang Prabang Lanchang in northern Laos. King Say Ong Hue of Lanchang renamed his regime as the Kingdom of Vientiane Lanchang.
1707.5.1 England and Scotland were united as the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
1707.6.13 The Hungarian Diet announced the deposition of King Jozsef I (who was also Archduke of Austria) and ovethrew the Austrian rule. The Cruciati Government then took control of the whole country. In 1711 the Hungarian rebels made a compromise with Austria whereby Austria restored its rule over Hungary and Transylvania and put Transylvania under Hungary. Thereafter the Kings of Hungary also assumed the title of Princes of Transylvania.
1707.7.7 Austria seized Naples from Spain.
1708 The Dutch colonists captured Sultan Amangkurat III of [Later] Mataram, thus ending the First Javanese War of Succession.
1708.10.7 Upon death of Gobind Singh, the last Sikh Guru, the position of Guru was abolished. Thereafter Sikhism split into 12 groups. In the same year Banda, leader of Sikhism, founded the Sikh Regime in Punjab.
1709 Mir Veys, Chief of the Ghilzai Afghans, rose against Persia and founded the Ghilzai Afghan Regime in Qandahar in present day southern Afghanistan.
1709.7.8 After Russia defeated Sweden in the Battle of Poltava, King Karl XII of Sweden fled to the Osmanli Regime. In 1714 Karl XII returned to Sweden and restarted the war.
1710 The Osmanli Turks attacked Russia and started the Second Russo-Turkish War. On 1711.7.21 the two countries signed the Treaty of Pruth, by which Russia returned Azov to the Osmanli Turks.
c.1710 Asae Pokou, Chief of the Baules, founded the Kingdom of Baule in present day central Ivory Coast. Shehu Umar Watara, Chief of the Dyulas, occupied the city of Kong in present-day northeastern Ivory Coast and founded the Kingdom of Kong.

General Kazembe I of Lunda started to rule present day northern Zambia and founded the Kazembe Kingdom.
1712 Zurich and Bern entered into the Second Villmergen War with the Swiss Catholic cantons. The latter were defeated.
1713.4.11 The belligerents of the War of the Spanish Succession signed the Treaty of Utrecht, which provided that France and Spain should never unite. Spain ceded Sicily to Savoy. Spain ceded Milan, Naples and Sardinia to Austria. Spain ceded Gibralta to Britain.
1713.11.16 Balaji Vishwanath Bhat became Chief Minister (Peshwa) of Satara. Since then the Satara royal court was controlled by his family, who also ruled the region of Poona and established the Peshwa Regime.
1714 Nokasat, ruler of Champassak under Vientiane Lanchang, declared independence and founded the Kingdom of Champassak in southern Laos.

The Seventh Venetian-Turkish War broke out.

Prince Famaghan Wattara of Kong started to rule Gwiriko in present day western Burkina Faso and founded the Kingdom of Gwiriko.
1714.3 France and Austria signed the Treaty of Rastatt, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Austria obtained Spanish Netherlands from Spain. Spanish Netherlands were then renamed Austrian Netherlands.
1714.8.1 The Stuart Dynasty of Britain ended with the death of Queen Anne. Georg I, Elector of Hanover, became King of Britain (called George I) concurrently and established Britain (Hanover Dynasty).
c.1714 Lazimilaho founded the Betsimisaraka Kingdom in eastern Madagascar.
1715.9 The Jacobite (i.e. the royalists who supported James II, the former King of England) rebelled in Scotland (the First Jacobite Rebellion). In December of the same year they installed James VIII, a royal member of the former Stuart House, as King of Scotland and restored the Kingdom of Scotland. In .2.5 of the next year, Britain suppressed the rebellion and James VIII returned to France.
1716 Austria attacked the Osmanli Turks, the Second Austro-Turkish War broke out.
1717 In opposition to King Felipe V of Spain, who aimed at seizing the French throne, France, Britain and the Netherlands formed the Triple Alliance. After Austria joined the Alliance in 1718, the Alliance became the Quadruple Alliance and entered into the War of the Quadruple Alliance with Spain.
1717.5.27 Spain set up the New Granada Viceroyalty as a separate colony, whose territory later covered present-day Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. This viceroyalty was abolished on 1724.5.11.
1717.11M Zungaria annihilated Qosot and conquered Tibet.
1718 The Kazakh Khanate split into the Elder Zhuz (ruling the eastern and southern parts), the Middle Zhuz (ruling the central and northern parts) and the Younger Zhuz (ruling the western part).

Austria promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction, which decreed that the Habsburg territories shall be indivisible. In case Archduke Karl III died without a male heir, the throne shall be succeeded by his daughter Maria Theresa.
1718.7.21 The Osmanli Turks signed the Treaty of Passarowitz with Venetia and Austria, by which Venice ceded part of its dependencies in Greece to the Osmanli Turks, while the Osmanli Turks ceded part of its territories in the Balkan Peninsula to Austria, thus ending the Seventh Venetian-Turkish War and the Second Austro-Turkish War. Venice lost its hegemonic status in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
1718.7.26 Britain destroyed the Bahamas Pirate Regime. Bahamas then became a British colony.
1719 Amangkurat IV succeeded as Sultan of [Later] Mataram. The royal members of [Later] Mataram rose against Amangkurat IV, who was supported by the Dutch East India Company. The Second Javanese War of Succession broke out. In 1723, with the help of the Dutch East India Company, Amangkurat IV suppressed the rebellion of the royal members.
1719.1.23 Germany installed Anton Florian as Prince of Liechtenstein, who ruled Vaduz and Schellenburg in southern Germany and founded the Principality of Liechtenstein.
Early 1720s Dargah Quli Khan founded the Baku Khanate in eastern Azerbaijan.
1720 The Qing Empire conquered Tibet and appointed five Ministers to rule Tibet.

Baji Rao I succeeded as the Peshwa Vassal King. During his reign he conquered various parts of India and established the hegemony of the Peshwa Regime in central India. Later the regime split into a number of regimes established by Maratha warlords. The Maratha Confederacy was thus formed.

Sweden signed the Treaty of Stockholm with Prussia and Denmark whereby it lost parts of its territories. In the same year a constitution was promulgated in Sweden, which then became a constitutional monarchy.
1720.2.17 Spain signed the Treaty of Hague with the Quadruple Alliance, which ended the War of the Quadruple Alliance. Savoy ceded Sicily to Austria while Austria ceded Sardinia to Savoy in return. Savoy was then renamed the Kingdom of Sardinia.
c.1720 Saud I, leader of the al-Saud Clan, founded the Amirate of Najd (commonly called the First Saudi Kingdom) in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. After Saud I was converted to Wahhabiyah Sect founded by Wahhab later, Najd became the base of the Wahhabiyahs.
1721 Sultan Abdul-Jalil Rahmat of Johore assumed the title of Sultan of Siak and founded the Siak Sultanate in eastern Sumatra.

de Antequera y Castro of Paraguay started an uprising against the Spanish Colonial Government and the Jesuite Regime among the locally born Whites in Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay. The uprising was suppressed in 1731.
1721.4.4 Walpole became the First Lord of the Treasury (the title changed to Prime Minister on 1730.5.15) of Britain. During his tenure he established the system of accountability of the cabinet (the Parliamentary Cabinet System). Thereafter the Whigs and Tories took turns to form cabinets and the British King gradually became a figurehead.
1721.8.30 Sweden and Russia signed the Treaty of Nystad, by which Sweden ceded Livonia, Estonia and Karelia to Russia, which then acquired an outlet to the Baltic Sea. The Second Northern War came to an end. Sweden's hegemony in northeastern Europe was replaced by Russia.
1722 The Bugis seized control of the Johore royal court and installed Sulayman Badr-ul-Alam Shah I as Sultan. Moving the capital to Riau-Lingga Islands, the regime was renamed the Riau-Lingga Sultanate, which governed Riau-Lingga Islands, Johore, Pahang and Singapore. By controlling the Sultanate, the Bugis established their hegemony in the Malay Peninsula.

Mahmud, the Ghilzai Afghan King, invaded Persia. On .10.23 of the same year he made himself King of Persia and established Persia (Ghilzai Afghan Dynasty). On .11.10 Tahmasp II fled to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, where he made himself King of Persia and called on the whole nation to resist the Ghilzai Afghan Dynasty.
1723 Prince Lobzang Tenzin of Qinghai rebelled against the Qing Empire. In the third lunar month of the next year, the Qing Empire conquered Qinghai.
1724 Asaf Jah I, Vassal King (Nizam) of Hyderabad under the Moghul Empire, started to make Hyderabad in eastern Deccan a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Hyderabad Regime.
1725 Prince Zain-ul-Abidin I of Riau-Lingga started to rule Trengganu in northeastern Malaya and founded the Trengganu Sultanate.

The British Colonial Government of Jamaica attacked the maroon colonies established by the marooners (i.e. escaped Black slaves) and started the First Maroon War. In 1739 the Colonial Government concluded an agreement with the marooners which granted limited autonomous power to the maroon colonies.
1726.12.24 Spain founded a colony in Montevideo of present-day Uruguay.
1727 A civil war broke out among the Ministers of Tibet. In the next year the Qing Government put an end to the war and appointed Pholhanas as the Chief Minister of Tibet.
c.1727 There emerged a number of petty monarchies in the northern part of the Gulf Region of Arabia.
1728.9 Bering, a Danish explorer in Russian service, sailed through the Bering Strait and reached North America.
1729.11.13 Persia (Safavid Dynasty) annihilated the Ghilzai Afghan Dynasty.
1730 Patrona Halil of the Osmanli Regime staged an uprising in Constantinople. On .10.1 Sultan Ahmed III was forced to abdicate. On ..2 Mahmud I succeeded to the throne. In November Mahmud I killed Patrona Halil and suppressed the uprising.

Abomey was renamed the Kingdom of Dahomey.
1731 A Kamchatka Uprising broke out in Kamchatka Peninsula. In 1732 Russia suppressed the uprising and conquered Kamchatka Peninsula. In c.1800 Russia finally conquered Chuckchi Peninsula.

Ranoji Rao, a Maratha general, started to rule Gwalior in northern India and founded the Kingdom of Gwalior. Malhar Rao I, another Maratha general, started to rule Indore in Malwa in central India and founded the Kingdom of Indore.

Mallam Yunus founded the Kingdom of Damagaram in present-day southern Niger.

de Mompox of Paraguay instigated another uprising among the locally born Whites and established the Asuncion Commune. In 1734 the Spanish Colonial Government suppressed the uprising.
1731.1.20 Parma (Farnese Dynasty) ended when Duke Antonio Francesco of Parma died without an heir. Prince Carlos of Spain succeeded as Duke of Parma (called Carlo I) and established Parma (Bourbon Dynasty).
1731.4 Pilaji Rao, a Maratha general, started to rule Baroda in Gujarat in western India and founded the Kingdom of Baroda.
1732 The Qing Empire destroyed the Middag Confederacy in Taiwan.

Saadat Ali Khan I, Vassal King (Nawab) of Avadh under the Moghul Empire, started to make Avadh (also called Oudh) a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Avadh Regime.

Farghana moved the capital to Khokand and was thus renamed the Khokand Kingdom.
Nadir, Chief of the Afshar Tribe of the Persian Turkmen, seized control of the Persian royal court.
1733.2.1 Upon death of King Augustus II of Poland, the European powers intervened in the succession issue. France supported the restoration of the former King Stanislaw I to the throne, while Austria and Russia supported the throne being passed to Friedrich August II, Elector of Saxe-Wittenberg. When Stanislaw I was restored to the throne on .9.12 of the same year, Russia attacked Poland, which marked the beginning of the War of the Polish Succession. On 1734.1.17, Russia installed Friedrich August II as King of Poland (called Augustus III).
1733.11 France and Spain signed the First Bourbon Family Compact, by which they formed an alliance in the War of the Polish Succession.
1734 Parma occupied Naples and Sicily. On .6.2 of the same year Duke Carlo I of Parma became the monarchs of the two countries concurrently.
1735 The Third Russo-Turkish War broke out between Russia and the Osmanli Turks. Russia occupied Azov. In 1737 Austria joined the war in support of Russia, thus starting the Third Austro-Turkish War. On 1739.9.18 the three countries signed the Treaty of Belgrade, by which Russia acquired Azov while Austria gave up northern Serbia.
1735.8M Hongli succeeded as Qing Emperor. During his reign the power of the Empire rose to its apex.
1735.10.3 The belligerents of the War of the Polish Succession signed a preliminary peace. Duke Carlo I of Parma ceded Parma to Austria while Austria recognized Carlo I as rulers of Naples and Sicily. Stanislaw I, former King of Poland, gave up claim for the Polish throne, but received [Upper] Lorraine. Duke Francois III of [Upper] Lorraine received Tuscany.
1736 Duke Francois III of [Upper] Lorraine married Princess Maria Theresa of Austria. The Habsburg-Lorraine House was thus formed. In the same year Francois III abdicated, his throne was succeeded by Stanislaw I.
1736.3.8 Nadir, de facto ruler of Persia, overthrew the Safavid Dynasty and established Persia (Afsharid Dynasty). During his reign Nadir conquered northern India and Central Asia.
1737.7.9 Grand Duke Gian Gastone of Tuscany died, which marked the end of Tuscany (Medici Dynasty). Francois III succeeded as Grand Duke of Tuscany (called Francesco II) and established Tuscany (Lorraine-Habsburg Dynasty).
1738 Raghuji I, a Maratha general , started to rule Nagpur in Deccan in central India and founded the Kingdom of Nagpur.
1738.11.18 The belligerents of the War of the Polish Succession ratified the preliminary peace and finally signed the Treaty of Vienna, thus ending the War of the Polish Succession.
1739 The Second Anglo-Spanish War (commonly called the War of Jenkins' Ear) broke out between Britain and Spain due to disputes over colonies and trade. Later the war became part of the War of the Austrian Succession.
1739.8.20 Spain restored the New Granada Viceroyalty, whose territory covered present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Pananma and Ecuador.
1740.1.11 The Qing Empire installed Pholhanas as Vassal King of Tibet and established the Tibetan Regime, which was a Qing vassal state.
Friedrich II succeeded as King of Prussia. During his reign he adopted the policy of "Enlightened Despotism" and strengthened the power of his state.
1740.10.9 Under the pretext that the Chinese secretly hid weapons, the Colonial Government of Dutch East Indies massacred the Chinese. The Chinese of Java allied with the Javanese in a revolt against the Dutch Colonial Government. The Javanese-Chinese-Dutch War thus broke out. In 1743 [Later] Mataram and the Dutch Colonial Government jointly crushed the revolt. As a result, [Later] Mataram had to cede half of its territory to the Dutch.
Upon death of Archduke Karl III of Austria, Maria Theresa succeeded to the throne. In the same year, the European powers intervened in the succession issue of Austria, which led to the War of the Austrian Succession. In an attempt to seize Silesia, Prussia attacked Austria. The First Silesian War thus broke out.
1740.12 Binnya Dala, Chief of the Mons in Burma, instigated a revolt among the Mons. By installing Smim Htaw Buddhaketi as King of Pegu, he established the Kingdom of Pegu ([Later] Pegu).
1741 Aiming to restore its hegemony in northeastern Europe, Sweden entered into the Second Russo-Swedish War with Russia and was defeated. In 1743 the two countries signed the Treaty of Turku, by which Sweden ceded Western Karelia to Russia.
1742.7.28 Austria and Prussia signed the Treaty of Berlin, by which most of Silesia became Prussian territory. The First Silesian War ended.
1743 Mas Said, a Prince of [Later] Mataram rose against the Dutch colonists (the Mangkunegaran War. In 1746 Mangkubumi, another Prince, started another revolt (the Mangkubumi War. The Mangkunegaran War and the Mangkubumi War were collectively called the Third Javanese War of Succession.

France and Spain signed the Second Bourbon Family Compact, by which they formed an alliance in the War of the Austrian Succession.
1744 The Second Silesian War broke out between Austria and Prussia. On .12.25 of the next year, the two countries signed Treaty of Dresden, by which almost the whole of Silesia became Prussian territory. Austria was left with only a small portion, which was called Austrian Silesia.

In contention for the colonies in North America, England and France entered into the King George's War, which became part of the War of the Austrian Succession.
1745.7.13 Charles III, leader of the British Jacobites, started a rebellion in Scotland (the Second Jacobite Rebellion) and restored the Kingdom of Scotland again. The rebellion was suppressed by Britain on .4.24 of the next year.
1746 In contention for the hegemony in southern India, Britain and France entered into the First Carnatic War in Carnatic, which was part of the War of the Austrian Succession.

Ali, Governor of Mombasa under Oman, declared independence and founded the Mombasa Sultanate in the Great Lake Region in East Africa.
1747 King Nadir of Persia was assassinated. Thereafter Persia was torn by internal strife.

Shah Wardi Khan founded the Ganja Khanate in northwestern Azerbaijan. Heydaroglu, Chief of the Kangarly Tribe, founded the Nakhichevan Khanate in western Azerbaijan.
1747.7 Ahmad Shah Durrani, Governor of Herat under Persia as well as Chief of the Abdali Afghans, rebelled against Persia and founded the Afghanistan Regime (Durrani Dynasty). During his reign, Ahmad Shah Durrani established his hegemony in Central Asia and intruded into northern India.
1748.10 The belligerents of the War of the Austrian Succession signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, whereby the European powers recognized the succession right of Maria Theresa Thereafter Maria Theresa adopted the policy of "Enlightened Despotism" in an attempt to revive the power of the nation. Austria ceded Parma to Spain. On ..18 of the same month, Prince Felipe of Spain became Duke of Parma (called Filippo).
1749 Britain and France interfered with the succession issues of Hyderabad and Arcot, which led to the Second Carnatic War. After France was defeated in 1754, the French influence in India was weakened.
Mid-18th Century Beginning of the First Industrial Revolution. This period saw the thriving development of the textile industry. Steam became the main power source.
1750 Karim, Chief of the Zand Tribe of the Kurds, made himself King and established Persia (Zand Dynasty).

Suleyman I became the Vassal King (Bey) of Iraq and started to make Iraq a de facto hereditary kingdom, thus establishing the Iraqi Regime (Mamluk Dynasty).
1750.11.11 Gyurmed Namrgyal, Vassal King of Tibet, plotted to revolt against the Qing Empire but was killed by the Qing army. Thereafter the Qing Empire abrogated the Tibetan royal titles and governed Tibet directly. It also established Dalai Lama as the supreme religious head and head of the local government of Tibet.
c.1750 Maye, Chief of the Yorubas, founded the Kingdom of Ibadan in southwestern Nigeria.
1752 Sabah I, leader of the Sabah Clan, founded the Kuwait Regime in the northern part of the Gulf Region of Arabia.
1752.3 [Later] Pegu annihilated Burma (Toungoo Dynasty). In April of the same year, Aung Zeya rose against [Later] Pegu and established Burma (Aung Zeya Dynasty). In 1757 Aung Zeya conquered [Later] Pegu.
1753 Sao Tome and Principe Islands became a Portuguese colony.

In opposition to the Spanish Government's act of ceding part of its territory to Portugal, the Paraguayan Jesuit Regime instigated a revolt against the Spanish and Portuguese colonists among the native Guaranis (the Guarani War, also called the War of the Seven Reductions). In 1756 the coalition army of the Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Government crushed the revolt. In 1767 the Spanish Colonial Government put an end to the Paraguayan Jesuit Regime.
1753.2 The island of Corsica, a Genoese dependency, declared independence and established the Corsican Nation.
1755 Prince Mangkubumi of [Later] Mataram signed the Treaty of Gianti with the Dutch whereby [Later] Mataram was divided into the Surakarta Kingdom (ruled by Pakubuwono III, the original King of [Later] Mataram) and the Jogjakarta Kingdom (ruled by Mangkubumi, who changed his name to Amangkubuwono I).

The Kungrate Tribe seized control of the Shiva royal court.

Death of Montesquieu (1689-1755), the French philosopher and legalist. During his lifetime he proposed the theory of separation of powers and checks and balances, which laid the theoretical foundation of the Western democratic system. His major works included The Spitis of the Laws, etc.
c.1755 Haidar Ali Khan seized control of the Mysore royal court.
1756.8 Prussia and Austria entered into the Seven Years' War (also called the Third Silesian War). Later the other European powers were also involved in the war. In the same year Britain and France, in contention for the colonies in India, entered into the Third Carnatic War, which was part of the Seven Years War. In contention for the colonies in North America, war broke out between Britain and France in North America. A number of Native American tribes were also involved in the war, which came to be known as the French and Indian War, which was part of the Seven Years' War and the American Indian Wars.
1757 The Qing Empire conquered Zungaria. Poluonidu and Huojishan, Chiefs of the Uygurs, rose against Qing rule and established the Batu Khanate in Xinjiang. In the ninth lunar month of 1759 the Qing Empire annihilated the Batu Khanate and conquered Xinjiang.

Mehmet Bey, Vassal King of Shkoder under the Osmanli Regime, started to make Shkoder a de facto hereditary kingdom and established the Shkoder Regime.
1757.3.17 Prince Mas Said of [Later] Mataram signed the Treaty of Salatiga with the Dutch whereby Mas Said obtained part of the territory of Surakarta and founded the Mangkunegaran Kingdom.
1757.6.23 The British colonists defeated Siraj-ud-Dawlah, Vassal King of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey. In the same year Bengal became a British protectorate.
1759 Burma invaded Siam and overthrew Siam (Ayuthia Dynasty) on 1767.4.7. Thereafter rebellions broke out throughout Siam against Burma. Siam was torn by internal strife.
1761 France, Spain, Parma, Naples and Sicily signed the Third Bourbon Family Compact, by which they formed an alliance in the Seven Years' War.
1761.1.14 Afghanistan defeated the Maratha Confederacy in the Third Battle of Panipat. The power of the Maratha Confederacy started to decline thereafter.
With the end of Russia (Romanov Dynasty), Duke Karl Peter Ulrich of Holstein-Gottorp became Russian Tsar (called Pyotr III) and established Russia (Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp Dynasty). On .7.10 of the same year (.6.28 according to the Russian calendar), Ekaterina II staged the "June 28th Coup" and overthrew Pyotr III. Ekaterina II then ascended to the throne. During her reign Ekaterina II adopted the policy of "Enlightened Despotism" to strengthen the power of the nation. By adopting an expansionary policy, she made Russia a Eurasian power.
1762.1.19 King Irakli II of Kakheti inherited Kartli and united the two countries as the Kingdom of Georgia.
1763.2.10 Britain, France and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, which redistributed the dependencies of the three countries in America, India and Europe. Britain established its supremacy in North America and India. Its status as a naval power was thus confirmed. Britain obtained the French dependency in North America - New France (i.e. Quebec), which became the basis of the future Canada.
1763.2.15 Austria and Prussia signed the Treaty of Hubertusburg, which maintained the status quo of the two countries' territories. Prussia became a local power in Central Europe. The Seven Years' War came to an end.
1763.5 A joint force of Native Americans initiated by Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas, rose against the British colonists and led to Pontiac's War, which was part of the American Indian Wars. The war came to an end on 1766.7.25 when Pontiac concluded peace with the British colonists.
1764 The Reunion Island (initially called Ile Bourbon) on western Indian Ocean became a French colony. Subsequently Mauritius (initially called Ile de France), Seychelles and Mayotte also became French colonies.

Britain imposed taxes on the various North American colonies and led to widespread discontent among the colony people. In 1765 anti-British campaigns arose in the North American colonies, which marked the beginning of the American Revolution.

Spain established the Captaincy-General of Cuba.
1765 Husayn Khan founded the Sheki Khanate in northern Azerbaijan.
1765.5.25 Present-day Senegal and the Gambia became a single British colony named Senegambia.
1766 Salah-ud-Din, a Bugis noble of Riau-Lingga, conquered Selangor in the western part of the Malay Peninsula and founded the Selangor Sultanate.

France annexed [Upper] Lorraine.
1767 General Pya Taksin of Siam rose against Burmese rule and established Siam (Thonburi Dynasty) in Thonburi on .12.28 of the same year.

Britain started the First Mysore War and invaded Mysore. In 1769 the British colonists were forced to retreat by Mysore.
1768 When Russia suppressed the rebelling Poles, the Osmanli Regime declared war on Russia, thus starting the Fourth Russo-Turkish War. On 1774.7.21 the two countries signed the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, by which Russia acquired an outlet to the Black Sea.

A group of workers in Blackburn of Britain smashed the machines in a workshop. The action was the origin of the Workers' Movement.

Ali, a Mamluk warlord of Egypt, started to rule Egypt and established the Egyptian Regime.

Bruce, a British explorer, entered Ethiopia to explore the origin of the Blue Nile. Since then a large number of Western explorers explored the inland part of Africa.
1768.5.15 Genoa was forced to cede the island of Corsica to France. On 1769.6.13 France conquered Corsica.
1768.9.25 Prithivi, the Gurkha King, conquered Katmandu and renamed his regime the Kingdom of Nepal. In October of the same year he conquered Patan. On 1769.11.13 he conquered Bhatgaon and unified Nepal.
1769 The first factory in world history appeared in England.

With the decline of the Ethiopian imperial power, the local feudal lords declared independence and Ethiopia was torn by internal strife. Michael Sehul, Governor of Tigre, declared independence and founded the Kingdom of Tigre. Amhara also seceded from Ethiopia and founded the Kingdom of Amhara.
1770 Abdul Majid became Vassal King (Bendahara) of Pahang under Johore and restored the Pahang Regime.

To evade Russian invasion, King Ubashi of Torghut led the majority of his people to migrate eastwards from the Russian Steppe. The Torghuts who stayed in the Russian Steppe became the subjects of the Russian Empire and were called the Kalmyks.

Britain annihilated Bengal, which became part of British India.
1770.5.6 Cook, a British navigator, arrived in Australia. On 1788.1.26, Britain established the first colony in Australia - New South Wales. Thereafter the British colonists founded other colonies in Australia. Conflicts broke out between the colonists and the Indigenous Australians, which came to be called Australian Frontier Wars.
1770.9.13 As King Christian VII of Denmark suffered from mental disease, the Danish royal court was controlled by the senior official Struensee.
1771 Nguyen Van Nhac, Nguyen Van Hue and Nguyen Van Lu of Quang Nam started the Tay Son Rebellion against Quang Nam in central Vietnam. In 1776 Nguyen Van Nhac made himself King and established the Tay Son Rebellious Regime (called the New Nguyen Dynasty by historians) in Qui Nhon.
1771.1.4 The majority of the Torghuts arrived in Zungaria and subjugated themselves under Qing suzerainty.
1772 A constitution was promulgated in Finland, which became a constitutional monarchy.

King Gustav III of Sweden staged a coup. By abrogating the constitution, he restored the absolute monarchical system.
1772.1.17 The Danish conservatives staged a coup and overthrew Struensee. In the same month Hoegh-Guldberg, leader of the conservatives, became de facto ruler of Denmark.
1772.8.5 Russia, Austria and Prussia partitioned parts of the territories of Poland and Lithuania (First Partition of Poland). West Prussia was annexed into Prussia.
1773 Nine Minangkabau states on the Malay Peninsula (Inas, Jelebu, Jempol, Johol, Ulu Muar, Rembau, Gunung Pasir, Sungai Ujong, Teraci, and also Tampin later) chose Prince Melawar of Minangkabau as their Supreme Ruler (Yang Di-Pertuan Besar) and established the Negri Sembilan (= Nine States) Kingdom.

Spain recognized the independence of the Araucans, whose territory was later called Araucania.
1773.7.1 Duke Paul of Holstein-Gottorp bequeathed his state to Holstein-Segeburg. Denmark then united Holstein-Segeburg and Holstein-Gottorp as the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein and granted Oldenburg to Paul. Paul changed his title to Count of Holstein-Oldenburg and founded the Holstein-Oldenburg Regime.
1773.9 Pugachev, a Russian peasant, instigated a peasant revolt. He made himself Tsar and set up a Rebellious Government. In September of the next year the Russian Government crushed the revolt.
1774 Turgot became the Minister of Finance of France. During his tenure he adopted the economic theories of physiocracy and carried out the laissez-faire policy. Thereafter, physiocracy gradually replaced mercantilism as the most popular economic theory in Western Europe.

Prince Bazaza of Sossebaki started to rule Mirria in southern Niger and founded the Kingdom of Mirria (commonly called the Second Sossebaki Kingdom).
1775 Britain started the First Maratha War and attacked the Maratha Confederacy. In 1782 Britain defeated the Maratha Confederacy.

Shaykh Sulayman Bal, an Islamic religous leader of Futa Toro, started the Futa Jihad. In the next year his follower Abdalkadir overthrew Futa Toro (Denyanke Dynasty) and established a theocratic government.
1775.4.19 The British army of British North America attempted to seize the arsenals of the American revolutionaries (called the Patriots) and was defeated by the revolutionaries in the Battle of Lexington, which marked the beginning of the American War of Independence. In the same year the colonies of British North America (including Virginia, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Maryland, Georgia, South Carolina, Rhode Island) convened the Continental Congress and formed the United Colonies of North America (commonly called the Thirteen Colonies).
1776 British economoist Adam Smith published Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, in which he developed the laissez-faire policy advocated by the Physiocrats into the classical economic theory and thus laid the theocratical foundation of the modern captialist free economy.
1776.7.4 The United Colonies of North America proclaimed the Declaration of Independence and declared their independence from Britain. They united themselves as the United States of America (USA for short), a confederation in which each state retained its independent status.
1776.8.8 Spain set up the Rio de la Plata Viceroyalty as a separate colony, whose territory later covered present-day Argentina and Uruguay (formerly known as Montevideo).
1777 Appointed as Governor of Quang Nam by Dai Viet, King Nguyen Van Nhac of the Tay Son Regime attacked and overthrew Quang Nam. Nguyen Phuoc Noan, a royal member of Quang Nam, occupied Saigon to resist the Tay Son army. In 1780 Nguyen Phuoc Noan assumed the title of King of Dai Viet and established Dai Viet (Old Nguyen Dynasty) in southern Vietnam.

Low Fan Pak, leader of the Overseas Chinese in western Borneo, amalgamated the gold mining companies of the Overseas Chinese into the Lan Fang Company and made himself "Ta Tang Chon Chang" (President). The company was practically a republican government governing the Overseas Chinese therein. The Lan Fang Company Regime was thus formed.
1777.9.8 Spain established the Captaincy-General of Venezuela.
1777.12.30 Karl Theodor, Elector Palatine of Rhine, became Elector of Bavaria and annexed Rhine into Bavaria. The succession led to intervention by Austria and Prussia. In 1778 the War of the Bavarian Succession broke out between Austria and Prussia. On 1779.5.13 the two countries signed the Treaty of Teschen and recognized the annexation of Rhine into Bavaria.
1778 USA allied with France against Britain and defeated Britain in 1781.

Spain established the Captaincy-General of Chile.
1779 France seized Senegambia from Britain.

The Xhosas (also called the Southern Ngonis; called the Kaffirs by Europeans) in Southern Africa rose against the Dutch colonists, leading to the First Kaffir War (also called the Cape-Ngoni War). The Xhosas were defeated in 1781.

Defeated by the USA, the Iroquoian Confederacy disintegrated.
1780s A number of Native American nations to the northwest of USA formed the Western Confederacy to resist the invasion of the USA colonists.
1780 Britain started the Second Mysore War by invading Mysore and was forced to retreat in 1784.

In contention for the naval supremacy, Britain and the Netherlands entered into the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. After the Netherlands was defeated in 1784, its power began to decline.

Condorcanqui, a descendant of the former Inca royal family, started an anti-Spanish rebellion. In March of the next year, he renamed himself Thupa Amaru II and restored the Inca Kingdom. On .10.6 the rebellion was crushed by the Spanish Colonial Government.
1780.3.8 Russia declared "armed neutrality" during the American War of Independence and formed the First League of Armed Neutrality with Denmark and Sweden. Later other European countries also joined the League.
1780.11.29 Austria (Habsburg Dynasty) ended with the death of Archduchess Maria Theresa. Josef II succeeded to the throne and established Austria (Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty).
c.1781 The Baluchistan Talpur clan founded the Kindgom of Sind in the Sind region in west India.
1782 A revolt broke out in Ayuthia of Siam. On .4.6 of the same year General Yot Fa Chulalok crushed the revolt and overthrew King Pya Taksin. Yot Fa Chulalok made himself King, moved the capital to Bangkok and established Siam (Bangkok Dynasty).
1783 Ahmad, leader of the al-Kalifah Clan, started to rule Qatar and Bahrain and established the Bahrain Regime. In 1796 he moved the base of his government to Bahrain.

France dissolved French Antilles.
1783.7.24 Georgia and Russia signed the Treaty of Georgievsk by which Georgia became a Russian protectorate.
1783.9.3 Britain, France and Spain signed the Treaty of Versailles, which defined the spheres of influence of the three countries in North America. Britain and France partitioned Senegambia with Senegal put under French rule and the Gambia put under British rule.

Britain signed the Peace of Paris with USA, by which Britain recognized the independence of USA and ceded to USA a large territory to the west of USA, thus ending the American War of Independence. The British Colonial Empire entered the Second Empire Period.
1784 Hamad seized power in Oman and made himself King. Since then the Oman ceased to be ruled by Imams and started to be ruled by hereditary monarchs instead. The country was renamed the Muscat Kingdom.

Supported by the Danish reformers, the Crown Prince Frederik staged a coup and overthrew the de facto ruler Hoegh-Guldberg. Real power was then held by Frederik.
1785 Bukhara (Janid Dynasty) came to an end. Shah Murad, Chief of the Mangyt Tribe, established Bukhara (Haidar Dynasty).

Austria planned to exchange Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria from Duke Karl Theodor of Bavaria. On .7.23 of the same year, Prussia formed the League of the German Princes with other German princes in opposition to Austria. Austria thus gave up the plan.

The Dutch Patriot Party staged a revolt in the Hague. After expelling Willem V, the Stadholder, they established Netherlands (Patriot Government) in the Hague. In 1787 the Patriot Government was overthrown by Prussia.

USA adopted the Silver Standard as its monetary system.
1785.2 Burma conquered Arakan and unified Burma.
1786 Tipu Sultan, de facto ruler of Mysore, overthrew the King and established the Khuda-Dad Kingdom.

Shay, a USA veteran, started a revolt in Massachusetts. In January of the next year the USA Government suppressed the revolt.
1786.6M The Tay Son army overthrew the Trinh rulers of Dai Viet. In 1788 Dai Viet (Later Le Dynasty) united with the Qing army against the Tay Son Regime.
1787.8.21 In contention for Georgia and Romania, the Osmanli Turks and Russia entered into the Fifth Russo-Turkish War. In 1788.2 Austria declared war on the Osmanli Turks, thus starting the Fourth Austro-Turkish War. In 1790.7 Austria withdrew from the war. On 1792.1.9 the Osmanli Turks and Russia signed the Treaty of Jassy, which established River Dniester as the borderline of the two countries.
1787.9.17 The Constitutional Convention enacted the Constitution of the USA, which established the presidential and federal systems. The Constitution took effect on 1789.3.4 and the states became part of the American federation.
1788 General Nguyen Van Hue of the Tay Son Regime revolted and made himself Emperor in Phu Xuan. The Tay Son Regime thus split into Tay Son (Qui Nhon Government) (led by Nguyen Van Nhac) and Tay Son (Phu Xuan Government) (led by Nguyen Van Hue). In the first lunar month of the next year, Tay Son (Phu Xuan Government) defeated the Qing army and overthrew the Later Le Dynasty. Nguyen Phuoc Noan, the former King of Dai Viet, allied with the French colonists against the Tay Son Regime.

Aiming to recover its lost territories, Sweden entered into the Third Russo-Swedish War with Russia. The two countries ceased the war in 1790.
1789 A revolution broke out in Austrian Netherlands. On 1790.1.11 Austrian Netherlands declared independence from Austria and established the Belgian Regime, composed of the states of Flanders, West-Flanders, Brabant, Tournai-Tournesis, Malines, Namur, Upper-Gelder and Limburg. On .12.7 Austria suppressed the revolution and dissolved the regime.

Th Xhosas in Southern Africa started another revolt against the Dutch colonists (the Second Kaffir War). The Xhosas were defeated in 1793.
1789.4.7 Selim III succeeded as the Osmanli Sultan. During his reign he carried out reforms.
Washington was inaugurated as the first President of the USA.
1789.5.5 The Estates General was summoned. Disputes arose between the third estate and the first and second estates. On .6.17 the third estate unilaterally proclaimed the themselves as the National Assembly. When King Louis XVI ordered the dissolution of the National Assembly on ..20, the representatives of the Assembly took the Tennis Court Oath that they would not separate. On .7.9 the National Assembly was renamed the Constituent Assembly. On .7.14 the Parisians started an uprising. They stormed the prison in Bastille and released the political prisoners therein. This event marked the beginning of the Great French Revolution. On .7.25 the Commune of Paris was established as the municipal government. On .8.27 the Constituent Assembly passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
1790 Allying with the Maratha Confederation and Hyderabad, Britain launched an attack against Khuda-Dad (the Third Mysore War) In 1792 Khuda-Dad was forced to cede half of its territory.

USA launched an offensive against the Western Confederacy. The Northwest Indian War, which was part of the American Indian Wars, broke out. In 1794.8 the Western Confederacy was defeated. On 1795.8.3 the Western Confederacy signed the Treaty of Greenville with the USA and ceded territories to USA. Thereafter the Western Confederacy disintegrated.
An anti-French rebellion broke out in the French dependency of Saint-Domingue, which marked the beginning of the Haitian Revolution. Thereafter revolutions broke out in the Latin American colonies. These revolutions were collectively called Latin American Wars of Independence. In 1791 Toussaint l'Ouverture, leader of the revolution, united the rebellious armies. In 1789 the French colonists were expelled.
1791 Pomare I and Pomare II, Chief of the indigenous people of the island of Tahiti in Oceania, unified the various tribes and founded the Kingdom of Tahiti.
1791.5.3 Poland-Lithuania promulgated a constitution and adopted the constitutional monarchical system.
1791.8.27 Austria and Prussia announced the Declaration of Pillnitz, by which they united in support of the French royal court. In 1792.4 war broke out with the French Government. In September they were defeated by the French army.
1791.9.14 France enacted the Constitution of 1791, which provided a constitutional monarchy. On .10.1 of the same year, the Legislative Assembly was convened. Real power was held by the Feuillants.
1792 Denmark prohibited black slave trade. Since then the Abolition Movement emerged in the West European countries, culminating in the abolition of slavery and slave trade.

Forster, leader of the Mainz democrats, founded the Society of the Friends of Liberty and Equality and planned a revolution. In October of the same year, the French army captured Mainz. The Society convened the Rhenish-German National Council, expelled the nobles and abrogated feudal privileges.
1792.3.11 The Sierra Leone Company of Britain purchased a piece of land from a local chieftain in present-day Sierra Leone for settling the freed black slaves. The settlement was named Freetown. On 1808.1.1 a colony named Sierra Leone was formed.
1792.8.9 After the reorganisation of the Commune of Paris, Chaumette, leader of the leftist Jacobins, became the Head of the Commune. On .8.10 the Commune staged an uprising, which overthrew the Feuillants and deposed King Louis XVI, thus ending the Bourbon Dynasty. On .9.21 the National Convention was convened and the monarchy was abolished. On the next day, the First French Republic was established, with real power being held by the Girodins.
1793.1.21 King Louis XVI of France was executed. On .2.1 of the same year the European powers formed the First Coalition against France in an attempt to intervene in the revolution. This marked the beginning of the Wars of the Coalitions against France (also called the French Revolutionary Wars). The French royalists revolted in Vendee, but were suppressed in the same year.
1793.1.23 Russia and Prussia partitioned parts of the territories of Poland and Lithuania (Second Partition of Poland).
1793.2.14 France annexed Monaco. On .9.22 of the same year France renamed Monaco as Fort-Hercule.
1793.3.16 Society of the Friends of Liberty and Equality of Mainz established the Republic of Mainz. Thereafter France set up a series of republics in Europe as its vassal states. On .7.23 of the same year Prussia toppled the Government of the Society.
An anti-Girondin uprising broke out in Paris. On.6.2 the Girondins were overthrown and were replaced by the Jacobin Mountains. On .4.24 the Constitution of 1793, which provided for a popularly elected Legislative Council, was ratified. On .7.c10 Robespierre became Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety and started the rule of a revolutionary dictatorship (the "Reign of Terror").
1793.10.24 The French Revolutionary Calenda was adopted. The Calendar used 1792.9.22 as the first day of the first year of the Republican Era.
1794 Agha Mohammad, Chief of the Qajar Tribe of the Turkmen, made himself Regent of Persia and established Persia (Qajar Dynasty). On .10.30 of the same year the Qajar Dynasty overthrew the Zand Dynasty.
1794.7.27 The opponents of Robespierre (the Thermidoreans) staged the "Coup d'etat of Thermidor". By arresting Robespierre and overthrowing the Jacobins, they seized control of the Government. The Commune of Paris was dissolved. End of the Reign of Terror.
1795 France occupied the Netherlands. On .1.17 of the same year, Netherlands (Orange "Dynasty") came to an end. Supported by France, the Patriot Party established a Revolutionary Government. On .5.16 the Netherlands was renamed the Batavian Regime.

France signed the Treaty of Basel with Prussia and Spain whereby the two countries withdrew from the Coalition.

The British Colonial Government of Jamaica attacked the maroon colonies again (the Second Maroon War) In 1797 the Colonial Government defeated the marooners, who were then transferred to Canada.
Kamehameha I unified the Hawaii Islands and founded the Kingdom of Hawaii.
1795.1.7 Russia, Prussia and Austria partitioned the remaining territories of Poland and Lithuania (Third Partition of Poland), which led to the termination of the regimes of Poland and Lithuania. Russia obtained most parts of Lithuania and Ukraine and the whole of Belarus.
1795.2.6 The Boers in the region of Graaff-Reinet under the Dutch Cape Colony rose against the East India Company and formed an autonomous government. On .6.18 Swellendam under the Cape Colony also rebelled and formed another autonomous government. On .9.16 Britain captured the Cape Colony. Subsequently it suppressed the rebellion in the two regions and reincorporated them into the Cape Colony.
1795.8.22 The Thermidoreans ratified the Constitution of 1795, which provided for a Directory of five and a Legislature of two chambers (the Senate and the Council of Five Hundred). On .11.4 the Directory was set up.
1796 The USA adopted the "Acculturation Policy" aiming to bring Western culture to certain Native Americans. The Native Cherokees were selected for a pilot scheme. Later the scheme was extended to the Creeks, the Seminoles, the Chickasaws and the Choctaws. These five ethnic groups were colletively called the Five Civilized Tribes by the Americans.
1796.2.16 Having expelled the Dutch out of Ceylon, the British made the coastal areas of Ceylon a British colony.
General Napoleon of France began to be engaged in a series of wars with the European states, collectively called the Napoleonic Wars.
1796.4 Napoleon led an expedition to Italy, where he toppled a number of feudal states. In May of the same year, he captured Milan and renamed it as the Lombard Republic. On .10.16 he united Bologna, Ferrara, Romangna and Mantua as the Cispadane Republic. On .11.15 he united Lombardy and Brescia as the Transpadane Republic.
1796.5.10 Babeuf, leader of the French Equals, conspired a revolt. He was arrested after the conspiracy was uncovered.
1797.5.16 France extinguished Venice. On .7.9 of the same year, the Transpadane Republic, the Cispadane Republic and Modena were united as the Cisalpine Republic.
1797.10.17 France and Austria signed the Treaty of Campo Formio, which marked the end of the First Coalition. Austria ceded Belgium (previously known as Austrian Netherlands) to France. Austria obtained Dalmatia and other areas originally ruled by Venice.
1798 After the Helvetic Committee of Switzerland initiated a revolution, France occupied Switzerland. On .4.12 of the same year the Swiss Confederation was dissolved and the cantons were unified as the Helvetic Republic.
1798.1.1 France renamed Genoa as the Ligurian Republic.
1798.2 France captured Rome. On ..15 of the same month, it overthrew the Roman Papal States and installed the Roman Republic.
1798.6.22 France occupied the Maltese Islands and expelled the Hospitallers, whose regime was extinguished. Since then, the Hospitallers became an ordinary religious order. But its status as a sovereign entity was still recognized by a number of countries.
1798.7 The French army invaded Egypt with the intention of cuting off the link between Britain and India. In the Battle of the Pyramids France defeated the Mamluk cavalry of Egypt, which then became a French dependency.
1798.12 France occupied Naples and Piedmont. The Kings of Naples and Sardinia fled to Sicily and Sardinia, respectively.

Britain and Russia formed the Second Coalition against France.
1799 Britain started the Fourth Mysore War. On .6.30 it overthrew Khudad-Dad and restored the Kingdom of Mysore.

The Xhosas rose against the Dutch colonists (the Third Kaffir War). In 1803 the Xhosas succeeded in preventing the further eastward expansion of the Dutch colonists.
1799.1.23 France set up the Parthenopean Republic in Naples.
1799.3.27 France conquered Tuscany and established the Etrurian Republic in Tuscany.
1799.4.28 The coalition army of Austria and Russia defeated the French army in the Battle of Cassano. The Second Coalition launched an offensive in Italy and toppled the Cisalpine Republic. On .5.28 of the same year Sardinia reoccupied Piedmont. On .6.23 the army of Sanfedisti despatched by Sicily toppled the Parthenopean Republic and Naples was reoccupied by Sicily.
1799.7 Russia formed the Russian American Company. On ..9 of the same month, Russia established the Russian America Colony and later conquered Aleutian Islands and Alaska.
1799.7.7 Austria toppled the Etrurian Republic and restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
1799.9.30 Naples occupied Rome. The Pope's rule was restored on .6.23 of the next year.
1799.11.10 Napoleon staged the "Coup d'etat of Brumaire" and replaced the Directory with the Consulate. On .12.15 he promulgated the Constitution of 1799, which provided for a Consulate of three and a Legislature with four chambers (Council of State, Tribunate, Legislative Chamber and Senate). On .12.25 Napoleon became the First Consul and carried out dictatorial rule.
1800.4 France dispatched another expedition to Italy. On .4.29 of the same year the Cisalpine Republic was restored. On .6.23 Piedmont was reoccupied. On .10.15 Tuscany was reoccupied.
1800.4.2 Russia and the Osmanli Turks established the Septinsular (= Seven Islands) Republic on the Ionian Islands in the western part of Greece. Nominally under Osmanli protection, the Republic was in practice controlled by Russia.
1800.9.8 Britain seized Maltese Islands, which officially became a British colony on 1813.10.5.
1800.12 Russia and Denmark formed the Second League of Armed Neutrality and declared "armed neutrality" during the War of the Coalition against France. In 1801.4 Britain defeated Denmark and forced Denmark to abandon the policy of neutrality. The League disintegrated.
Late 18th Century A number of princely states began to appear in present-day Central Africa. These princely states were conquered by France in early 20th Century.

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