A Chronology of World Political History
(1601 - 1700 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1st Half of 17th Century Beginning of mass migration of Han Chinese to Taiwan.

Russia conquered the Yugra principalities and the Nenets regions.

The earliest newspapers appeared in West Europe.

The Antemoros founded the Antemoro Kingdom in eastern Madagascar. Andriandahifotsy, Chief of the Sakalava, founded the Kingdom of Menabe in southwestern Madagascar.
Early 17th Century Ashipa, Chief of the Yorubas, founded the Kingdom of Lagos in present-day southwestern Nigeria.
1602 The Dutch East India Company established the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, which was the first securities market in the world.
1603.2M Tokugawa Ieyasu, de facto ruler of Japan, was appointed Shogun and established the Edo Shogunate. End of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period of Japan.
1603.3.24 Queen Elizabeth I of England died without an heir, thus ending the Tudor Dynasty. King James VI of Scotland became King of England (called James I) concurrently and established England (Stuart Dynasty).
1603.7.10 Anhalt split into Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Kothen and Anhalt-Zerbst.
1604 Poland supported Otrepiev, who falsely claimed to be Prince Dmitri of Russia (called the First False Dmitri by historians) and invaded Russia.
1605.6.10 The Russian nobles overthrew the Godunov Dynasty. Otrepiev entered Moscow and made himself Russian Tsar. Beginning of the Time of Troubles of Russia.
1605.11.5 Guy Fawkes and Catesby, leaders of the English Catholics, plotted to blow up the Parliament House. After the disclosure of their plot, they were arrested and executed. The event was called the Gunpowder Plot by historians.
1606 Rise of the Qarabagh Khanate in western Azerbaijan. Since then there emerged a number of petty kingdoms in Azerbaijan.

The Osmanli Regime and Austria signed the Peace of Zsitva-Torok, by which Austria abandoned Transylvania. In exchange, Austria ceased to pay tribute to the Osmanli Turks for Hungary.
1606.5.17 Shuisky, a Russian boyar, rose against Poland and expelled the Polish army. Otrepiev was killed. Shuisky crowned himself Russian Tsar (called Vasily IV). In the same year, a Russian peasant, Bolotnikov, started a peasants' uprising, which was crushed by the Russian Government in the next year.
1607.5.24 The English colonists founded the Virginia Colony in the eastern coast of North America. Conflicts soon arose between the colonists and the Powhatan Confederacy.
1607.8 Poland installed another person (called the Second False Dmitri by historians) as Russian Tsar. In 1609 King Sigismund III of Poland led his army to invade Russia.
1608 The German Protestant feudal lords formed the Protestant Union, headed by Friedrich IV, Elector Palatine of Rhine. On .7.10 of the next year, the Catholic feudal lords formed the Catholic League, headed by Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria.

The Jesuit Order established seven reductions for the native Guaranis in Paraguay which were independent of the Spanish colonial government and thus formed the Paraguayan Jesuit Regime.
1609 Spain signed the Twelve Years' Truce with the Netherlands and recognized the independence of the latter.
1609.9.8 Spain founded a colony in Santiago of present-day Chile.
1610 Ku Xiancheng, a scholar-gentry of the Ming Empire, founded the Donglin College, where he criticized the public policies. The Donglin Faction was thus formed. The officials of the imperial court also formed different factions in opposition to the Donglin Faction (collectively called the "Non-Donglin Factions"). This led to serious factional struggle later.

Pulicat became the first Dutch possession in India, which later developed into Dutch India. Thereafter several Westen powers invaded India successively. Portugal lost its hegemonic status on Indian Ocean.

Suleiman, a military officer of the Osmanli Janissary, started to rule Tripolitania in northwestern Libya. He assumed the title of a Vassal King (Dey) and founded the Tripoli Regime, which was jointly ruled by the Janissary and the pirate group.
1610.7.17 The Russian boyars staged a coup and forced Vasily IV to abdicate. In the same year, the boyars headed by Mstislavsky formed the Government of the Seven Boyars. Sweden seized the opportunity to invade Russia (the Ingrian War).
1610.8.9 Conflict arose between the Virginia Colony and the Powhatan Confederacy. Since then intermittent armed conflicts, which came to be called the Anglo-Powhatan Wars, broke out between the two parties. Thereafter the Western colonists (as well as the USA later) were engaged in a number of wars with the natives in present-day USA, collectively called the American Indian Wars.
1610.12.19 The Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies Colony in Indonesia.
c.1610 Prince Nya Ngolo of Segu started to rule Kaarta in central Mali and founded the Kingdom of Kaarta.

Ngwato, Chief of the Tswanas, founded the Kingdom of Ngwato in present day Botswana.
1611 Pozharsky of Russia organised the Volunteer Corps against the Polish and Swedish invaders. On .10.26 of the next year the Volunteer Corps recovered Moscow.

In contention for Lappland, the Kalmar War broke out between Sweden and Denmark. In 1613 the two countries signed the Treaty of Knared by which Sweden ceded Lappland to Sweden (administered under Norway).
Gustav II became King of Sweden. During his reign the power of Sweden rose to its apex.
1612.7 Bermuda Islands became an English colony.
c.1612 France began to build up colonies on Caribbean Sea. Later its colonies included Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe, Saint Barthelemy, French Saint-Martin, Martinique, French Saint-Christophe, etc.
1613.2.21 The Russian Volunteer Corps elected Mikhail as Tsar and established Russia (Romanov Dynasty), thus ending the Time of Troubles.
c.1615 Netherlands began to build up colonies on Caribbean Sea. Later its colonies included Dutch Sint Maarten, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Bonaire, Curacao, Aruba, etc.
1616 Ngawang Namgyal, a monk of the Drukpa Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism, unified Bhutan and founded the Kingdom of Bhutan, where a political system of the two co-rulers - the Shabdrun Thuktrul (religious leader of the Drukpa Kagyu School) and the Druk Desi (temporal ruler) was adopted.

The Netherlands established a colony in Essequibo of western part of the Guiana region. Later it established other colonies in Berbice, Demerara, etc.
1616.1M Nurhachi, Chief of the Jianzhou Jurchens, unified the Jurchen tribes and founded the Jin Khanate ([Later] Jin).
c.1616 Kasanzi, Chief of the Imbangalas, founded the Kasanzi Kingdom in present-day central Angola.
1617 Russia and Sweden signed the Treaty of Stolbovo, by which Russia lost the outlet to the Baltic Sea, thus ending the Ingrian War.
1617.12.16 Spain founded a colony in Buenos Aires of present-day Argentina.
1618 Phuntso Namgye, de facto ruler of the Pagmotru Regime, overthrew the last Pagmotru King and occupied Anterior Tibet. He made himself King (Khan) and established the Tsang Regime.
1618.4M [Later] Jin began to invade the Ming Empire.
1618.5.23 An anti-Austrian rebellion broke out in Bohemia, where the rebels broke into the palace of Prague and threw the pro-Austrian officials out of a window ("Defenestration of Prague"). This event marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In the same year the rebels overthrew the Austrian rule and set up a Rebellious Government composed of 30 Directors, with Count Matthias of Thurn being the Chief Director. Austria attacked Bohemia. Beginning of the Bohemia-Pfalz Period of the Thirty Years' War.
1619.8.26 The Bohemian Rebellious Government elected Friedrich V, Elector Palatine of Rhine, as King of Bohemia (called Bedrich II). On .11.8 Austria defeated the coalition army of Bohemia and Rhine in the Battle of the White Mountain, after which Bedrich II fled to the Netherlands and was thus nicknamed the "Winter King". In the same year Bohemia came under oppressive Austrian rule again.
1620 Austria ceded Upper Austria to Bavaria. In 1626.5 the peasants in Upper Austria rose against Bavarian rule. In July Austria induced the rebels to conclude peace with Bavaria and thus pacify the rebels. Bavaria then sent an army to attack Upper Austria and suppressed the rebellion in December.

Agona was renamed the Kingdom of Denkera.
1620.12.21 A group of English Puritans (who called themselves "Pilgrim Ancestors") arrived in North America from the Netherlands. On ..25 the Puritans founded the Plymouth Colony, ratified the Mayflower Compact and set up a Government, which became a prototype of the future autonomous English colonies in North America.
c.1620 Prince Siddhinarasimhamalla of Katmandu started to rule Patan and founded the Patan Regime in Nepal.

Sarsa Krestos founded the Kingdom of Gojjam in western Ethiopia.
1622.5.19 The Osmanli Janissary mudered Sultan Osman II in a coup and installed Mustafa I as the new Sultan. On .9.10 of the next year, the Janissary deposed Mustafa I and put Murad IV onto the throne. Thereafter the Janissary constituted a threat to the Sultans and the Osmanli Regime was in chaos.
1623 The Dutch colonists purchased from the Native Americans the Manhattan Island of present-day USA and founded the New Netherland Colony, which was renamed New Amsterdam in 1653.

England (and later Britain) began to build up colonies on Caribbean Sea. Later its colonies included Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, Saint Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat, British Dominica, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, Tobago, etc.
1623.2.23 Spain occupied Rhine and annexed it into Bavaria.
1624 The Dutch colonists invaded the Taiwan Island under the suzerainty of the Ming Empire and named it the Formosa Island. In 1626 the Spanish colonists also invaded Taiwan. After the Dutch expelled the Spanish colonists in 1642, Taiwan became a Dutch colony.

Nasir, Chief of the Yarub Tribe of Oman, founded the Oman Imamate.

Ngola Nzinga Mbandi became Queen of Ndongo. During her reign she resisted Portuguese invasion. After Portugal overthrew her rule in 1626, Ngola Nzinga Mbandi fled to Matamba, where she founded the Kingdom of Matamba and continued her resistance against the Portuguese.
1624.4.29 Richelieu became the Chief Minister of France and held real power. During his tenure he strengthened the power of the Central Government.
1625 King Christian IV of Denmark joined the Thirty Years' War and became the leader of the German Protestant states, which marked the beginning of the Danish Period of the Thirty Years' War.
1625.3.27 Upon death of King James I of England, Charles I succeeded to the throne. During his reign he carried out autocratic rule.
1626.8M Upon death of Khan Nurhachi of [Later] Jin, Huangtaiji succeeded to the throne. During his reign he conquered Mongolia.
1627.5.13 England and France divided Saint Kitts Island (also called Saint Christopher Island), with the central part ruled by England (called English St. Kitts) and both ends ruled by France (called French Saint-Christophe).
1627.12.25 Upon death of Duke Vincenzo II of Mantua, Carlo I succeeded to the throne. Spain and Austria denied recognition. In 1628 the War of the Mantuan Succession (part of the Thirty Years' War) broke out between Spain and Austria on one side, and France on the other side. In 1631 the war ended when Spain and Austria recognized the legitimacy of Carlo I.
1628 France united some of its colonies on Caribbean Sea as French Antilles, which later included French Saint-Martin, French Saint-Christophe, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Barthelemy.
1628.11M Gao Yingxiang, a peasant in the Shaanxi region of the Ming Empire, started a rebellion, which marked the beginning of the Late Ming Peasant War. After Gao Yingxiang was captured and killed in 1636.7, Li Zicheng became leader of his followers.
1628.12 Prasat Tong, a Siamese senior official, seized power. In 1630 Prasat Tong overthrew the U Thong Royal Line and established Siam (Prasat Tong Royal Line).
c.1628 Murad I, a military officer of the Osmanli Janissary, became the Vassal King (Bey) of Tunisia and started to make Tunisia a de facto hereditary kingdom, thus establishing the Tunisian Regime (Murad Dynasty).
1629 Poland and Sweden signed the Truce of Altmark, by which Poland ceded part of Livonia to Sweden, thus ending the Polish War.
1630.2.16 The Netherlands founded the New Holland Colony in the northeastern part of present-day Brazil.
1630.6M Zhang Xianzhong, another peasant in the Shaanxi region, rebelled against the Ming Empire.
1630.7 Sweden joined the Thirty Years' War, which marked the beginning of the Swedish Period of the Thirty Years' War.
1631 Muhammad ash-Sharif, leader of the Filali Clan in Morocco, founded the Alawite Regime (commonly called the Second Sharif Dynasty).
1631.11.22 English colonists began to invade present-day Ghana and established the English Gold Coast (subsequently British Gold Coast) Colony.
1632 Russia built the city of Yakutsk in central Siberia and used it as a base of its expansionary activities in Far East. Later Russia conquered the Yakuts, Evenkis and other peoples in central Siberia.
1633.4.23 The Swabian, Franconian, Upper Rhenish and Lower Rhenish Circles of Germany formed the League of Heilbronn. On 1635.5.30 Austria signed the Treaty of Prague with the German Protestant states, thus ending the Swedish Period of the Thirty Years' War.
1634 The Torghut Tribe of the Olot Mongols, under the leadership of Chief Qo Orloq, migrated from Zungaria to Lower Volga region, where they defeated the Nogais. The Nogai Confederacy disintegrated.
c.1634 Batur, Chief of the Zungar Tribe of the Olot Mongols, founded the Zungarian Khanate in present-day Xinjiang and eastern part of Central Asia.
1635 [Later] Jin conquered Mongolia and annexed the region of Inner Mongolia.
c.1635 Abdul-Karim, Chief of the Mabas, rebelled against the Tunjur Regime and founded the Kingdom of Wadai in present-day eastern Chad.
1636 Upon death of Sultan Iskandar of Aceh, Aceh ceased to expand, thus ending the war between Aceh, Johore and Portuguese Malacca.

France allied with Sweden in opposition to Spain and Austria, which marked the beginning of the Swedish-French Period of the Thirty Years' War. The Franco-Spanish War started.

The price of tulips in the Netherlands skyrocketed because of speculation among speculators from different countries. In February 1637 the price of tulips plummeted, resulting in the first economic bubble in modern history. The mania was known as the Tulip Mania by historians.
1636.4M [Later] Jin was renamed the Qing Empire.
1637 Oppressed by the local feudal lords, the local Christians in Shimabara of Japan started the Shimabara Revolt. In the second lunar month of 1638, the Shogunate crushed the revolt.

The Anglican Church promulgated the regulations and the prayer book, which were to be followed by the Scottish Church. The Scottish Presbyterians started their resistance against episcopacy.
1638.2.28 The Scottish Presbyterians formed the Solemn League. In November of the same year they announced abolition of episcopacy in Scotland.
1638.3.29 The Swedish colonists established the New Sweden in the present-day state of Delaware of USA.
1639 Outbreak of the First Bishops' War between the Scottish Presbyterians and England. The two parties concluded peace in the same year. A series of wars began in England, Scotland and Ireland, which were collectively called the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
1639.5.17 Persia and the Osmanli Regime signed the Treathy of Kasr-i Shirim, by which the two countries delineated their borders in West Asia, thus ending the Iranian-Turkish War. The area of Kurdistan was partitioned between the two countries. Iraq became part of the Osmanli Regime. Armenia was partitioned into two parts, with Eastern Armenia under Persian rule and Western Armenia under Osmanli rule.
1639.7M Japan adopted an isolatonist policy by decreeing an order that forbade the people to make any contact with the foreign countries except the Ming Empire, Choson and the Netherlands.
1640 Outbreak of the Catalan Revolt against the Spanish Government. The rebels captured Barcelona and established an independent government. In 1652.10 the Spanish Government crushed the revolt.
1640.3.1 Madras became the first English possession in India. Since then England obtained a number of possessions in India, which came to be known collectivele as English India (subsequently British India).
1640.5.5 When King Charles I of England dissolved the Parliament, the Puritans (split into the Presbyterians and the Independents) started the English Puritan Revolution. In the same year the Second Bishops' War broke out between the Scottish Presbyterians and England and Charles I was defeated. On .10.26 Charles I signed the Treaty of Ripon with the Scottish Presbyterians. On .11.3 Charles I was forced to convene the Parliament (the Long Parliament).
1640.12.1 Outbreak of the Portuguese Revolution which ended Spanish rule. The Portuguese rebels chose Duke Joao IV of Braganza as King of Portugal and established Portugal (Braganza Dynasty). Ceuta and other Portuguese posessions came under Spanish rule. Thereafter Spain obtained other possessions in Morocco.
c.1640 Russia started to intrude into the northeastern tip of Siberia. In c.1650 the region of Magadan was conquered.

Sulayman Solong, Chief of the Kayra Clan in East Sudan, overthrew the Tunjur Regime and founded the Darfur Sultanate.
1641.1.14 The Dutch captured Malacca and took control of the Strait of Malacca in place of the Portuguese.
1641.12.1 The English Parliament presented Charles I with the Grand Remonstrance, which spelled out his misdeeds.
1642 The Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism induced the Qosot Tribe of the Olot Mongols to enter Tibet from Qinghai and overthrew the Tsang Regime. In the third lunar month of the same year, Gusri Khan, Chief of the Qosot Tribe, conquered Tibet and founded the Qosot Khanate, which ruled Qinghai and Tibet.

Phuntsog Namgyal, a Tibetan noble, founded the Kingdom of Sikkim in the Himalayan region.

The Iroquois-French War broke out when the Iroquois Confederacy attacked the Native American tribes supported by the French colonists and greatly expanded their sphere of influence. Later the war became a struggle of the Iroquois Confederacy supported by the English and Dutch colonists in resistance to the French colonists.
1642.1.9 Portugal ceded Portuguese Gold Coast to the Netherlands. Portuguese Gold Coast was incorporated into Dutch Gold Coast.
1642.8.22 King Charles I of England declared war on the Parliament, which marked the beginning of the First English Civil War between the royalists (also called the Cavaliers) and the revolutionaries (also called the Roundheads).
1642.12.4 Upon death of Richelieu, the French Chief Minister, Mazarin succeeded and held real power.
1643 Outbreak of the Torstenson War between Denmark and Sweden. In 1645 the two countries signed the Treaty of Bromsebro, by which Sweden obtained parts of Gotland and Jamtland.
1643.3M Li Zicheng, leader of a group of anti-Ming rebels, made himself King and established the Shun Regime. In the fifth lunar month of the same year, Zhang Xianzhong, leader of another group of rebels, also made himself King and founded the Xi Kingdom.
Louis XIV succeeded as King of France.
1643.9 Ireland declared independence from England. Thereafter Ireland was governed by the Catholic Confederation.
1644.3M Li Zicheng captured Beijing. In the fourth lunar month of the same year, Wu Sangui, a Ming general, surrendered to the Qing Empire, which then invaded China and defeated Li Zicheng. In the fifth lunar month the Qing army captured Beijing. Thereafter the Qing Empire started its conquest of China. Ma Shiying, a Ming senior official, installed Zhu Yousong as Emperor and established the [Southern] Ming Government.
c.1644 The peasants in western and southwestern England revolted. As the rebels carried clubs, the uprising was called the Clubmen Movement, which was suppressed the Parliament army later.
1645 Outbreak of the Fifth Venetian-Turkish War (also called the Cretan War) between Venice and the Osmanli Turks in contention for Crete. On 1669.9.27 Venice ceded Crete to the Osmanli Turks.
1645.Leap6M Li Zicheng was defeated and died.
1646 The city of Bremen in northern Germany seceded from the Bishopric of Bremen and founded the Bremen Regime.

The Virginian colonists defeated the Powhatan Confederacy, which was then disintegrated. In October of that year, the Powhatan tribes concluded peace with the colonists and became tributaries to England. The Anglo-Powhatan War came to an end.
1646.5.5 After King Charles of England and Scotland, who fled to Scotland, was captured, England (Stuart Dynasty) and Scotland (Stewart Dynasty) came to an end. Since then England and Scotland were ruled by their respective Parliaments. The Presbyterians seized control of the English Parliament. On 1647.1.30 Scotland surrendered Charles I to the English Parliament, thus ending the First English Civil War.
1646.12M The Qing army killed Zhang Xianzhong. Zheng Chenggong, a [Southern] Ming military officer, rose against Qing invasion.
1647.7 Alezi started an anti-Spanish rebellion in Palermo in western Sicily and established the Republic of Palermo. In the same month Aniello (commonly called Masaniello) started another rebellion in Naples. On ..16 Aniello was assassinated. In October the rebels in Naples set up the Rebellious Government. In 1648 the Spanish army suppressed the rebellions in Naples and Sicily.
1648 Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Chief of the Ukrainian Cossacks, rose against Poland. In the next year he concluded peace with Poland and established the Ukrainian Cossack Republic.

The Parlement of Paris proposed political reforms that restricted absolute power of the monarch (the First Fronde Movement). In August of the same year, the Parisians revolted in support of the Parlement. After the Royal Government suppressed the movement in March of the next year, the Parlement was forced to compromise.

The Second English Civil War broke out when the English royalists rebelled throughout the country. The revolutionaries soon defeated the royalists.
1648.3.23 France and the Netherlands divided the island of Sint Maarten, with the southern part ruled by the Netherlands (called Dutch Sint Maarten) and the northern part ruled by France (called French Saint-Martin).
1648.8.8 The Osmanli Janissaries overthrew Sultan Ibrahim in a coup and put Mehmed IV to the throne. In 1656 Mehmed Kiuprili became the Grand Vizier. During his tenure he curtailed the power of the Janissaries.
1648.10.24 The belligerents of the Thirty Years' War signed the Treaties of Westphalia, which recognized the sovereignty of the German states. Upper Rhine was annexed to Bavaria while Lower Rhine regained independence. The Elector Palatinate of Rhine was restored to rule Lower Rhine. The Thirty Years' War of Germany were thus ended. But the Franco-Spanish War continued. Brandenburg and Sweden partitioned Pomerania, with Eastern Pomerania under Brandenburg rule and Western Pomerania under Swedish rule. The independence of the Netherlands was finally confirmed, which marked the end of the Eighty Years' War of the Netherlands. The independence of Switzerland was confirmed. The Treaties of Westphalia established sovereign states as the subjects of international affairs and laid down a number of international principles which came to be known as the Westphalian System.
1648.12.6 Pride, an English military officer, led an army to surround the Parliament and drove away the Presbyterian members from the Parliament (Pride's Purge), which was then only left with the Independent members. The Parliament was then called the Rump Parliament.
1649 Russia built the Anadyrsk Fort in the eastern tip of Siberia and used it as a base of its expansionary activities in Chukchi Peninsula and Kamchatka Peninsula. Thereafter conflicts broke out between the Russian colonists and the indigenous Chukchi, Koryak and Itelmen peoples.
1649.1.30 Charles I was beheaded. Having abrogated the monarchical system and the House of Lords (i.e. the Upper House) of the Parliament, England was then ruled by the House of Commons (i.e. the Lower House) and the Council of State.
1649.4 A group of poor English peasants called the "Diggers" went to Saint George's Hill of Surrey to cultivate the wasteland in an attempt to establish an egalitarian village. Their movement was called the Diggers' Movement by historians and was suppressed by the Government in 1650.
1649.5.19 England proclaimed annexation with Scotland and Ireland and the establishment of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, which adopted a republican form of government. Scotland and Ireland denied recognition of the new regime.
1649.9 The English Levellers staged a revolt and was soon suppressed by the Government.
Mid-17th Century Citimukulu, Chief of the Bembas (a branch of the Lubas), founded the Kingdom of Bemba in present day Zambia.
1650 Prince Louis II of Conde of France rose against the absolute monarch and allied with Spain (the Second Fronde Movement). The revolt was suppressed in 1653.

Zamba, leader of the Brazilian marooners, united the maroon colonies in Palmeres in Pernambuco against Portugal and founded the Palmeres Republic. The rebellion was suppressed by Portugal in 1695.
1650.6.24 Charles II, former Prince of Scotland, returned to Scotland and was crowned as King of Scotland by the Parliament. After England defeated Scotland in September of the next year, Charles II fled to France. England then formally annexed Scotland.
1650.7 As Portugal lent support to the royal members of the Stuart House, England started the Anglo-Portuguese War and defeated Portugal. On 1654.7.10 Portugal signed the Treaty of Windsor with England and became the vassal state of England.
1650.11.6 The Dutch States-General abrogated the hereditary rule of the House of Orange as well as the position of Stadholder. Real power was then held by Jan de Witt, the Great Pensionary.
c.1650 Ntare I, Chief of the Tutsis, founded the Kingdom of Urundi (Tutsi Dynasty) in present day Burundi.
c. 2nd Half of 17th Century The Afars founded the Kingdom of Tadjoura in present-day Djibouti.

The Songhais established a number of petty kingdoms in West Sudan.
1651.9 England enacted the Navigation Act which provided that all imported goods shall be transported by English vessels or by vessels of the origin country. On .7.8 of the next year the First Anglo-Dutch War broke out between England and the Netherlands, which opposed the Navigation Act. On 1654.4.5 the two countries signed the Treaty of Westminster, by which the Netherlands recognized the Navigation Act.
1652.4.7 The Dutch colonists started to occupy the area around Capetown of the present day South Africa and established the Cape Colony. Thereafter a large number of Dutch migrants moved to the colony. Their descendants were called the Boers.
1652.5 England formally annexed Ireland, thus ending the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Oliver Cromwell, an English military officer, seized power. On .12.16 of the same year, he abrogated the republican form of government. By assuming the title of Lord Protector, he established a dictatorship.
1654 Russia and Ukraine signed the Treaty of Pereyaslavl, by which Ukraine became a Russian vassal state. The Russo-Polish War broke out.
1654.1.28 Portugal reoccupied the territories in northeastern Brazil that had been captured by the Netherlands. New Holland was incorporated into Brazil.
1655 Outbreak of the Polish-Sweden War when Sweden invaded Poland. On 1656.5.17 Russia joined the war against Sweden, which marked the beginning of the First Russo-Swedish War. In October of the same year, Poland Russia and Denmark formed the First Anti-Swedish Alliance. In 1657 Denmark also joined the war against Sweden and the war became the First Northern War. In 1658 Sweden and Russia ceased fighting and negotiated peace. In 1660 Sweden also negotiated peace with Poland and Denmark and Sweden acquired large areas of territory.
1655.9.25 Sweden ceded New Sweden to the Netherlands. New Sweden was incorporated into New Amsterdam.
1655.10.25 The First Anglo-Spanish War broke out between England and Spain, which contended for colonies in America. In 1658 Spain was defeated.
1655.12M Upon death of Gusri Khan of Qosot, Qosot split into Qosot (Qinghai Government) and Qosot (Tibetan Government).
1656 Two Swiss Protestant cantons, Zurich and Bern, formed an alliance and entered into the First Villmergen War with the Catholic cantons. Zurich and Bern were defeated. Subsequently the belligerents signed the Treaty of Baden, by which each canton has the right to protect its religion.
1657 While Shah Jahan I, the Moghul Emperor, was in ill health, his four sons Dara Shukoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Bakhsh started a civil war contending for the throne. On .6.8 of the next year, Aurangzeb overthrew Shah Jahan I. On .7.31 he made himself Emperor and controlled the whole country in 1659. During Aurangzab's reign the Empire was engaged in endless wars, which had exhausted the power of the Empire.
1658.1M [Southern] Ming installed Zheng Chenggong as Vassal King of Yanping and established the Yanping Regime in southern China. In the twelfth lunar month of 1661, Zheng Chenggong subjugated the Dutch colonists on Taiwan, which then became his base.
1658.6.22 The Dutch expelled all the Portuguese out of Ceylon. The coastal areas of Ceylon became a Dutch colony.
1658.9.3 Upon death of O. Cromwell, the English Lord Protector, Richard Cromwell succeeded as Lord Protector. On .5.7 of the next year R. Cromwell was forced to resign by the senior military officers.
1659 The three Qing warlords, Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi, started to rule Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong, respectively. The three warlords were collectively called the Three Feudatories of Early Qing.

The First Khoisan War broke out when the Khoisans (called the Hottentots or Bushmen by the Europeans) in Southern Africa rose against the Dutch colonists. In 1660 the Koisans were defeated.
1659.11.7 France and Spain signed the Treaty of Pyrenees, by which Spain ceded Roussillon, Artois and southern Luxemburg to France (the First Partition of Luxemburg). The Franco-Spanish War came to an end. France began to replace Spain as the hegemonic power in West Europe. The First Anglo-Spanish War came to an end.
1660 The Armas in Timbuktu in West Sudan (i.e. the descendants of the Sadids living in Timbuktu) seceded from the Sadid Regime and established the Timbuktu Regime.
c.1660 Naweej I succeeded as King of Lunda. During his reign the power of the Kingdom rose to its apex and he assumed the title of Mwata Yamvo. Thereafter Lunda was also called the Mwata Yamvo Kingdom.
1661 England installed Oldman I, Chief of the Mosquitians on the Mosquito Coast in eastern Nicaragua, as King and founded the Mosquito Kingdom, which was an English protectorate.
Xuanye became Qing Emperor. During his reign the Qing Empire became a regional power in East Asia.
1661.3.9 Upon death of Mazarin, the French Chief Minister, King Louis XIV assumed power. During his reign he established the absolute monarchical system in France.
1661.8.6 Portugal and the Netherlands divided the island of Timor in the Malay region between them, with the eastern part under Portuguese rule, which was called Portuguese Timor and later became a separate Portuguese colony; and the western part under Dutch rule, which was called Dutch Timor and later became part of the Dutch East Indies.
1662 Colbert became the Controller General of the French finances. During his tenure he carried out mercantilist policies which were called Colbertism by historians.

England granted internal self-government to its Connecticut Colony in North America, which became the first self-governing English colony. Thereafter the other English colonies in North America were also granted internal self-government successively.
1663 Using River Dnieper as the borderline, Ukraine split into Ukraine (Right Bank Government) and Ukraine (Left Bank Government).
1664.5.15 The eastern part of the Guiana region became a French colony named French Guiana.
1664.9.8 England captured the New Amsterdam Colony from the Netherlands and renamed it as New York, thus deteriorating the relation between the two countries.
1665 After Tyrol was annexed by Austria, the Austrian Habsburg House was reunified.

The Second Anglo-Dutch War broke out. In 1667 the two countries signed the Treaty of Breda, which confirmed the colonies seized by the two countries.
1666 The Dutch colonists allied with Bone and invaded Gowa (the Makassar War). In 1669 the coalition army of the Dutch and Bone defeated Gowa, which then lost most of its territories.
1667 Stepan Razin, leader of the Don Cossacks, started a peasant revolt. After Stepan Razin was captured and killed in 1671.4, the revolt was suppressed.

To contend for Spanish Netherlands, France started the War of Devolution with Spain.
1667.1.20 Poland and Russia signed the Treaty of Andrussovo, by which Western Ukraine and Western Belarus were ruled by the Left Bank Government while Eastern Ukraine and Eastern Belarus were ruled by the Right Bank Government. The two Ukrainian Governments were under Polish and Russian suzerainty, respectively. The Russo-Polish War thus came to an end and the power of Poland started to decline.
1667.2.27 The central part of the Guiana region became a Dutch colony named Dutch Guiana.
1667.11.23 Prince Pedro of Portugal staged a coup after which he imprisoned King Afonso VI and seized the highest power by making himself Regent. Upon death of Afonso VI on 1683.9.12, Pedro succeeded to the throne (called Pedro II).
1668.1.23 England, the Netherlands and Sweden formed the Triple Alliance to halt the expansion of France in Spanish Netherlands. On .5.2 of the same year, France was forced to sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, by which Spain ceded 12 towns on the frontier of Spanish Netherlands to France, while France returned certain territories it acquired to Spain. The War of Devolution came to an end.
1668.2.13 Spain and Portugal signed a peace agreement by which Spain recognized the independence of Portugal.
1668.9.17 The National Perpetual Bank (renamed the Swedish National Bank in 1866) was founded in Sweden. It is the earliest central bank in the world.
1669 Conflicts between the Ainu People in Ezo Island (i.e. present-day Hokkaido) of Japan, under the leadership of their Chief Shakushain, and the Matsumae Clan under Tokugawa Shogunate led to the Shakushain's Revolt. The Ainu People were finally defeated in 1672. Thereafter the Ainus gradually migrated to the central and northern parts of Hokkaido, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island (called Karafuto by the Japanese).
1670s The Beni Hassan Tribe dwelling in present-day Mauritania and Sahara defeated the Sanhaja Berbers. Later the Beni Hassan Tribe mixed with the Berbers and evolved into the Moors.
1670 Ayuka, Chief of the Torghuts, made himself King and founded the Torghut Kingdom on the Russian Steppe as a tributary to Russia.

The Hungarian peasants rose against Austrian rule (the First Cruciati Revolt). In 1678 Imre Thokoly, leader of the revolt, established the Cruciati Rebellious Regime.

The Khoisans in Southern Africa rose against the Dutch colonists (the Second Khoisan War). In 1677 the Khoisans were conquered.
1671 The Algerian pirate group elected Muhammad I as the Vassal King (Dey) and founded the Algerian Regime.
1671.1 England united the islands of Antigua, Saint Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, Montserrat and English Dominica as the English Leeward Islands.
1672 A war broke out between the Osmanli Turks and Poland. Thereafter the Osmanli Turks were engaged in a number of wars with Poland, Russia, Austria and Venice, collectively called the Great Turkish War.

Jan de Witt, the Dutch Great Pensionary, was overthrown in a coup. On .7.c2 of the same year, Willem III succeeded as Stadholder and restored the rule of the Orange "Dynasty".
1672.3 In contention for the naval supremacy with France and England, the Netherlands entered into the Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War with the two countries, respectively.
1673.11M Wu Sangui, the Qing warlord ruling Yunnan, rebelled against the Qing Empire. In the first luanr month of 1674, he assumed the title of King of Zhou and established the Zhou Regime. In the third lunar month, Geng Jingzhong, the warlord ruling Fujian, joined the rebellion and allied with the Yanping Regime. In the second lunar month of 1676, Shang Zhixin, the warlord ruling Guangdong, also joined the rebellion. Their joint rebellion was called the Revolt of the Three Feudatories. Later Geng Jingzhong and Shang Zhixin were forced to surrender. In the tenth lunar month of 1681, the Qing Government conquered Yunnan and finally suppressed the rebellion.
1674 Trunojoyo, Prince of Madura, and Kraeng Galesung rose against [Later] Mataram and the Dutch colonists (the Trunojoyo War). After being defeated by the Dutch colonists in 1679, Madura became a Dutch protectorate.

The French colonists occupied Pondicherry of India, which subsequently developed into the French India Colony.
1674.2.9 England and the Netherlands signed the Treaty of Westminster to end the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
Shivaji I, Chief of the Marathas, founded the Satara Regime in Satara of Maharashthra in central India. Since then the Marathas founded a number of regimes in various parts of India.
1675 In contention for Scania, Denmark started the Scanian War with Sweden. After Denmark was defeated in 1679, Scania remained under Swedish suzerainty.
1675.6 Metacom, Chiefain of the Native American Wampanoag Tribe and called King Philip by the colonists, allied with the tribes of Nipmucks and Narragansett and rose against the English colonists (King Philip's War, part of the American Indian Wars). After Metacom was killed in a battle in August next year, the resistance failed.
1678.8.10 The belligerents of the Dutch War started to sign the Treaties of Nijmwegen, by which France returned the territories it acquired to the Netherlands, but in return it obtained Franche Comte.
1679 Sangye Gyatso became the Regent of Tibet and started a power struggle with the Qosot Mongolian nobles.
1679.5 England enacted the Habeas Corpus Act to protect the rights of the arrestees. This legislation constitutes an important legal basis of human right protection.
c.1680s Maalik Dawda, Chief of the Fulanis, staged a jihad and founded the Kingdom of Bundu in present-day eastern Senegal.
1680 Husayn Khan I founded the Quban Khanate in northern Azerbaijan.

Under the leadership of Pope, the Puebloan Peoples staged the Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish colonists and forced the latter to abandon the New Mexico Colony. In 1692 the Spanish colonists reestablished the New Mexico Colony and made concessions to the Puebloan Peoples, who were then able to retain their land and preserve their culture.
1682 The Osmanli Turks supported the Cruciati Rebellious Regime against Austria, thus starting the First Austro-Turkish War, which was part of the Great Turkish War.
Pyotr I succeeded as Russian Tsar. But real power was held by his sister Sofia. In 1689 Pyotr I imprisoned Sofia and assumed power.
1683.8M The Qing army attacked Taiwan and annihilated the Yanping Regime, thus unifying China.
1684 The Roman Papacy formed the Fifth Holy League against the Osmanli Turks. Venice also joined the League, thus starting the Sixth Venetian-Turkish War, which was part of the Great Turkish War. On 1687.8.12 the League defeated the Osmanli army in the Second Battle of Mohacs.
1685 The Chief Ministers (Bendahara) of Johore seized control of the royal court.

Surapati, a military officer of Dutch East Indies, started a rebellion against the Dutch colonists (the Surapati War). In the next year Surapati occupied eastern Java and founded the Pasuruan Regime.

Austria annihilated the Cruciati Rebellious Regime. Later Imre Thokoly, ruler of the Rebellious Regime, fled to Transylvania, where he continued the resistance against the Austrians.

France revoked the Edict of Nantes and forbid Protestantism. A large number of Huguenots were forced to emigrate. The other European countries were discontented with the policy of France.
1686 Jambe I founded the Kingdom of Klungkung on the Bali Island of present-day Indonesia and became the suzerain of the various states on Bali.

Austria, Rhine and other countries formed the League of Augsburg against France.
1686.5.17 England united its colonies in North America (including Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire and Plymouth) into the New England Dominion (later Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, East Jersey and West Jersey also joined the Dominion).
1688 Prince Te-Agbanlin of Allada migrated to Ajache in present day southern Benin and founded the Kingdom of Ajache Ipo.
1688.6 Discontented with King Narai of Siam, who appointed the Westerner Phaulkon as the Chief Minister, General Ramesuen II formed an anti-Western faction. When Narai was in ill health, Ramesuen II became the Regent. He soon staged a coup and killed Phaulkon. Upon death of Narai, Ramesuen II succeeded to the throne and established Siam (Ban Plu Luang Royal Line). He then slaughtered the Catholics in Siam and expelled the Westerners.
1688.10 France invaded Rhine, which marked the beginning of the War of the League of Augsburg (also called the Nine Years' War, War of the Grand Alliance or War of the Palatinian Succession). From this year onward, England and France, in contention for the hegemony in Europe and the overseas colonies, entered into a number of international wars in which they joined the opposite camps (including the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence and the Wars of the Coalitions against France), collectively called the Second Hundred Years' War.
1688.11 Revolts against King James II broke out in various parts of England. On .12.11 of the same year, James II fled to France. On .2.13 of the next year, the Convention Parliament installed Willem III, the Dutch Stadholder, and his wife Mary II as King and Queen of England and Scotland. This event was called the Glorious Revolution by historians. The constitutional monarchical system was established. Since then the King gradually became a figurehead and real power was held by the Cabinet formed by the First Lords of the Treasury. Later there emerged the Whig Party (predecessor of the Liberal Party) and the Tory Party (predecessor of the Conserevative Party) in the Parliament. This marked the beginning of the modern party system and "two-party system".
1689 The Qing Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk to delineate their borderline on the eastern frontier.

In contention for the colonies in North America, England and France entered into the King William's War, which was part of the War of the League of Augsburg.
1689.4.18 England dissolved the New England Dominion.
1689.5.12 England, Netherlands and the League of Ausburg formed the First Grand Alliance.
1689.12.16 England enacted the Bill of Rights.
1690s Shah Rukh I, Chief of the Uzbeks, founded the Kingdom of Farghana in Central Asia.
c.1690 Zulfiqar Ali Khan, the Vassal King (Nawab) of Arcot under the Moghul Empire, started to make the Carnatic region in southeastern India a de dacto hereditary kingdom and established the Arcot Regime. Since then there emerged a number of vassal kingdoms in various parts of India.

Prince Tsimanatona of Menabe founded the Kingdom of Boina in northwestern Madagascar.
1691 The various tribes in Outer Mongolia submitted to the rule of the Qing Empire. Their territories were annexed to the Qing Empire.
1692.12.19 Brunswick-Luneburg was renamed the Hanover Regime.
1695 In contention for the hegemony in southeast Europe, Russia and the Osmanli Turks entered into the First Russo-Turkish War, which was part of the Great Turkish War. The war ended in the next year and Russia acquired Azov.
1696.7 Danilo I of the Petrovic-Njegos Family became Prince-Bishop of Montenegro. His succession ended the election system of the Montenegrin Prince-Bishop. Thereafter the position of Prince-Bishops were inherited by members of the Petrovic-Njegos Family.
1697 Lefort was assigned to lead a Russian grand embassy to visit the West Europe with a view to studying the politics, ecomomy, military, culture and technology of the West European countries. Concealing his identity, Tsar Pyotr I was also among the grand embassy and was the true leader of the grand embassy. After Pyotr I returned to Russia in the next year, he started to carry out reforms and made Russia an East European power.
1697.9.20 Spain and France partitioned the island of Hispaniola, with the eastern part (called Santo Domingo) under Spanish rule and the western part (called Saint-Domingue) under French rule.
1697.9.30 The belligerents of the War of the League of Ausburg signed the Treaty of Ryswick, by which France had to give up the territories it acquired.
1698 The Qing Empire installed a Prince of the former Qosot (Qinghai Government) as the Prince of Qinghai and established the Qinghai Regime, which was a Qing tributary state.

A succession crisis occurred in Spain as the ailing King Carlos II of Spain had no male heir. On .10.11 the European powers signed the First Treaty of Partition of Spain whereby they agreed upon a scheme to partition the territories of Spain. On 1700.3.13 the powers signed the Second Treaty of Partition of Spain whereby they redistributed the Spanish territories and prevented the Bourbon House from inheriting the Spanish throne.
1699 Abdul-Jalil, Chief Minister of Johore, overthrew Johore (Malacca Dynasty) and established Johore (Bendahara Dynasty).

Russia, Poland and Denmark formed the Second Anti-Swedish Alliance (also called the Northern Alliance) against the Swedish hegemony. In the next year the Alliance declared war on Sweden, thus beginning the Second Northern War (also called the Great Northern War).
1699.1.26 The Osmanli Turks signed the Treaty of Karlowitz with Austria, Poland and Venice, which marked the end of the First Austro-Turkish War, the Sixth Venetian-Turkish War and the Great Turkish War. Austria obtained the whole of Hungary (with Croatia and Slovakia). Venice obtained some areas in the Balkan Peninsula.
1699.12.8 France established the Louisiana Colony in present day USA. This colony was under the administration of New France.
1700.11.1 Spain (Habsburg Dynasty) came to an end with the death of King Carlos II. On ..16 of the same month Prince Felipe V of France succeeded as King of Spain and established Spain (Bourbon Dynasty). The Bourbon House thus became the ruling house of both France and Spain, which was opposed by other European countries.
c.1700 Muhammad Saidi, Chief of the Diallons, founded the Kingdom of Futa Diallon in present-day southeastern Senegal.
Late 17th Century Portuguese colonists conquered the Amazonian Region.

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